Evaluation of a new rapid #fluorescence #immunoassay for the #diagnosis of #dengue and #Zika virus infection (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 29 January 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Evaluation of a new rapid fluorescence immunoassay for the diagnosis of dengue and Zika virus infection

Lorenzo Zammarchi a,b,cMaria Grazia Colao d, Antonia Mantella a, c, Teresa Capobianco d, Gianna Mazzarelli d, Nunziata Ciccone d, Seble Tekle Kiros a, Elisabetta Mantengoli a, Gian Maria Rossolini a, d, Alessandro Bartoloni a,b,c

{a} Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; {b} Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Careggi University and Hospital, Florence, Italy; {c} Referral Center for Tropical Diseases of Tuscany, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy; {d} Clinical Microbiology and Virology Unit, Careggi University and Hospital, Florence, Italy
Received 4 December 2018, Revised 26 January 2019, Accepted 28 January 2019, Available online 29 January 2019.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.01.011



  • We evaluated a rapid Europium-based fluorescence serological test for DENV and ZIKV
  • In acute dengue, combination of FIA-NS1Ag and/or IgM showed a sensitivity of 100%
  • In past DENV, FIA-IgG test showed a sensitivity of 70%
  • In acute ZIKV, combination of FIA-ZIKV Ag and/or IgM showed a sensitivity of 72.7%
  • In past ZIKV infection combination of FIA-ZIKV IgG and IgM an overall 90% sensitivity




dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are important mosquito-transmitted viruses.


To investigate the performance of Standard F, Fluorescence Immunoassay (FIA, SD Biosensor Inc., Suwon, South Korea) providing results in 15 minutes to detect DENV IgG, IgM and NS1Ag, and ZIKV IgG, IgM, and Ag.

Study design

A well-characterized panel of patient samples (11 acute DENV, 11 acute ZIKV, 10 past DENV, 10 past ZIKV infection, 36 with other conditions) were tested with the FIA test.


In acute DENV infection, the combination of FIA-NS1Ag and/or IgM positivity showed a sensitivity of 100%. In past DENV, FIA-IgG test showed a sensitivity of 70%. Specificity of FIA-DENV NS1Ag, IgG, and IgM was 87.5%, 83.5%, and 91.7%, respectively. The sensitivity of FIA-ZIKV IgM and FIA-ZIKV Ag, in confirmed acute infection, was 72.7% and 9.1%, respectively. FIA-ZIKV Ag did not improve the sensitivity in detecting acute ZIKV infection, being positive only in one IgM positive sample. In past ZIKV infection (32-183 days after symptom onset), FIA-ZIKV IgG and IgM showed a sensitivity of 40% and 80% respectively, generating an overall 90% sensitivity. Specificity of FIA-ZIKV Ag, IgM, and IgG was 92.6%, 100%, and 97%, respectively.


FIA test, a rapid and easy to perform assay, showed high sensitivity to detect acute DENV infection, but lower in acute ZIKV infection. In past ZIKV infections, the best performance of FIA test is obtained by combining detection of IgG and IgM.

Keywords: Dengue – Zika – serology – rapid – Fluorescence

© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Serology; Diagnostic tests.



Differential #Shedding and #Antibody #Kinetics of #Zika and #Chikungunya Viruses, #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Dispatch

Differential Shedding and Antibody Kinetics of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses, Brazil

Fernando A. Bozza1, Andres Moreira-Soto1, Alexandra Rockstroh, Carlo Fischer, Alessandra D. Nascimento, Andrea S. Calheiros, Christian Drosten, Patrícia T. Bozza, Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Sebastian Ulbert, and Jan Felix Drexler

Author affiliations: National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (F.A. Bozza, A.D. Nascimento); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (F.A. Bozza, A.D. Nascimento); Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (A. Moreira-Soto, C. Fischer, C. Drosten, J.F. Drexler); Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Leipzig, Germany (A. Rockstroh, S. Ulbert); Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (A.S. Calheiros, P.T. Bozza); German Centre for Infection Research, Berlin (C. Drosten, J.F. Drexler); Center for Technological Development in Health, Rio de Janeiro (T.M.L. Souza)



In seroconversion panels for patients from Brazil, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection was improved by combining multiple antibody isotypes, techniques, and antigens, but sensitivity remained suboptimal. In contrast, chikungunya virus diagnostic testing was unambiguous. Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive virologic testing.

Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Zika Virus; Diagnostic tests; Brazil.


A Sandwich #ELISA for Detecting the #Hemagglutinin of #Avian #Influenza A (#H10N8) Virus (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2018 Dec 29. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25387. [Epub ahead of print]

A Sandwich ELISA for Detecting the Hemagglutinin of Avian Influenza A (H10N8) Virus.

Chen L1,2, Ruan F1,2, Liu M3,4, Zhou J2, Song W5, Qin K2.

Author information: 1 Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Nanchang University, Nanchang, P. R. China. 2 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health Commission of P. R. China, Beijing, P. R. China. 3 Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, P. R. China. 4 Nanchang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, Jiangxi, P. R. China. 5 State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease; Institute of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.



Novel influenza A virus (H10N8) infected human with fatality in China during 2013-2014. It is important to detect such non-prevalent subtype influenza A virus in clinic and regular surveillance in the early stage for effective control and prevention from the potential pandemic. Unavailability of convenient rapid diagnosis for this subtype virus in resources-limited setting is an obstacle for timely recognizing human case. In the present study, a panel of mouse H10 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated, two of which were used to develop a sandwich ELISA for detecting the hemagglutinin of avian influenza A (H10N8) virus. ELISA results showed high sensitivity with the lowest detection limit of 0.5HAU/50μl for live virus, which laid a foundation for clinic use as a promising diagnostic methodology.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H10 subtype; hemagglutinin; monoclonal antibody; sandwich ELISA

PMID: 30593681 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25387

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H10N8; Diagnostic tests.


#Epidemic #preparedness: why is there a need to accelerate the #development of #diagnostics? (Lancet Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemic preparedness: why is there a need to accelerate the development of diagnostics?

Prof Rosanna W Peeling, PhD, Maurine Murtagh, PhD, Piero L Olliaro, MD

Published: December 11, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30594-2



Global epidemics of infectious diseases are increasing in frequency and severity. Diagnostics are needed for rapid identification of the cause of the epidemic to facilitate effective control and prevention. Lessons learned from the recent Ebola virus and Zika virus epidemics are that delay in developing the right diagnostic for the right population at the right time has been a costly barrier to disease control and prevention. We believe that it is possible to accelerate and optimise diagnostic development through a five-pronged strategy: by doing a global landscape analysis of diagnostic availability worldwide; through strategic partnerships for accelerating test development, in particular with vaccine companies to identify novel diagnostic targets; by creating and sharing repositories of data, reagents, and well characterised specimens for advancing the development process; by involving key public and private stakeholders, including appropriate regulatory bodies and policy makers, to ensure rapid access for researchers to diagnostics; and last, by fostering an enabling environment for research and access to diagnostics in the countries that need them. The need is great, but not insurmountable and innovative and faster development pathways are urgently required to address current shortfalls.

Keywords: Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Pandemic preparedness; Diagnostic tests.


The #Cat’s #Meow: Using Novel #Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to- #Human #Influenza A(#H7N2) Transmission (J Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The Cat’s Meow: Using Novel Serological Approaches to Identify Cat-to-Human Influenza A(H7N2) Transmission

Seema Jain, Erin L Murray

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy596, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy596

Published: 03 November 2018

(See the major Article by Poirot et al on pages XX-XX)

“What greater gift than the love of a cat?”—Charles Dickens, Great Expectations

Avian influenza viruses have rarely been detected in cats and, until 2016, no cat had ever been documented to have an influenza A(H7N2) virus infection or to transmit the virus to a human. In December 2016, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) was alerted about a cat admitted to a Manhattan animal shelter on 12 November 2016 that subsequently died and was confirmed positive for influenza A(H7N2) virus, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus [1, 2].


Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N2; Cats; Human; USA; NYC.


#Assessment of #blood #enterovirus #PCR testing in #paediatric populations with fever without source, #sepsis-like disease, or suspected #meningitis: a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Assessment of blood enterovirus PCR testing in paediatric populations with fever without source, sepsis-like disease, or suspected meningitis: a prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study

Jérémy Lafolie, PharmD, Prof André Labbé, PhD *, Anne Sophie L’Honneur, PharmD *, Fouad Madhi, MD, Bruno Pereira, PhD, Marion Decobert, MD, Marie Noelle Adam, PhD, François Gouraud, MD, Frédéric Faibis, PhD, Francois Arditty, MD, Stéphanie Marque-Juillet, PhD, Marie Aline Guitteny, PhD, Gisele Lagathu, PhD, Matthieu Verdan, MD, Prof Flore Rozenberg, PhD, Audrey Mirand, PhD, Prof Hélène Peigue-Lafeuille, PhD, Prof Cécile Henquell, PhD †, Jean-Luc Bailly, PhD †, Christine Archimbaud, PhD on behalf of theBlood Enterovirus Diagnosis Infection (BLEDI) in paediatric population study team ‡

Published: October 30, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30479-1




Enteroviruses are the most frequent cause of acute meningitis and are seen increasingly in sepsis-like disease and fever without source in the paediatric population. Detection of enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens by PCR is the gold standard diagnostic test. Our aim was to assess a method of detecting enterovirus in blood specimens by PCR.


We did a prospective, multicentre, observational study at 35 French paediatric and emergency departments in 16 hospitals. We recruited newborn babies (aged ≤28 days) and infants (aged >28 days to ≤2 years) with fever without source, sepsis-like disease, or suspected meningitis, and children (aged >2 years to ≤16 years) with suspected meningitis, who were admitted to a participating hospital. We used a standardised form to obtain demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, which were anonymised. Enterovirus PCR testing was done in blood and CSF specimens.


Between June 1, 2015, and Oct 31, 2015, and between June 1, 2016, and Oct 31, 2016, we enrolled 822 patients, of whom 672 had enterovirus PCR testing done in blood and CSF specimens. Enterovirus was detected in 317 (47%) patients in either blood or CSF, or both (71 newborn babies, 83 infants, and 163 children). Detection of enterovirus was more frequent in blood samples than in CSF specimens of newborn babies (70 [99%] of 71 vs 62 [87%] of 71; p=0·011) and infants (76 [92%] of 83 vs 62 [75%] of 83; p=0·008), and was less frequent in blood samples than in CSF specimens of children (90 [55%] of 163 vs 148 [91%] of 163; p<0·0001). Detection of enterovirus was more frequent in blood samples than in CSF specimens of infants aged 2 years or younger with fever without source (55 [100%] of 55 vs 41 [75%] of 55; p=0·0002) or with sepsis-like disease (16 [100%] of 16 vs nine [56%] of 16; p=0·008). Detection of enterovirus was less frequent in blood than in CSF of patients with suspected meningitis (165 [67%] of 246 vs 222 [90%] of 246; p<0·0001).


Testing for enterovirus in blood by PCR should be an integral part of clinical practice guidelines for infants aged 2 years or younger. This testing could decrease the length of hospital stay and reduce exposure to antibiotics for low-risk patients admitted to the emergency department with febrile illness.


University Hospital Clermont-Ferrand.

Keywords: Enterovirus; Diagnostic tests.


#MERS #coronavirus #intermittent positive cases: Implications for #infection control (Am J Infect Control., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Infect Control. 2018 Oct 20. pii: S0196-6553(18)30871-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.08.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus intermittent positive cases: Implications for infection control.

Alfaraj SH1, Al-Tawfiq JA2, Memish ZA3.

Author information: 1 Corona Center, Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Pediatrics, Prince Mohamed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 2 Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. 3 College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, Prince Mohamed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address: zmemish@yahoo.com.




Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data on the phenomenon of intermittent positive results for MERS-CoV on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with negative results in between are lacking. Here we describe cases with intermittent positive MERS-CoV test results and highlight the required number of tests to rule out or rule in MERS-CoV infection based on a large retrospective cohort of patients with confirmed MERS-CoV.


This analysis included cases admitted between January 2014 and December 2017. The included patients had a minimum of 3 nasopharyngeal MERS-CoV RT-PCR tests for confirmation and needed 2 negative samples for MERS-CoV evaluated 48 hours apart with clinical improvement or stabilization apart to ensure clearance.


A total of 408 patients with positive MERS-CoV test results were treated at the referring hospital. We excluded 72 patients who had only 1 swab result available in the system and were treated in the initial years of the disease. Of the remaining 336 patients, 300 (89%) had a positive result after 1 swab, 324 (96.5%) had a positive result after 2 consecutive swabs, and 328 (97.6%) had a positive result after 3 consecutive swabs. Of the total cases, 46 (13.7%) had a positive MERS-CoV test then a negative test, followed by positive test results.


Our data indicate that 2 to 3 nasopharyngeal samples are needed to produce the highest yield of positive results for MERS-CoV. In addition, 2 negative results 48 hours apart with clinical improvement or stabilization are needed to clear patients from MERS-CoV. Evaluation of the yield of sputum samples is needed to assess the effectiveness against nasopharyngeal swabs.

Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: MERS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; Outbreak Saudi Arabia

PMID: 30352694 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2018.08.020

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Diagnostic Tests.