Recent #advances in the #detection of #respiratory virus #infection in #humans (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2020 Jan 15. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25674. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans.

Zhang N1, Wang L2, Deng X3, Liang R3, Su M3, He C3, Hu L3, Su Y3, Ren J3, Yu F3, Du L4, Jiang S4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Research Center of Chinese Jujube, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 3 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, College of Life and Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 4 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, USA. 5 Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

 

Abstract

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people’s lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, human adenovirus (hAdV), and human rhinovirus (hRV). Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Respiratory viral infection; adenovirus; coronavirus; diagnostic methods; influenza virus; respiratory syncytial virus; rhinovirus

PMID: 31944312 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25674

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Diagnostic tests; 2019-nCoV.

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#Ebola #Patient Virus Cycle Threshold and #Risk of #Household #Transmission of Ebola Virus (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ebola Patient Virus Cycle Threshold and Risk of Household Transmission of Ebola Virus

Mary R Reichler, Dana Bruden, Harold Thomas, Bobbie Rae Erickson, Barbara Knust, Nadia Duffy, John Klena, Thomas Hennessy, the Household Transmission Investigative Team

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz511, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz511

Published: 19 December 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Identifying risk factors for household transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) is important to guide preventive measures during Ebola outbreaks.

Methods

We enrolled all confirmed persons with EBOV disease who were the first case patient in a household from December 2014 to April 2015 in Freetown, Sierra Leone, and their household contacts. Index patients and contacts were interviewed, and contacts were followed up for 21 days to identify secondary cases. Epidemiologic data were linked to EBOV real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold (Ct) data from initial diagnostic specimens obtained from enrolled index case patients.

Results

Ct data were available for 106 (71%) of 150 enrolled index patients. Of the Ct results, 85 (80%) were from blood specimens from live patients and 21 (20%) from oral swab specimens from deceased patients. The median Ct values for blood and swab specimens were 21.0 and 24.0, respectively (P = .007). In multivariable analysis, a Ct value from blood specimens in the lowest quintile was an independent predictor of both increased risk of household transmission (P = .009) and higher secondary attack rate among household contacts (P = .03), after adjustment for epidemiologic factors.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest the potential to use Ct values from acute EBOV diagnostic specimens for index patients as an early predictor of high-risk households and high-risk groups of contacts to help prioritize EBOV disease investigation and control efforts.

Ebola, Ebola virus, transmission, household contact, cycle threshold, epidemiology, risk factors, preventive factors, Sierra Leone

Keywords: Ebola; Diagnostic tests.

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A preliminary #survey of #ZIKA virus #infection by nucleic acid #test in the volunteer #blood donor samples in #Shenzhen #China (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Dec 12. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25654. [Epub ahead of print]

A preliminary survey of ZIKA virus infection by nucleic acid test in the volunteer blood donor samples in Shenzhen China.

Zheng X1, Zeng J1, Xu X1, Liu Y2, Heng L1, Wen X1, Li S3, Xu M3, Wu S3, Chen Y3, Chen L3,4.

Author information: 1 Shenzhen Blood Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China, 518035. 2 Shenzhen Baoan District Central Blood Station, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. 3 Provincial Key Laboratory for Transfusion-transmitted Infectious Diseases, Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610052. 4 Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5G1L6, Canada.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although ZIKA virus infection is mainly transmitted through mosquito bite, it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. More than 500,000 cases of ZIKA virus infection were reported in the Americas from 2015 to 2016. Up till now, over ten cases of imported zika virus infection have been reported due to frequent international exchanges in Shenzhen city of Guangdong Province, China. Unfortunately, there were no data on ZIKA virus infection in Chinese blood donors because it has not been included in routine screening for volunteer blood donors. As such, we performed a preliminary survey of the prevalence of ZIKA virus infection among volunteer blood donors in Shenzhen, China to assess the potential risk of ZIKA virus infection through transfusion.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:

A total of 9,626 blood donor samples were collected and ZIKA RNA was detected by TMA nucleic acid amplification method with the Panther nucleic acid automatic analysis system of Spain GRIFOLS including Procleix ZIKA Virus Assay reagent. All experiments in this study were conducted in accordance with the standard operating procedure (SOP) of the blood center.

RESULTS:

Of the 9626 donor blood samples tested, None of these samples was ZIKV RNA reactive. There was no positive case from ZIKA Virus RNA screening in this preliminary survey.

CONCLUSION:

There was no ZIKA virus presence in blood donors in Shenzhen, China from this preliminary survey. The potential risk of ZIKA virus infection by transfusion is low in Shenzhen at this moment. Therefore there is no need to add ZIKA virus nucleic acid test as a routine screening for blood donors.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Blood < Epidemiology; Endemic infection < Epidemiology; Yellow fever virus < Virus classification

PMID: 31829444 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25654

Keywords: Zika Virus; Diagnostic tests; Blood safety; China.

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#Zika Virus #IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, #Miami-Dade County, #Florida, #USA (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Zika Virus IgM 25 Months after Symptom Onset, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA

Isabel Griffin  , Stacey W. Martin, Marc Fischer, Trudy V. Chambers, Olga L. Kosoy, Cynthia Goldberg, Alyssa Falise, Vanessa Villamil, Olga Ponomareva, Leah D. Gillis, Carina Blackmore, and Reynald Jean

Author affiliations: Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County, Miami, Florida, USA (I. Griffin, C. Goldberg, A. Falise, V. Villamil, O. Ponomareva, R. Jean); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (S.W. Martin, M. Fischer, T.V. Chambers, O.L. Kosoy); Bureau of Public Health Laboratories, Miami (L.D. Gillis); Florida Department of Health, Tallahassee, Florida, USA (C. Blackmore)

 

Abstract

We assessed IgM survival in Zika patients from the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of those with positive or equivocal IgM after 12–19 months, 87% (26/30) had IgM 6 months later. In a survival analysis, ≈76% had IgM at 25 months. Zika virus IgM persists for years, complicating serologic diagnosis.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Immunoglobulins; Diagnostic tests; USA; Florida.

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The #induction and characterization of #monoclonal #antibodies specific to GP of #Ebola virus (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 Oct 30. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25615. [Epub ahead of print]

The induction and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to GP of Ebola virus.

Tian X1,2, Chen D2, Wang H2, Xu S2, Zhu L3, Wu X2,3, Wu Z2,4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Jiangsu Shengze Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou, P.R. China. 2 Center for Public Health Research, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China. 3 Y-clone medical science Co. Ltd, Nanjing, PR China. 4 State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China. 5 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, PR China.

 

Abstract

The Ebola virus is highly infectious and characterized of hemorrhagic fever, headache, etc. with high mortality rate. Currently there are neither therapeutic drugs or vaccines against Ebola virus nor fast diagnositic method for the detection of Ebola virus infection. This study reported the induction and isolation of two monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized the glycoprotein (GP) and secreted glycoprotein (sGP) of Ebola virus. Plasmids encoding either GP or sGP were constructed and immunized BALB/c mice, accordingly purified sGP was boosted. The antisera were analyzed for binding activity against sGP protein in ELISA and neutralization activity in a pseudotyped virus neutralization assay. A number of reactive clones were isolated and two monoclonal antibodies T231 and T242 were identified to react with both GP and sGP. Western blot and ELISA assays showed that the monoclonal antibodies could react with GP and sGP, respectively. Moreover, they could recognize Ebola pseudovirus by cellular immunochemistry assay. We labeled the monoclonal antibody T231 with biotin, and analyzed the competitiveness of the two antibodies by ELISA test. The results showed that the binding epitopes of the two monoclonal antibodies to sGP were partially overlapped. In summary, two GP-specific mAbs were identified, which will be used to detect Ebola virus or investigate GP.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: ELISA; Ebola virus; GP; monoclonal antibody; sGP

PMID: 31663613 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25615

Keywords: Ebola; Monoclonal antibodies; Diagnostic tests.

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Harmonization of #Zika #neutralization #assays by using the #WHO International #Standard for anti-Zika virus #antibody (npj Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: npj Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Harmonization of Zika neutralization assays by using the WHO International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibody

Giada Mattiuzzo, Ivana Knezevic, Mark Hassall, James Ashall, Sophie Myhill, Valwynne Faulkner, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Dianna E. Wilkinson, Mark Page & the collaborative study participants

npj Vaccines volume 4, Article number: 42 (2019)

 

Abstract

During outbreaks of emerging viruses, such as the Zika outbreak in 2015–2016, speed and accuracy in detection of infection are critical factors to control the spread of the disease; often serological and diagnostic methods for emerging viruses are not well developed and validated. Thus, vaccines and treatments are difficult to evaluate due to the lack of comparable methods. In this study, we show how the 1st WHO International Standard for anti-Zika antibody was able to harmonize the neutralization titres of a panel of serological Zika-positive samples from laboratories worldwide. Expression of the titres in International Unit per millilitre reduced the inter-laboratory variance, allowing for greater comparability between laboratories. We advocate the use of the International Standard for anti-Zika virus antibodies for the calibration of neutralization assays to create a common language, which will permit a clear evaluation of the results of different clinical trials and expedite the vaccine/treatment development.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Diagnostic tests.

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