#Seroreactivity to #Chikungunya and #WNV Viruses in #Rwandan #Blood Donors (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors

Eric Seruyange, Karl Ljungberg, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Swaibu Katare, José Nyamusore, Yong-Dae Gwon, Magnus Evander, Heléne Norder, Peter Liljeström, and Tomas Bergström

Published Online: 27 Jun 2019




Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens.

In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples.


Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda.


Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O’nyong’nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province.


Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Rwanda.



#GBS and its correlation with #dengue, #Zika and #chikungunya viruses #infection based on a literature review of reported cases in #Brazil (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2019 Jun 17:105064. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105064. [Epub ahead of print]

Guillain-Barre Syndrome and its correlation with dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses infection based on a literature review of reported cases in Brazil.

de Sousa Lima ME1, Rodrigues Bachur TP2, Frota Aragão G3.

Author information: 1 Curso de Medicina, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Campus Itaperi, Av. Dr. Silas Munguba, 1700 – Itaperi, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.714-903, Brazil. Electronic address: matheus.eugenio@aluno.uece.br. 2 Curso de Medicina, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Campus Itaperi, Av. Dr. Silas Munguba, 1700 – Itaperi, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.714-903, Brazil. Electronic address: tatiana.bachur@uece.br. 3 Curso de Medicina, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Campus Itaperi, Av. Dr. Silas Munguba, 1700 – Itaperi, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.714-903, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Porangabuçu, Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo, 1000 – Rodolfo Teófilo, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.430-275, Brazil. Electronic address: gislei.frota@uece.br.



Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is one of the main neurologic manifestations of arboviruses, especially Zika virus infection. As known, the prevalence of these diseases is high, so the risk of having an increase on GBS is relevant. The study purposes making a comparative survey between the involvement of dengue, Zika and chikungunya infections in the development of the GBS in Brazil, as well as search in literature resemblances and distinctions between beforehand reported cases. It was performed an electronic search in online databases, with articles published between the years of 2004 to 2018. A total of 729 articles about the proposed search were found, and 10 were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The medium age found in Brazilian studies was 42,9. The time lapse for the neurological symptoms manifest was 6,5 to 11 days. Facial palsy, paresthesia and member weakness were the main symptoms related. Pediatric cases are rare. There are many studies that implicated the association of GBS and arboviruses and point it to one of the main neurological manifestation of these infections. More research and consistent data are needed to clarify unanswered questions and guide public health measures.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Guillain-Barre syndrome; Zika virus; chikungunya; dengue fever

PMID: 31220435 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105064

Keywords: Arbovirus; GBS; Chikungunya fever, Zika Virus, Dengue fever, Brazil.


#Phylogeography and #invasion history of #Aedes aegypti, the #Dengue and #Zika mosquito #vector in #CapeVerde islands (West Africa) (Evol Appl., abstract)

[Source: Evolutionary Applications, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Phylogeography and invasion history of Aedes aegypti, the Dengue and Zika mosquito vector in Cape Verde islands (West Africa)

Patrícia Salgueiro,  Célia Serrano,  Bruno Gomes,  Joana Alves,  Carla A. Sousa,  Ana Abecasis, João Pinto

First published: 20 June 2019 / DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12834

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi:10.1111/eva.12834



Aedes‐borne arboviruses have spread globally with outbreaks of vast impact on human populations and health systems. The West African archipelago of Cape Verde had its first outbreak of Dengue in 2009, at the time the largest recorded in Africa, and was one of the few African countries affected by the Zika virus epidemic. Aedes aegypti was the mosquito vector involved in both outbreaks. We performed a phylogeographic and population genetics study of A. aegypti in Cape Verde in order to infer the geographic origin and evolutionary history of this mosquito. These results are discussed with respect to the implications for vector control and prevention of future outbreaks. Mosquitoes captured before and after the Dengue outbreak on the islands of Santiago, Brava and Fogo were analyzed with two mitochondrial genes COI and ND4, 14 microsatellite loci and five kdr mutations. Genetic variability was comparable to other African populations. Our results suggest that A. aegypti invaded Cape Verde at the beginning of the Holocene from West Africa. Given the historic importance of Cape Verde in the transatlantic trade of the 16th –17th centuries, a possible contribution to the genetic pool of the founding populations in the New World cannot be fully discarded. However, contemporary gene flow with the Americas is likely to be infrequent. No kdr mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance were detected. The implications for vector control and prevention of future outbreaks are discussed.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Mosquitoes: Arbovirus; Zika virus; Dengue Fever; Cape Verde; Evolution; Aedes aegypti.


The #effect of #global #change on #mosquito-borne #disease (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The effect of global change on mosquito-borne disease

Lydia H V Franklinos, MSc, Prof Kate E Jones, PhD, David W Redding, PhD, Prof Ibrahim Abubakar, PhD

Published: June 18, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30161-6



More than 80% of the global population is at risk of a vector-borne disease, with mosquito-borne diseases being the largest contributor to human vector-borne disease burden. Although many global processes, such as land-use and socioeconomic change, are thought to affect mosquito-borne disease dynamics, research to date has strongly focused on the role of climate change. Here, we show, through a review of contemporary modelling studies, that no consensus on how future changes in climatic conditions will impact mosquito-borne diseases exists, possibly due to interacting effects of other global change processes, which are often excluded from analyses. We conclude that research should not focus solely on the role of climate change but instead consider growing evidence for additional factors that modulate disease risk. Furthermore, future research should adopt new technologies, including developments in remote sensing and system dynamics modelling techniques, to enable a better understanding and mitigation of mosquito-borne diseases in a changing world.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Emerging Diseases; Climate Change.


First report of collapsing variant of focal segmental #glomerulosclerosis triggered by #arbovirus: #dengue and #Zika virus #infection (Clin Kidney J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Kidney J. 2018 Nov 19;12(3):355-361. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfy104. eCollection 2019 Jun.

First report of collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis triggered by arbovirus: dengue and Zika virus infection.

Araújo SA1,2, Cordeiro TME2, Belisário AR2, Araújo RFA1,2, Marinho PES3, Kroon EG3, de Oliveira DB4, Teixeira MM2,5, Simões E Silva AC2.

Author information: 1 Instituto de Nefro Patologia, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 2 Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Investigação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil. 3 Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 4 Faculdade de Medicina de Diamantina, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Brazil. 5 National Institute of Science and Technology in Dengue, Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Institute of Biological Sciences, UFMG, Brazil.




The collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most aggressive form of FSGS and is characterized by at least one glomerulus with segmental or global collapse and overlying podocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Viruses can act as aetiological agents of secondary FSGS. This study aims to establish an aetiological link between dengue virus (DENV) infection and the collapsing variant of FSGS and to analyse possible influences of the apolipoprotein 1 (APOL1) gene risk alleles on the disease.


Biopsies and medical records were gathered from 700 patients of the Instituto de Nefropatologia, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Screening for the collapsing variant of FSGS was performed and serological, immunohistochemical, tissue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genetic analysis were conducted.


Eight patients were identified with positive DENV serology and negative serological and/or tissue markers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19. In PCR analysis, six patients had positive markers for DENV strain genetic material, one patient had positive markers for co-infection of Zika virus (ZIKV) and DENV and one patient had positive markers only for ZIKV infection. Six of the eight patients did not show risk alleles of the APOL1 gene. One patient had only one risk allele (G1) and the sample from another did not contain enough DNA for genetic analysis to be performed.


This study provided strong evidence that DENV can infect renal tissue and possibly functions as a second hit to the development of the collapsing variant of FSGS. Nonetheless, this study also highlights the possible implication of ZIKV infection in FSGS and supports the argument that risk alleles of the APOL1 gene may not be implicated in the susceptibility to FSGS in these patients.

KEYWORDS: arbovirus; chronic kidney disease; dengue infection; focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; renal histopahology

PMID: 31198534 PMCID: PMC6543975 DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfy104

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Dengue fever; Zika Virus; Brazil.


Essential Role of #Interferon Response in Containing #Human #Pathogenic #Bourbon Virus (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 7—July 2019 / Research

Essential Role of Interferon Response in Containing Human Pathogenic Bourbon Virus

Jonas Fuchs, Tobias Straub, Maximilian Seidl, and Georg Kochs

Author affiliations: University of Freiburg Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany



Bourbon virus (BRBV) is a recently discovered tick-transmitted viral pathogen that is prevalent in the Midwest and southern United States. Since 2014, zoonotic BRBV infections have been verified in several human cases of severe febrile illness, occasionally with fatal outcomes, indicating a possible public health threat. We analyzed the pathology of BRBV infection in mice and found a high sensitivity of the virus to the host interferon system. Infected standard laboratory mice did not show clinical signs or virus replication. However, in mice carrying defects in the type I and type II interferon system, the virus grew to high titers and caused severe pathology. In cell culture, BRBV was blocked by antiviral agents like ribavirin and favipiravir (T705). Our data suggest that persons having severe BRBV infection might have a deficiency in their innate immunity and could benefit from an already approved antiviral treatment.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Bourbon virus; Tick-borne infections; Viral pathogenesis; Antivirals; Interferons; Ribavirin; Favipiravir.


#Wolbachia pipientis occurs in #Aedes aegypti populations in #NM and #Florida, #USA (Ecol Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ecol Evol. 2019 Apr 26;9(10):6148-6156. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5198. eCollection 2019 May.

Wolbachia pipientis occurs in Aedes aegypti populations in New Mexico and Florida, USA.

Kulkarni A1, Yu W1, Jiang J1, Sanchez C1, Karna AK1, Martinez KJL1, Hanley KA1, Buenemann M2, Hansen IA1, Xue RD3, Ettestad P4, Melman S4, Duguma D5, Debboun M5, Xu J1.

Author information: 1 Biology Department New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 2 Department of Geography New Mexico State University Las Cruces New Mexico. 3 Anastasia Mosquito Control District St. Augustine Florida. 4 New Mexico Department of Health Santa Fe New Mexico. 5 Harris County Public Health Mosquito and Vector Control Division Houston Texas.



The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus Skuse are the major vectors of dengue, Zika, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses worldwide. Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium present in many insects, is being utilized in novel vector control strategies to manipulate mosquito life history and vector competence to curb virus transmission. Earlier studies have found that Wolbachia is commonly detected in Ae. albopictus but rarely detected in Ae. aegypti. In this study, we used a two-step PCR assay to detect Wolbachia in wild-collected samples of Ae. aegypti. The PCR products were sequenced to validate amplicons and identify Wolbachia strains. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and used for detecting Wolbachia in selected mosquito specimens as well. We found Wolbachiain 85/148 (57.4%) wild Ae. aegypti specimens from various cities in New Mexico, and in 2/46 (4.3%) from St. Augustine, Florida. Wolbachiawas not detected in 94 samples of Ae. aegypti from Deer Park, Harris County, Texas. Wolbachia detected in Ae. aegypti from both New Mexico and Florida was the wAlbB strain of Wolbachia pipientis. A Wolbachia-positive colony of Ae. aegypti was established from pupae collected in Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 2018. The infected females of this strain transmitted Wolbachia to their progeny when crossed with males of Rockefeller strain of Ae. aegypti, which does not carry Wolbachia. In contrast, none of the progeny of Las Cruces males mated to Rockefeller females were infected with Wolbachia.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Florida; New Mexico; Texas; Wolbachia; wAlbB

PMID: 31161026 PMCID: PMC6540660 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5198

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; New Mexico; Florida; USA.