#Development and characterization of a #reverse #genetics system for #influenza D virus (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Development and characterization of a reverse genetics system for influenza D virus

Jieshi Yu, Runxia Liu, Bin Zhou, Tsui-wen Chou, Elodie Ghedin, Zizhang Sheng, Rongyuan Gao, Shao-lun Zhai, Dan Wang, Feng Li

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01186-19

 

ABSTRACT

Influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has a wide host range and a broad geographical distribution. Recent IDV outbreaks in swine, along with serological and genetic evidence of IDV infection in humans have raised concerns regarding the zoonotic potential of this virus. To better study IDV at the molecular level, a reverse genetics system (RGS) is urgently needed, but to date no RGS had been described for IDV. In this study, we rescued the recombinant influenza D/swine/Oklahoma/1314/2011 (D/OK) virus by using a bidirectional seven plasmid-based system, and further characterized rescued viruses in terms of growth kinetics, replication stability, and receptor-binding capacity. Our results collectively demonstrated that RGS-derived viruses resembled the parental viruses for these properties, thereby supporting the utility of this RGS to study IDV infection biology. In addition, we developed an IDV mini-genome replication assay and identified the E697K mutation in PB1 and the L462F mutation in PB2 that directly affected the activity of the IDV ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), resulting in either attenuated or replication-incompetent viruses. Finally, by using the mini-genome replication assay, we demonstrated that a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 5 of the 3′ conserved noncoding region in IDV and ICV resulted in the inefficient cross-recognition of the heterotypic promoter by the viral RNP complex. In conclusion, we successfully developed a mini-genome replication assay and a robust reverse genetics system that can be used to further study replication, tropism, and pathogenesis of IDV.

 

IMPORTANCE

Influenza D virus (IDV) is a new type of influenza virus that uses cattle as the primary reservoir and infects multiple agricultural animals. Increased outbreaks in pigs, and serological and genetic evidence of human infection have raised concerns about potential IDV adaptation in humans. Here, we have developed a plasmid-based IDV reverse genetics system that can generate infectious viruses similar in replication kinetics to wild-type viruses following transfection of cultured cells. Further characterization demonstrated that viruses rescued from the described RGS resembled the parental viruses in biological and receptor binding properties. We also developed and validated an IDV minireplicon reporter system that specifically measures viral RNA polymerase activity. In summary, the reverse genetics system and minireplicon reporter assay as described in this study should be of value in identifying viral determinants of cross-species transmission and pathogenicity of novel influenza D viruses.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D.

——

Advertisements

Susceptibility of #Influenza A, B, C, and D Viruses to #Baloxavir (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Susceptibility of Influenza A, B, C, and D Viruses to Baloxavir

Vasiliy P. Mishin, Mira C. Patel, Anton Chesnokov, Juan De La Cruz, Ha T. Nguyen, Lori Lollis, Erin Hodges, Yunho Jang, John Barnes, Timothy Uyeki, Charles T. Davis, David E. Wentworth, and Larisa V. Gubareva

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (V.P. Mishin, M.C. Patel, A. Chesnokov, J. De La Cruz, H.T. Nguyen, L. Lollis, E. Hodges, Y. Jang, J. Barnes, T. Uyeki, C.T. Davis, D.E. Wentworth, L.V. Gubareva); Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta (M.C. Patel, J. De La Cruz, H.T. Nguyen, L. Lollis)

 

Abstract

Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2–98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A ˃ B ˃ C ˃ D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Favipiravir; Baloxavir; Influenza A; Influenza B; Influenza C; Influenza D; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; H7N9.

——

#Influenza A in #Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jun 17;11(6). pii: E561. doi: 10.3390/v11060561.

Influenza A in Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review.

Sreenivasan CC1, Thomas M2, Kaushik RS3, Wang D4,5, Li F6,7.

Author information: 1 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. chithra.sreenivasan@sdstate.edu. 2 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. milton.thomas@sdstate.edu. 3 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. radhey.kaushik@sdstate.edu. 4 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. dan.wang@sdstate.edu. 5 BioSystems Networks and Translational Research Center (BioSNTR), Brookings, SD 57007, USA. dan.wang@sdstate.edu. 6 Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA. feng.li@sdstate.edu. 7 BioSystems Networks and Translational Research Center (BioSNTR), Brookings, SD 57007, USA. feng.li@sdstate.edu.

 

Abstract

It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human-animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D. This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past. The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world. Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts.

KEYWORDS: Influenza A; MDBK cells; bovine; bovine cell cultures; bovine respiratory disease; bronchopneumonia; cattle outbreaks; epizootic cough; host restriction; ruminants; seroprevalence

PMID: 31213032 DOI: 10.3390/v11060561

Keywords: Influenza A; Influenza D; Bovine.

——

#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)

 

Abstract

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.

——

Emerging #Influenza D Virus #Threat: What We Know so Far! (J Clin Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 5;8(2). pii: E192. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020192.

Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

Asha K1, Kumar B2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. asha.biotech@rediffmail.com. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. binod_biochem@rediffmail.com.

 

Abstract

Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease.

KEYWORDS: emerging pathogen; epidemic; influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); influenza-like illness; pandemic; respiratory illness

PMID: 30764577 DOI: 10.3390/jcm8020192

Keywords: Influenza C; Influenza D; Cattle; Pigs.

——

#Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and #aerosol transmission of #Influenza D virus in #cattle (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and aerosol transmission of Influenza D virus in cattle

Elias Salem, Sara Hägglund, Hervé Cassard, Tifenn Corre, Katarina Näslund, Charlotte Foret, David Gauthier, Anne Pinard, Maxence Delverdier, Siamak Zohari, Jean-François Valarcher,Mariette Ducatez, Gilles Meyer

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01853-18

 

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves, as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper but also the lower respiratory tracts (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 meters apart from inoculated calves, and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naïve contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered as predisposing or co-factor of respiratory disease.

 

IMPORTANCE

Influenza D virus (IDV), a new Genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered as the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus is still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of co-infecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Bovine respiratory disease complex.

—–

#Influenza D Virus Circulation in #Cattle and #Swine, #Luxembourg, 2012–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 7—July 2018 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Circulation in Cattle and Swine, Luxembourg, 2012–2016

Chantal J. Snoeck  , Justine Oliva, Maude Pauly, Serge Losch, Félix Wildschutz, Claude P. Muller, Judith M. Hübschen1, and Mariette F. Ducatez1

Author affiliations: Luxembourg Institute of Health, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg (C.J. Snoeck, M. Pauly, C.P. Muller, J.M. Hübschen); Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France (J. Oliva, M.F. Ducatez); Administration des Services Vétérinaires de l’Etat, Ministère de l’Agriculture, Dudelange, Luxembourg (S. Losch, F. Wildschutz); Laboratoire National de Santé, Dudelange (C.P. Muller)

 

Abstract

We detected antibodies against influenza D in 80.2% of the cattle sampled in Luxembourg in 2016, suggesting widespread virus circulation throughout the country. In swine, seroprevalence of influenza D was low but increased from 0% to 5.9% from 2012 to 2014–2015.

Keywords: Influenza D; Pigs; Cattle; Luxembourg; Seroprevalence.

—–