#Zika Virus #IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, #Miami-Dade County, #Florida, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA

Isabel Griffin  , Stacey W. Martin, Marc Fischer, Trudy V. Chambers, Olga L. Kosoy, Cynthia Goldberg, Alyssa Falise, Vanessa Villamil, Olga Ponomareva, Leah D. Gillis, Carina Blackmore, and Reynald Jean

Author affiliations: Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County, Miami, Florida, USA (I. Griffin, C. Goldberg, A. Falise, V. Villamil, O. Ponomareva, R. Jean); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (S.W. Martin, M. Fischer, T.V. Chambers, O.L. Kosoy); Bureau of Public Health Laboratories, Miami (L.D. Gillis); Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA (C. Blackmore)



We assessed IgM survival in Zika patients from the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of those with positive or equivocal IgM after 12–19 months, 87% (26/30) had IgM 6 months later. In a survival analysis, ≈76% had IgM at 25 months. Zika virus IgM persists for years, complicating serologic diagnosis.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Immunoglobulins; Diagnostic tests; USA; Florida.


The #induction and characterization of #monoclonal #antibodies specific to GP of #Ebola virus (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Oct 30. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25615. [Epub ahead of print]

The induction and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to GP of Ebola virus.

Tian X1,2, Chen D2, Wang H2, Xu S2, Zhu L3, Wu X2,3, Wu Z2,4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Jiangsu Shengze Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, P.R. China. 2 Center for Public Health Research, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China. 3 Y-clone medical science Co. Ltd, Nanjing, PR China. 4 State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China. 5 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China.



The Ebola virus is highly infectious and characterized of hemorrhagic fever, headache, etc. with high mortality rate. Currently there are neither therapeutic drugs or vaccines against Ebola virus nor fast diagnositic method for the detection of Ebola virus infection. This study reported the induction and isolation of two monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized the glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP) of Ebola virus. Plasmids encoding either GP or sGP were constructed and immunized BALB/c mice, accordingly purified sGP was boosted. The antisera were analyzed for binding activity against sGP protein in ELISA and neutralization activity in a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay. A number of reactive clones were isolated and two monoclonal antibodies T231 and T242 were identified to react with both GP and sGP. Western blot and ELISA assays showed that the monoclonal antibodies could react with GP and sGP, respectively. Moreover, they could recognize Ebola pseudovirus by cellular immunochemistry assay. We labeled the monoclonal antibody T231 with biotin, and analyzed the competitiveness of the two antibodies by ELISA test. The results showed that the binding epitopes of the two monoclonal antibodies to sGP were partially overlapped. In summary, two GP-specific mAbs were identified, which will be used to detect Ebola virus or investigate GP.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: ELISA; Ebola virus; GP; monoclonal antibody; sGP

PMID: 31663613 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25615

Keywords: Ebola; Monoclonal antibodies; Diagnostic tests.


Harmonization of #Zika #neutralization #assays by using the #WHO International #Standard for anti-Zika virus #antibody (npj Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: npj Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Harmonization of Zika neutralization assays by using the WHO International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibody

Giada Mattiuzzo, Ivana Knezevic, Mark Hassall, James Ashall, Sophie Myhill, Valwynne Faulkner, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Dianna E. Wilkinson, Mark Page & the collaborative study participants

npj Vaccines volume 4, Article number: 42 (2019)



During outbreaks of emerging viruses, such as the Zika outbreak in 2015–2016, speed and accuracy in detection of infection are critical factors to control the spread of the disease; often serological and diagnostic methods for emerging viruses are not well developed and validated. Thus, vaccines and treatments are difficult to evaluate due to the lack of comparable methods. In this study, we show how the 1st WHO International Standard for anti-Zika antibody was able to harmonize the neutralization titres of a panel of serological Zika-positive samples from laboratories worldwide. Expression of the titres in International Unit per millilitre reduced the inter-laboratory variance, allowing for greater comparability between laboratories. We advocate the use of the International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibodies for the calibration of neutralization assays to create a common language, which will permit a clear evaluation of the results of different clinical trials and expedite the vaccine/treatment development.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Diagnostic tests.


#Detection of #Candida auris #antifungal drug #resistance markers directly from #clinical skin #swabs (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of Candida auris antifungal drug resistance markers directly from clinical skin swabs

Milena Kordalewska, Annie Lee, Yanan Zhao, David S. Perlin

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01754-19



Accurate and rapid assessment of Candida auris antifungal drug resistance is crucial for effective infection prevention and control actions, and patient management. Here, performance of a molecular diagnostic platform, enabling rapid identification of FKS1 and ERG11 mutations conferring echinocandin and azole resistance, respectively, was evaluated on a panel of clinical skin swabs. Gene sequencing and antifungal susceptibility testing were used as “gold standard”. All swabs were correctly categorized as harboring wild-type or mutant C. auris.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Candida auris; Drugs resistance; Diagnostic tests; Echinocandins.


#Serological tests reveal significant cross-reactive #human #antibody responses to #Zika and #Dengue viruses in the #Mexican population (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2019 Sep 25:105201. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105201. [Epub ahead of print]

Serological tests reveal significant cross-reactive human antibody responses to Zika and Dengue viruses in the Mexican population.

Zaidi MB1, Cedillo-Barron L2, González Y Almeida ME3, Garcia-Cordero J4, Campos FD5, Namorado-Tonix K6, Perez F7.

Author information: 1 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Hospital General O’Horan, Merida, Mexico; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, Lansing, USA. Electronic address: zaidimus@msu.edu. 2 Department of Molecular Biomedicine, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address: lcedillo@cinvestav.mx. 3 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Hospital General O’Horan, Merida, Mexico. Electronic address: maria.gonzalez@ssy.gob.mx. 4 Department of Molecular Biomedicine, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address: leebeydengue@yahoo.com.mx. 5 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Hospital General O’Horan, Merida, Mexico. Electronic address: fcampos26@hotmail.com. 6 Department of Molecular Biomedicine, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address: namorado93@hotmail.com. 7 Communicable Diseases and Environmental Determinants of Health Department, Panamerican Health Organization, Washington D.C. USA. Electronic address: perezf@paho.org.



Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the Americas. Given its association with severe congenital defects including microcephaly, distinguishing infections caused by ZIKV from those caused by dengue virus (DENV) is of primordial importance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recombinant proteins rEIII-ZIKV (Envelope protein domain III) and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV (non-structural protein 1) for the serological diagnosis of ZIKV in the Mexican population. We also evaluated potential cross-reactivity in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) based on the ZIKV NS1 and DENV NS1 proteins. rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-leader-ZIKV proteins were tested with sera from 30 PCR-confirmed ZIKV cases, 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed subjects with no acute febrile disease, (asymptomatic subjects, AS), and 50 ZIKV-naive and DENV naïve AS. Commercial ELISA tests were evaluated with sera from 57 ZIKV and 20 DENV PCR-confirmed cases, and 50 ZIKV-naïve, DENV-exposed AS. In-house ELISA assays showed that IgM antibody levels against rEIII-ZIKV and rNS1ß-ZIKV were higher in ZIKV naïve, DENV-exposed AS than in acutely infected ZIKV individuals. IgG reactivity was highest for rEIII-ZIKV, and indistinguishable between acutely infected ZIKV cases and DENV exposed AS. Positivity for the Euroimmun Zika IgM assay at 7-10 days was considerably higher in DENV-naïve ZIKV patients (86%) than in DENV-exposed ZIKV patients (33%), while 39% of the latter had false-negative anti-ZIKV IgG before 7 days of onset. DENV-exposed ZIKV patients presented lower anti-ZIKV IgM and higher IgG responses similar to a secondary dengue response. Forty-four percent of DENV- exposed acute ZIKV patients were DENV IgM positive with the Panbio Dengue assay, and two (15%) of the DENV-naïve ZIKV patients presented false DENV IgG conversion. Given the extensive cross-reactivity to both the NS1 and EDIII proteins in current serological methods, the development of sensitive and specific serological tests to distinguish ZIKV from DENV infections is an urgent priority.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Cross-reactivity; EDIII protein; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; NS1 protein; Sensitivity; Specificity

PMID: 31562846 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105201

Keywords: Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Serology; Diagnostic tests; Mexico.


Detection of #MERS-CoV #antigen on #formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded #nasal #tissue of #alpacas by immunohistochemistry using #human #mAbs directed against different epitopes of the spike protein (Vet Immunol Immunopathol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2019 Sep 9;218:109939. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.109939. [Epub ahead of print]

Detection of MERS-CoV antigen on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded nasal tissue of alpacas by immunohistochemistry using human monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the spike protein.

Haverkamp AK1, Bosch BJ2, Spitzbarth I3, Lehmbecker A3, Te N4, Bensaid A4, Segalés J5, Baumgärtner W6.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation, 30559 Hannover, Germany. 2 Virology Division, Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, the Netherlands. 3 Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation, 30559 Hannover, Germany; Center for Systems Neuroscience, 30559 Hannover, Germany. 4 IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. 5 Departament de Sanitat i Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain; UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. 6 Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation, 30559 Hannover, Germany; Center for Systems Neuroscience, 30559 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: Wolfgang.Baumgaertner@tiho-hannover.de.



Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) represents an important respiratory disease accompanied by lethal outcome in one third of human patients. In recent years, several investigators developed protective antibodies which could be used as prophylaxis in prospective human epidemics. In the current study, eight human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with neutralizing and non-neutralizing capabilities, directed against different epitopes of the MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike (MERS-S) protein, were investigated with regard to their ability to immunohistochemically detect respective epitopes on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) nasal tissue sections of MERS-CoV experimentally infected alpacas. The most intense immunoreaction was detected using a neutralizing antibody directed against the receptor binding domain S1B of the MERS-S protein, which produced an immunosignal in the cytoplasm of ciliated respiratory epithelium and along the apical membranous region. A similar staining was obtained by two other mAbs which recognize the sialic acid-binding domain and the ectodomain of the membrane fusion subunit S2, respectively. Five mAbs lacked immunoreactivity for MERS-CoV antigen on FFPE tissue, even though they belong, at least in part, to the same epitope group. In summary, three tested human mAbs demonstrated capacity for detection of MERS-CoV antigen on FFPE samples and may be implemented in double or triple immunohistochemical methods.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Immunohistochemistry; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; Monoclonal human antibodies; Spike protein

PMID: 31526954 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2019.109939

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Monoclonal antibodies; Diagnostic tests.


Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic #diagnosis of acute #human #bocavirus 1 #infection in #children (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 4 September 2019 / In Press, Journal Pre-proof / Short communication

Comparison of phenotypic and genotypic diagnosis of acute human bocavirus 1 infection in children

Nicola Isabelle Kols a,b, Heli Aatol a,c, Ville Peltol a,d, Man Xue Zaig a, Nora-Krukle e,f, Klaus Hedman e,g, Aurelija Zvirbliene h, Hanna Toivol a, c, Tytti Vuorinen i, Juha  M. Koskinen c, Andrea H. L. Bruning j, Andreas Christensen a,b, Maria Söderlund-Venermo e, Janne O. Koskinen c

{a} Department of Medical Microbiology, Clinic of Laboratory Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital HF, Trondheim University Hospital, 7006, Trondheim, Norway; {b} Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491, Trondheim, Norway; {c} ArcDia International Oy Ltd, 20521, Turku, Finland; {d} Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, 20521, Turku, Finland; {e} Department of Virology, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki University Hospital, 00290, Helsinki, Finland; {f} Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, LV-1067, Riga, Latvia; {g} Helsinki University Hospital, 00029, Helsinki, Finland; {h} Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, LT-10223, Vilnius, Lithuania; {i}
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Turku University Hospital and Department of Virology, University of Turku, 20521, Turku, Finland; {j} Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Emma Children’s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, 1105, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Received 26 February 2019, Revised 5 August 2019, Accepted 3 September 2019, Available online 4 September 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.09.003



  • Diagnosis of HBoV1 has been based on detection of DNA or mRNA.
  • Rapid HBoV1 antigen detection is beneficial for diagnosing acute HBoV1 infections.
  • HBoV1 antigen detection is attractive for point-of-care use.


Keywords: Bocavirus; Diagnostic tests.