Susceptibility of #Influenza A, B, C, and D Viruses to #Baloxavir (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Susceptibility of Influenza A, B, C, and D Viruses to Baloxavir

Vasiliy P. Mishin, Mira C. Patel, Anton Chesnokov, Juan De La Cruz, Ha T. Nguyen, Lori Lollis, Erin Hodges, Yunho Jang, John Barnes, Timothy Uyeki, Charles T. Davis, David E. Wentworth, and Larisa V. Gubareva

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (V.P. Mishin, M.C. Patel, A. Chesnokov, J. De La Cruz, H.T. Nguyen, L. Lollis, E. Hodges, Y. Jang, J. Barnes, T. Uyeki, C.T. Davis, D.E. Wentworth, L.V. Gubareva); Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta (M.C. Patel, J. De La Cruz, H.T. Nguyen, L. Lollis)

 

Abstract

Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2–98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A ˃ B ˃ C ˃ D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Favipiravir; Baloxavir; Influenza A; Influenza B; Influenza C; Influenza D; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; H7N9.

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#Influenza A in #Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jun 17;11(6). pii: E561. doi: 10.3390/v11060561.

Influenza A in Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review.

Sreenivasan CC1, Thomas M2, Kaushik RS3, Wang D4,5, Li F6,7.

Author information: 1 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. chithra.sreenivasan@sdstate.edu. 2 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. milton.thomas@sdstate.edu. 3 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. radhey.kaushik@sdstate.edu. 4 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. dan.wang@sdstate.edu. 5 BioSystems Networks and Translational Research Center (BioSNTR), Brookings, SD 57007, USA. dan.wang@sdstate.edu. 6 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. feng.li@sdstate.edu. 7 BioSystems Networks and Translational Research Center (BioSNTR), Brookings, SD 57007, USA. feng.li@sdstate.edu.

 

Abstract

It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human-animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D. This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past. The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world. Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts.

KEYWORDS: Influenza A; MDBK cells; bovine; bovine cell cultures; bovine respiratory disease; bronchopneumonia; cattle outbreaks; epizootic cough; host restriction; ruminants; seroprevalence

PMID: 31213032 DOI: 10.3390/v11060561

Keywords: Influenza A; Influenza D; Bovine.

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#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)

 

Abstract

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.

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Emerging #Influenza D Virus #Threat: What We Know so Far! (J Clin Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 5;8(2). pii: E192. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020192.

Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

Asha K1, Kumar B2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. asha.biotech@rediffmail.com. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. binod_biochem@rediffmail.com.

 

Abstract

Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease.

KEYWORDS: emerging pathogen; epidemic; influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); influenza-like illness; pandemic; respiratory illness

PMID: 30764577 DOI: 10.3390/jcm8020192

Keywords: Influenza C; Influenza D; Cattle; Pigs.

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#Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and #aerosol transmission of #Influenza D virus in #cattle (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and aerosol transmission of Influenza D virus in cattle

Elias Salem, Sara Hägglund, Hervé Cassard, Tifenn Corre, Katarina Näslund, Charlotte Foret, David Gauthier, Anne Pinard, Maxence Delverdier, Siamak Zohari, Jean-François Valarcher,Mariette Ducatez, Gilles Meyer

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01853-18

 

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves, as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper but also the lower respiratory tracts (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 meters apart from inoculated calves, and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naïve contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered as predisposing or co-factor of respiratory disease.

 

IMPORTANCE

Influenza D virus (IDV), a new Genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered as the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus is still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of co-infecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Bovine respiratory disease complex.

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#Influenza D Virus Circulation in #Cattle and #Swine, #Luxembourg, 2012–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Circulation in Cattle and Swine, Luxembourg, 2012–2016

Chantal J. Snoeck  , Justine Oliva, Maude Pauly, Serge Losch, Félix Wildschutz, Claude P. Muller, Judith M. Hübschen1, and Mariette F. Ducatez1

Author affiliations: Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg (C.J. Snoeck, M. Pauly, C.P. Muller, J.M. Hübschen); Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France (J. Oliva, M.F. Ducatez); Administration des Services Vétérinaires de l’Etat, Ministère de l’Agriculture, Dudelange, Luxembourg (S. Losch, F. Wildschutz); Laboratoire National de Santé, Dudelange (C.P. Muller)

 

Abstract

We detected antibodies against influenza D in 80.2% of the cattle sampled in Luxembourg in 2016, suggesting widespread virus circulation throughout the country. In swine, seroprevalence of influenza D was low but increased from 0% to 5.9% from 2012 to 2014–2015.

Keywords: Influenza D; Pigs; Cattle; Luxembourg; Seroprevalence.

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A #DNA #vaccine expressing consensus HA-esterase fusion protein protected guinea pigs from #infection by two lineages of #influenza D virus (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase fusion protein protected guinea pigs from infection by two lineages of influenza D virus

Yanmin Wan1,2,  Guobin Kang1,2,  Chithra Sreenivasan3,  Lance Daharsh1,2, Junfeng Zhang1,2,  Wenjin Fan1,2,  Dan Wang3,  Hideaki Moriyama2,  Feng Li3 and Qingsheng Li1,2#

Author Affiliations: 1 Nebraska Center for Virology, 2 School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68583, USA; 3 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA.

 

ABSTRACT

Two lineages of Influenza D virus (IDV) have been found to infect cattle and promote bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality within the cattle industry. Furthermore, IDV can infect other economically important domestic livestock including pigs and has the potential to infect humans, which necessitates the need for an efficacious vaccine. In this study, we designed a DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein (FluD-Vax) and tested its protective efficacy against two lineages of IDV (D/OK and D/660) in guinea pigs. Animals that received FluD-Vax (n=12) developed appreciable titers of neutralizing antibodies against IDV lineage representatives, D/OK and D/660. Importantly, vaccinated animals were protected against intranasal challenge with IDV (3E5 TCID50) D/OK (n=6) or D/600 (n=6) based on the absence of viral RNA in necropsied tissues (5 and 7 days post challenge) using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). In contrast, animals that received a sham DNA vaccine (n=12) had no detectable neutralizing antibodies against IDV and viral RNA was readily detectable in respiratory tract tissues after intranasal challenge with IDV (3E5 TCID50) D/OK (n=6) or D/660 (n=6). Using a TUNEL assay, we found that IDV D/OK and D/600 infections induced apoptosis in epithelial cells lining alveoli and bronchioles as well as non-epithelial cells in lung tissues. Our results have demonstrated for the first time that the consensus IDV HEF DNA vaccine can elicit complete protection against infection from two lineages of IDV in the guinea pig model.

 

IMPORTANCE

IDV infection has been associated with BRDC, one of the most devastating diseases of the cattle population. Moreover, with broad host range and high environmental stability, IDV has the potential to further gain virulence, or even infect humans. An efficacious vaccine is needed to prevent infection and stop potential cross-species transmission. In this study, we designed a DNA vaccine encoding the consensus HEF of two lineages of IDV (D/OK and D/660) and tested its efficacy in a guinea pig model. Our results showed that the consensus DNA vaccine elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies and achieved sterilizing protection against two lineage-representative IDV intra-nasal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a DNA vaccine-expressing consensus HEF is efficacious in preventing different lineages of influenza D virus infections.

 

FOOTNOTES

#Address correspondence to Qingsheng Li, qli@unl.edu

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex; Vaccines; Animal Models.

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