#Human-infecting #influenza A (#H9N2) virus: A forgotten potential #pandemic strain? (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 Jan 12. doi: 10.1111/zph.12685. [Epub ahead of print]

Human-infecting influenza A (H9N2) virus: A forgotten potential pandemic strain?

Song W1,2, Qin K3.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Institute of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. 2 Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. 3 National Institute of Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China.

 

Abstract

Continuously emergence of human infection with avian influenza A virus poses persistent threat to human health, as illustrated in H5N1, H7N9 and recent surge of H9N2 infections. Long-term prevalence of H9N2 avian influenza A virus in China and adjacent regions favours the interspecies transmissions from avian to human. Establishment of multiple genotypes of H9N2 variants in this region contributes to the emergence of novel H7N9 and H10N8 viruses which caused human fatalities. Recent increasing human infection with H9N2 virus in China highlights the necessity to closely monitor the interspecies transmission events. Available human H9N2 sequences revealed that Y280/G9 lineage was responsible for the most of human cases. Presence of adaptive mutations beyond the human-like receptor binding was indicative of the capacity of readily infecting new hosts without prior adaptation. Moreover, enlarged host range of H9N2 virus in this region substantially increased the transmission among mammals. Meanwhile, serological surveys implied human was more susceptible to H9N2 infection, compared with panzootic H5 and H7 subtype avian influenza virus. Thus, control at the source will be the ultimate and effective option for H9N2 pandemic preparedness. This review comprehensively summarized recent updates on H9N2 human infections, aiming to shed light on the prevention strategies against this strain with pandemic potential.

© 2020 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; influenza; pandemic

PMID: 31930694 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12685

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Pandemic Preparedness.

——

#Planning for the next #pandemic: a call for new #guidance (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Planning for the next pandemic: a call for new guidance

Joe Brierley, Stephen Playfor, Samiran Ray

Published: December 16, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30357-1

___

Collaborative working, regional spare capacity, and goodwill maintain paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) function during sudden local or regional surges of demand, such as those observed after the Manchester bombing or the Grenfell Tower fire in the UK. Surges due to pandemics are less forgiving but are inevitable, and we also face an increasing number of unpredictable threats from environmental catastrophes and terrorism. Given recent substantial changes in the PICU case-mix, it seems clear that existing guidance for resource allocation during times of overwhelming need, such as during pandemics, requires urgent revision.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Emerging diseases; Intensive Care; Pediatrics.

——

#PanStop: a decade of rapid #containment #exercises for #pandemic #preparedness in the #WHO Western #Pacific Region (Western Pac Surveill Response J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2018 Winter; 9(5 Suppl 1): 71–74. Published online 2018 Dec 18. doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2018.9.5.012 | PMCID: PMC6902655

PanStop: a decade of rapid containment exercises for pandemic preparedness in the WHO Western Pacific Region

Edna Moturi,a Katherine Horton,a Leila Bell,a Lucy Breakwell,a and Erica Dueger a,b

Author information: {a} WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines. {b} Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America.

Correspondence to Erica Dueger (email: tni.ohw@raspw)

Copyright (c) 2018 The authors; licensee World Health Organization.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/legalcode), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any reproduction of this article there should not be any suggestion that WHO or this article endorse any specific organization or products. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article’s original URL.

 

Summary

Rapid containment (RC) is one of the five priority interventions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Action Plan for Pandemic Influenza; (1) it relies on the concept that mass prophylactic administration of antiviral drugs, combined with quarantine and social distancing measures, could contain or delay the international spread of an emerging influenza virus. (2, 3) During a RC operation, mass antiviral prophylaxis treatment and non-pharmaceutical interventions are rapidly implemented within a containment zone surrounding the initial cases; active surveillance and additional activities are extended to a broader buffer zone where cases are most likely to appear based on the movements of cases and contacts. (2, 4) The strategy is dependent on the rapid (within three to five days) detection, investigation and reporting of initial cases; the efficacy and availability of antivirals and vaccines; and timely risk assessment and decision-making. In the Western Pacific Region, a stockpile of antiviral medication and personal protective equipment acquired through donations from the Government of Japan is warehoused in Singapore under the auspices of the Association of South-eastern Asian Nations (ASEAN), (5) and is managed under contract by the Japan International Cooperation System (JICS). (5) These supplies are reserved for early intervention when initial signs of increased human-to-human transmission of a highly contagious influenza virus occur.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Antivirals; Asia Region; WHO.

——

#Preparedness for #influenza #vaccination during a #pandemic in the #WHO Western #Pacific Region (Western Pac Surveill Response J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2018 Winter; 9(5 Suppl 1): 11–14. Published online 2018 Dec 20. doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2018.9.5.001 | PMCID: PMC6902652

Preparedness for influenza vaccination during a pandemic in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

Leila Bell,a Lisa Peters,a James D Heffelfinger,a Sheena G Sullivan,b,c Alba Vilajeliu,a Jinho Shin,a Joseph Bresee,d and Erica Dueger a,d

Author information: {a} WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Emerging Diseases Surveillance and Response. {b} WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. {c} Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. {d} Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Corresponding author: Erica Dueger (email: tni.ohw@raspw)

Copyright (c) 2018 The authors; licensee World Health Organization.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/legalcode), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any reproduction of this article there should not be any suggestion that WHO or this article endorse any specific organization or products. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article’s original URL.

 

Summary

Influenza vaccination is a key public health intervention for pandemic influenza as it can limit the burden of disease, especially in high-risk groups, minimize social disruption and reduce economic impact. (1) In the event of an influenza pandemic, large-scale production, distribution and administration of pandemic vaccines in the shortest time possible is required. In addition, monitoring vaccine effectiveness, coverage and adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is important. Since seasonal influenza vaccination programmes require annual planning in each of these areas, establishing and strengthening annual influenza programmes will contribute to pandemic preparedness. (2) This paper presents efforts made in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region to improve seasonal influenza vaccination and pandemic preparedness.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic preparedness; Vaccines; WHO; Asia Region.

—–

Developing #vaccines against #epidemic-prone emerging #infectious diseases (Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2019 Nov 27. doi: 10.1007/s00103-019-03061-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Developing vaccines against epidemic-prone emerging infectious diseases.

Bernasconi V1, Kristiansen PA1, Whelan M2, Román RG1, Bettis A1, Yimer SA1, Gurry C1, Andersen SR1, Yeskey D3, Mandi H1, Kumar A1, Holst J1, Clark C1, Cramer JP2, Røttingen JA1,4, Hattchet R1, Saville M2, Norheim G5.

Author information: 1 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Marcus Thranes Gate 2, 0473, Oslo, Norway. 2 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), NW1 2BE, London, UK. 3 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Washington, DC, USA. 4 Research Council of Norway, Lysaker, Norway. 5 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Marcus Thranes Gate 2, 0473, Oslo, Norway. gunnstein.norheim@cepi.net.

 

Abstract

Today’s world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impact on economic growth in affected regions and beyond.The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) is an innovative global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organizations that was launched as the result of a consensus that a coordinated, international, and intergovernmental plan was needed to develop and deploy new vaccines to prevent future epidemics. CEPI is focusing on supporting candidate vaccines against the World Health Organization (WHO) Blueprint priority pathogens MERS-CoV, Nipah virus, Lassa fever virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, as well as Chikungunya virus, which is on the WHO watch list. The current vaccine portfolio contains a wide variety of technologies, ranging across recombinant viral vectors, nucleic acids, and recombinant proteins. To support and accelerate vaccine development, CEPI will also support science projects related to the development of biological standards and assays, animal models, epidemiological studies, and diagnostics, as well as build capacities for future clinical trials in risk-prone contexts.

KEYWORDS: CEPI; Chikungunya; MERS-CoV; Nipah; Rift Valley fever

PMID: 31776599 DOI: 10.1007/s00103-019-03061-2

Keywords: Pandemic Preparedness; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Vaccines.

——

#NewYork State #Emergency #Preparedness and Response to #Influenza #Pandemics 1918-2018 (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 30;4(4). pii: E132. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4040132.

New York State Emergency Preparedness and Response to Influenza Pandemics 1918-2018.

Escuyer KL1, E Fuschino M2, St George K3.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA. Kay.Escuyer@health.ny.gov. 2 Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA. Meghan.Fuschino@health.ny.gov. 3 Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12208, USA. Kirsten.St.George@health.ny.gov.

 

Abstract

Emergency health preparedness and response efforts are a necessity in order to safeguard the public against major events, such as influenza pandemics. Since posting warnings of the epidemic influenza in 1918, to the mass media communications available a century later, state, national and global public health agencies have developed sophisticated networks, tools, detection methods, and preparedness plans. These progressive measures guide health departments and clinical providers, track patient specimens and test reports, monitor the spread of disease, and evaluate the most threatening influenza strains by means of risk assessment, to be able to respond readily to a pandemic. Surge drills and staff training were key aspects for New York State preparedness and response to the 2009 influenza pandemic, and the re-evaluation of preparedness plans is recommended to ensure readiness to address the emergence and spread of a future novel virulent influenza strain.

KEYWORDS: emergency preparedness; incident management system; influenza pandemic; just-in-time training; surge support

PMID: 31671539 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4040132

Keywords: Pandemic preparedness; Pandemic Influenza; New York; USA.

—–

Preparing intensive care for the next #pandemic #influenza (Crit Care, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Crit Care. 2019 Oct 30;23(1):337. doi: 10.1186/s13054-019-2616-1.

Preparing intensive care for the next pandemic influenza.

Kain T1, Fowler R2,3.

Author information: 1 Department of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. 2 Department of Critical Care, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. rob.fowler@sunnybrook.ca. 3 Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Room D478, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5, Canada. rob.fowler@sunnybrook.ca.

 

Abstract

Few viruses have shaped the course of human history more than influenza viruses. A century since the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic-the largest and deadliest influenza pandemic in recorded history-we have learned much about pandemic influenza and the origins of antigenic drift among influenza A viruses. Despite this knowledge, we remain largely underprepared for when the next major pandemic occurs.While emergency departments are likely to care for the first cases of pandemic influenza, intensive care units (ICUs) will certainly see the sickest and will likely have the most complex issues regarding resource allocation. Intensivists must therefore be prepared for the next pandemic influenza virus. Preparation requires multiple steps, including careful surveillance for new pandemics, a scalable response system to respond to surge capacity, vaccine production mechanisms, coordinated communication strategies, and stream-lined research plans for timely initiation during a pandemic. Conservative models of a large-scale influenza pandemic predict more than 170% utilization of ICU-level resources. When faced with pandemic influenza, ICUs must have a strategy for resource allocation as strain increases on the system.There are several current threats, including avian influenza A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) viruses. As humans continue to live in closer proximity to each other, travel more extensively, and interact with greater numbers of birds and livestock, the risk of emergence of the next pandemic influenza virus mounts. Now is the time to prepare and coordinate local, national, and global efforts.

KEYWORDS: Health care worker safety; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Human; Influenza; Intensive care; Pandemic; Preparation; Research; Resource allocation; Triage

PMID: 31665057 DOI: 10.1186/s13054-019-2616-1

Keywords: Pandemic influenza; Pandemic preparedness; Intensive care.

——