#Jamestown Canyon Virus #Encephalitis in a #Heart #Transplant Patient (Transpl Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transpl Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 12:e13210. doi: 10.1111/tid.13210. [Epub ahead of print]

Jamestown Canyon Virus Encephalitis in a Heart Transplant Patient.

Askar W1, Menaria P2, Thohan V3, Brummitt CF4.

Author information: 1 Department of Internal Medicine Residency, Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI. 2 Department of Hospital Medicine, Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Center, Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI. 3 Department of Advanced Heart Failure Therapies, Mission Health System, Asheville, NC. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI.

 

Abstract

Jamestown Canyon virus (JtCV) is an arbovirus and a member of the California serogroup. To our knowledge, all the cases of JtCV have been reported in immunocompetent patients since it was first detected in 1997. We report a case of JtCV encephalitis in a solid organ transplant patient. A 48-year-old female from Wisconsin had multiple hospital admissions for symptoms of progressive confusion, visual hallucinations, and inability to perform self-care. Initial evaluation was significant for lymphocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and multiple infectious and metabolic causes were excluded. Further investigation found JtCV IgM in serum, and CSF. The patient’s clinical course was compatible with JtCV encephalitis and she was treated with ribavirin in addition to reduction of her immunosuppressive medications. She showed gradual and significant improvement in her mental and functional status. JtCV can cause a variety of symptoms that range from a flu-like syndrome to encephalitis. There have been an increased number of reported cases in recent years which is attributed to increased physician awareness and the availability of laboratory testing. Optimal treatment is still not known.

© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PMID: 31713971 DOI: 10.1111/tid.13210

Keywords: Jamestown Canyon Virus; Arbovirus; Encephalitis; USA; Wisconsin; Organ transplantation.

——

#Host #nutritional status affects #alphavirus #virulence, #transmission, and #evolution (PLOS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Host nutritional status affects alphavirus virulence, transmission, and evolution

James Weger-Lucarelli , Lucia Carrau, Laura I. Levi, Veronica Rezelj, Thomas Vallet, Hervé Blanc, Jérémy Boussier, Daniela Megrian, Sheryl Coutermarsh-Ott, Tanya LeRoith, Marco Vignuzzi

___

Published: November 11, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008089 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Malnourishment, specifically overweight/obesity and undernourishment, affects more than 2.5 billion people worldwide, with the number affected ever-increasing. Concurrently, emerging viral diseases, particularly those that are mosquito-borne, have spread dramatically in the past several decades, culminating in outbreaks of several viruses worldwide. Both forms of malnourishment are known to lead to an aberrant immune response, which can worsen disease outcomes and reduce vaccination efficacy for viral pathogens such as influenza and measles. Given the increasing rates of malnutrition and spread of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), there is an urgent need to understand the role of host nutrition on the infection, virulence, and transmission of these viruses. To address this gap in knowledge, we infected lean, obese, and undernourished mice with arthritogenic arboviruses from the genus Alphavirus and assessed morbidity, virus replication, transmission, and evolution. Obesity and undernourishment did not consistently influence virus replication in the blood of infected animals except for reductions in virus in obese mice late in infection. However, morbidity was increased in obese mice under all conditions. Using Mayaro virus (MAYV) as a model arthritogenic alphavirus, we determined that both obese and undernourished mice transmit virus less efficiently to mosquitoes than control (lean) mice. In addition, viral genetic diversity and replicative fitness were reduced in virus isolated from obese compared to lean controls. Taken together, nutrition appears to alter the course of alphavirus infection and should be considered as a critical environmental factor during outbreaks.

 

Author summary

Over- and undernutrition, collectively known as malnutrition, affect over 2.5 billion people worldwide. Associations between malnutrition and mosquito-borne virus infection and resulting disease have been identified in epidemiological studies but have not been explored in controlled studies. Here, we infect obese or undernourished mice with different arthritis inducing viruses in the genus Alphavirus and measure disease symptoms, viral replication, transmission, and evolution. We found that markers of disease, namely weight loss and footpad swelling, were increased in obese mice. We also found that replication differences between mice fed different diets were minimal except late in infection for obese mice when levels of virus dropped significantly. When mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice fed different diets, we observed reduced infection and transmission rates, depending on the diet. Finally, we found reduced genetic diversity and replicative fitness of virus isolated from obese mice. This study provides insights into the influence of nutrition on alphavirus pathogenesis and evolution.

___

Citation: Weger-Lucarelli J, Carrau L, Levi LI, Rezelj V, Vallet T, Blanc H, et al. (2019) Host nutritional status affects alphavirus virulence, transmission, and evolution. PLoS Pathog 15(11): e1008089. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008089

Editor: Richard J. Kuhn, Purdue University, UNITED STATES

Received: June 23, 2019; Accepted: September 17, 2019; Published: November 11, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Weger-Lucarelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All next-generation sequencing files are uploaded to the small read archive (SRA) under accession number PRJNA573904.

Funding: This work was partially funded by the DARPA program PREventing EMerging Pathogenic Threats (PREEMPT) awarded to MV and JWL. Partial funding was also provided by a faculty start-up package at Virginia Tech awarded to JWL. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Mosquitoes; Animal models.

——

#Genomic #Epidemiology as a #PublicHealth #Tool to Combat #Mosquito-Borne Virus #Outbreaks (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic Epidemiology as a Public Health Tool to Combat Mosquito-Borne Virus Outbreaks

S Pollett, J R Fauver, Irina Maljkovic Berry, M Melendrez, A Morrison, L D Gillis, M A Johansson, R G Jarman, N D Grubaugh

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz302, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz302

Published: 10 November 2019

 

Abstract

Next-generation sequencing technologies, exponential increases in the availability of virus genomic data, and ongoing advances in phylogenomic methods have made genomic epidemiology an increasingly powerful tool for public health response to a range of mosquito-borne virus outbreaks. In this review, we offer a brief primer on the scope and methods of phylogenomic analyses that can answer key epidemiological questions during mosquito-borne virus public health emergencies. We then focus on case examples of outbreaks, including those caused by dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, and chikungunya viruses, to demonstrate the utility of genomic epidemiology to support the prevention and control of mosquito-borne virus threats. We extend these case studies with operational perspectives on how to best incorporate genomic epidemiology into structured surveillance and response programs for mosquito-borne virus control. Many tools for genomic epidemiology already exist, but so do technical and nontechnical challenges to advancing their use. Frameworks to support the rapid sharing of multidimensional data and increased cross-sector partnerships, networks, and collaborations can support advancement on all scales, from research and development to implementation by public health agencies.

Topic: epidemiology – dengue fever – culicidae – disease outbreaks – genome – yellow fever – public health medicine – viruses – surveillance, medical – zika virus

Issue Section: supplement articles

Keywords: Arbovirus; Public Health; Mosquitoes; Genetics.

——

#Virus #evolution in #Wolbachia-infected Drosophila (Proc Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus evolution in Wolbachia-infected Drosophila

Julien Martinez†, Gaspar Bruner-Montero, Ramesh Arunkumar, Sophia C. L. Smith, Jonathan P. Day, Ben Longdon and Francis M. Jiggins

Published: 30 October 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2117

 

Abstract

Wolbachia, a common vertically transmitted symbiont, can protect insects against viral infection and prevent mosquitoes from transmitting viral pathogens. For this reason, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes are being released to prevent the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. An important question for the long-term success of these programmes is whether viruses can evolve to escape the antiviral effects of Wolbachia. We have found that Wolbachia altered the outcome of competition between strains of the DCV virus in Drosophila. However, Wolbachia still effectively blocked the virus genotypes that were favoured in the presence of the symbiont. We conclude that Wolbachia did cause an evolutionary response in viruses, but this has little or no impact on the effectiveness of virus blocking.

 

Footnotes

† Present address: MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK.

Electronic supplementary material is available online at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4698191

Keywords: Arbovirus; Wolbachia spp.

—–

Infection of Western Gray #Kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) with #Australian #Arboviruses Associated with #Human #Infection (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infection of Western Gray Kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) with Australian Arboviruses Associated with Human Infection

Narayan Gyawali, Andrew W. Taylor-Robinson, Richard S. Bradbury, Abbey Potter, and John G. Aaskov

Published Online: 26 Sep 2019

 

Abstract

More than 75 arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) have been identified in Australia. While Alfuy virus (ALFV), Barmah Forest virus (BFV), Edge Hill virus (EHV), Kokobera virus (KOKV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Ross River virus (RRV), Stratford virus (STRV), and West Nile virus strain Kunjin (KUNV) have been associated with human infection, there remains a paucity of data regarding their respective transmission cycles and any potential nonhuman vertebrate hosts. It is likely that these viruses are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving native animals rather than solely by human-to-human transmission. A serosurvey (n = 100) was undertaken to determine the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against a panel of Australian arboviruses in western gray kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) obtained from 11 locations in the midwest to southwest of Western Australia. Neutralizing antibodies against RRV were detected in 25%, against BFV in 14%, and antibodies to both viruses in 34% of serum samples. The prevalence of antibodies against these two viruses was the same in males and females, but higher in adult than in subadult kangaroos (p < 0.05). Twenty-one percent of samples had neutralizing antibodies against any one or more of the flaviviruses ALFV, EHV, KOKV, MVEV, and STRV. No neutralizing antibodies against SINV and KUNV were detected. If this sample of kangaroo sera was representative of the broader Australian population of macropods, it suggests that they are common hosts for RRV and BFV. The absence or low seroprevalence of antibodies against the remaining arboviruses suggests that they are not prevalent in the region or that kangaroos are not commonly infected with them. The detection of neutralizing antibodies to MVEV requires further investigation as this virus has not been identified previously so far south in Western Australia.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Kangaroos; Wildlife; Human; Australia.

——

#Dengue and #chikungunya among outpatients with acute undifferentiated #fever in #Kinshasa, #DRC: A cross-sectional study (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Dengue and chikungunya among outpatients with acute undifferentiated fever in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A cross-sectional study

Sam Proesmans , Freddy Katshongo, John Milambu, Blaise Fungula, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Raquel Inocêncio da Luz, Marjan Van Esbroeck, Kevin K. Ariën, Lieselotte Cnops, Birgit De Smet, Pascal Lutumba, Jean-Pierre Van geertruyden, Veerle Vanlerberghe

Published: September 5, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007047 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Pathogens causing acute fever, with the exception of malaria, remain largely unidentified in sub-Saharan Africa, given the local unavailability of diagnostic tests and the broad differential diagnosis.

Methodology

We conducted a cross-sectional study including outpatient acute undifferentiated fever in both children and adults, between November 2015 and June 2016 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests for selected arboviral infections were performed on blood, including PCR, NS1-RDT, ELISA and IFA for acute, and ELISA and IFA for past infections.

Results

Investigation among 342 patients, aged 2 to 68 years (mean age of 21 years), with acute undifferentiated fever (having no clear focus of infection) revealed 19 (8.1%) acute dengue–caused by DENV-1 and/or DENV-2 –and 2 (0.9%) acute chikungunya infections. Furthermore, 30.2% and 26.4% of participants had been infected in the past with dengue and chikungunya, respectively. We found no evidence of acute Zika nor yellow fever virus infections. 45.3% of patients tested positive on malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test, 87.7% received antimalarial treatment and 64.3% received antibacterial treatment.

Discussion

Chikungunya outbreaks have been reported in the study area in the past, so the high seroprevalence is not surprising. However, scarce evidence exists on dengue transmission in Kinshasa and based on our data, circulation is more important than previously reported. Furthermore, our study shows that the prescription of antibiotics, both antibacterial and antimalarial drugs, is rampant. Studies like this one, elucidating the causes of acute fever, may lead to a more considerate and rigorous use of antibiotics. This will not only stem the ever-increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, but will–ultimately and hopefully–improve the clinical care of outpatients in low-resource settings.

Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02656862.

 

Author summary

Malaria remains one of the most important causes of fever in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its share is declining, since the diagnosis and treatment of malaria have improved significantly over the years. Hence leading to an increase in the number of patients presenting with non-malarial fever. Often, obvious clinical signs and symptoms like cough or diarrhea are absent, probing the question: “What causes the fever?” Previous studies have shown that the burden of arboviral infections–like dengue and chikungunya–in sub-Saharan Africa is underestimated, which is why we screened for four common arboviral infections in patients presenting with ‘undifferentiated fever’ at an outpatient clinic in suburban Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Among the patients tested, we found that one in ten presented with an acute arboviral infection and that almost one in three patients had been infected in the past. These findings suggest that clinicians should think about arboviral infections more often, thereby refraining from the prescription of antibiotics, a practice increasingly problematic given the global rise of antimicrobial resistance.

___

Citation: Proesmans S, Katshongo F, Milambu J, Fungula B, Muhindo Mavoko H, Ahuka-Mundeke S, et al. (2019) Dengue and chikungunya among outpatients with acute undifferentiated fever in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: A cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(9): e0007047. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007047

Editor: Stuart D. Blacksell, Mahidol Univ, Fac Trop Med, THAILAND

Received: November 28, 2018; Accepted: August 6, 2019; Published: September 5, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Proesmans et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was co-funded by the framework agreement between the Institute of Tropical Medicine and the Belgian development cooperation (https://www.itg.be/E/cooperation) to VV and Vlaamse Interuniversitaire Raad – Universitaire Ontwikkelingssamenwerking (https://www.vliruos.be/en) (VLIR-UOS, Grant reference ZRDC2014MP083) to JPVG. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Dengue fever; Chikungunya fever; Malaria; Serology; Seroprevalence; DRC.

——

#Sindbis virus #polyarthritis #outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the #mosquito vectors (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors

Jan O. Lundström , Jenny C. Hesson, Martina L. Schäfer, Örjan Östman, Torsten Semmler, Michaël Bekaert, Manfred Weidmann, Åke Lundkvist, Martin Pfeffer

Published: August 29, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007702 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Polyarthritis and rash caused by Sindbis virus (SINV), was first recognised in northern Europe about 50 years ago and is known as Ockelbo disease in Sweden and Pogosta disease in Finland. This mosquito-borne virus occurs mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and in northern Europe it is suggested to cause regularly reoccurring outbreaks. Here a seven-year cycle of SINV outbreaks has been referred to in scientific papers, although the hypothesis is based solely on reported human cases. In the search for a more objective outbreak signal, we evaluated mosquito abundance and SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes from an endemic area in central Sweden. Vector mosquitoes collected in the River Dalälven floodplains during the years before, during, and after the hypothesised 2002 outbreak year were assayed for virus on cell culture. Obtained isolates were partially sequenced, and the nucleotide sequences analysed using Bayesian maximum clade credibility and median joining network analysis. Only one SINV strain was recovered in 2001, and 4 strains in 2003, while 15 strains were recovered in 2002 with significantly increased infection rates in both the enzootic and the bridge-vectors. In 2002, the Maximum Likelihood Estimated infection rates were 10.0/1000 in the enzootic vectors Culex torrentium/pipiens, and 0.62/1000 in the bridge-vector Aedes cinereus, compared to 4.9/1000 and 0.0/1000 in 2001 and 0.0/1000 and 0.32/1000 in 2003 Sequence analysis showed that all isolates belonged to the SINV genotype I (SINV-I). The genetic analysis revealed local maintenance of four SINV-I clades in the River Dalälven floodplains over the years. Our findings suggest that increased SINV-I prevalence in vector mosquitoes constitutes the most valuable outbreak marker for further scrutinising the hypothesized seven-year cycle of SINV-I outbreaks and the mechanisms behind.

 

Author summary

The mosquito-borne Sindbis virus (SINV) causes polyarthritis and rash known as Ockelbo disease in Sweden and Pogosta disease in Finland. This mainly tropical and sub-tropical virus occurs in many countries, and in northern Europe it is suggested to cause reoccurring outbreaks every seventh year. The seven-year SIN outbreak cycle is commonly referred to in scientific papers, although the hypothesis is based solely on reported clinical cases. In the search for a more objective outbreak risk signal, we evaluated abundance and SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes from Sweden. Vector mosquitoes collected in the River Dalälven floodplains the years before, during and after the hypothesized 2002 outbreak, were assayed for SINV. SINV prevalence was significantly increased in vector mosquitoes during the hypothesized 2002 outbreak, as compared to the 2001 pre-outbreak and the 2003 post-outbreak years. Genetic analysis showed a close relationship between the virus strains, indicating SINV has remained in local annual enzootic circulation since been introduced into the River Dalälven floodplains. We conclude that increased SINV prevalence in vector mosquitoes constitutes a marker most valuable for studying the seven-year outbreak cycle.

___

Citation: Lundström JO, Hesson JC, Schäfer ML, Östman Ö, Semmler T, Bekaert M, et al. (2019) Sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007702

Editor: Jason L. Rasgon, The Pennsylvania State University, UNITED STATES

Received: August 29, 2018; Accepted: August 13, 2019; Published: August 29, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lundström et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Sindbis virus; Polyarthritis; Sweden; Finland; Mosquitoes.

—–