Detection of #YellowFever Virus in #Sylvatic #Mosquitoes during Disease #Outbreaks of 2017⁻2018 in Minas Gerais State, #Brazil (Insects, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Insects. 2019 May 10;10(5). pii: E136. doi: 10.3390/insects10050136.

Detection of Yellow Fever Virus in Sylvatic Mosquitoes during Disease Outbreaks of 2017⁻2018 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

Pinheiro GG1,2, Rocha MN3, de Oliveira MA4, Moreira LA5, Andrade Filho JD6.

Author information: 1 Coleção de Mosquitos Neotropicais, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil. 2 Grupo de Estudos em Leishmanioses, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil. 3 Mosquitos Vetores: Endossimbiontes e Interação Patógeno-Vetor, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil. 4 Coleção de Mosquitos Neotropicais, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil. 5 Mosquitos Vetores: Endossimbiontes e Interação Patógeno-Vetor, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil. 6 Grupo de Estudos em Leishmanioses, Instituto René Rachou, Avenida Augusto de Lima, 1715, Belo Horizonte 30190-002, Brazil.



Brazil has experienced several arbovirus outbreaks in recent years, among which yellow fever stands out. The state of Minas Gerais faced outbreaks of sylvatic yellow fever in 2017 and 2018, with 1002 confirmed cases and 340 deaths. This work presents the results of survey efforts to detect the yellow fever virus in mosquitoes from two conservation areas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A total of 867 mosquitoes of 20 species were collected between September 2017 and May 2018, the most abundant being Psorophora(Janthinosoma) ferox (von Humboldt, 1819) (31.3%), Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901 (19.1%) and Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921 (18.2%). Total RNA was extracted from the mosquitoes for real-time PCR analysis for yellow fever, chikungunya, mayaro, Zika and dengue viruses. The yellow fever infection rate was 8.2% for Hg. janthinomys (13 mosquitoes), which is the main vector of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil. In addition to surveying the mosquito fauna of these conservation units, this work demonstrates the importance of monitoring the circulation of viruses near large urban centers.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; mosquitoes; yellow fever

PMID: 31083286 DOI: 10.3390/insects10050136

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Yellow fever; Brazil.



Lethal #mutagenesis of #RVF virus induced by #favipiravir (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Lethal mutagenesis of Rift Valley fever virus induced by favipiravir

Belén Borrego, Ana I. de Ávila, Esteban Domingo, Alejandro Brun

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00669-19



Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging, mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen with recurrent outbreaks paying a considerable toll of human deaths in many African countries, for which no effective treatment is available. In cell culture studies and with laboratory animal models, the nucleoside analogue favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated great potential for the treatment of several seasonal, chronic and emerging RNA virus infections of humans, suggesting applicability to control some viral outbreaks. Treatment with favipiravir was shown to reduce the infectivity of Rift Valley fever virus both in cell cultures and in experimental animal models, but the mechanism of this protective effect is not understood. In this work we show that favipiravir at concentrations well below the toxicity threshold estimated for cells is able to extinguish RVFV from infected cell cultures. Nucleotide sequence analysis has documented RVFV mutagenesis associated with virus extinction, with a significant increase in G to A and C to U transition frequencies, and a decrease of specific infectivity, hallmarks of lethal mutagenesis.

Copyright © 2019 Borrego et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Antivirals; Favipiravir; Arbovirus; Rift Valley fever.


#Neurological manifestations of #pediatric #arboviral #infections in the #Americas (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 8 May 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Neurological manifestations of pediatric arboviral infections in the Americas

Aline Almeida Bentes a,c,d, Erna Geessien Kroon b,d, Roberta Maiade Castro Romanelli a,d

{a} Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190- Santa Efigênia, CEP 30130-100, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; {b} Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil; {c} Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, FHEMIG, Minas Gerais, Brazil; {d} Faculty of Medicine of José do Rosário Vellano Univesity, Brazil

Received 8 February 2019, Revised 21 April 2019, Accepted 23 April 2019, Available online 8 May 2019. DOI:



  • The neurological complications caused by DENV are based on three possible neuropathogenic mechanisms: invasion of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems; metabolic and vascular disorders and immune-mediated with different manifestations and sequelae.
  • Neurological manifestations of Zika acquired in children were remarkable and included hemiparesis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, cortical infarction and behavioral changes.
  • The most common neurological manifestations found in children with Chikungunya infection were seizures, encephalitis, meningism and behavioral changes. Of these children, 5.6% died and 8.5% developed neuronal sequelae.



Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses are arboviruses transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These viruses exhibit marked neurotropism but have rarely been studied. Here, we conduct an integrative review of the neurological manifestations caused by these arboviruses in the pediatric population. Data on patients under 18 years of age were extracted from literature databases. The most frequently reported neurological manifestations were encephalitis, meningitis, seizures, hypotonia, paresis, and behavioral changes. This review highlights the importance of accurately diagnosing these arboviral infections in children and adolescents with neurological manifestations.

Keywords: neurological manifestations – Dengue virus – Zika virus – Chikungunya virus – Yellow fever virus

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Neurology; Zika virus; Chikungunya fever; Dengue Fever; Pediatrics; Encephalitis; Meningitis.


#Arboviral #screening of invasive #Aedes species in northeastern #Turkey: #WNV circulation and detection of insect-only viruses (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses

Mustafa M. Akıner, Murat Öztürk, Aykut Buğra Başer, Filiz Günay, Sabri Hacıoğlu, Annika Brinkmann, Nergis Emanet, Bülent Alten, Aykut Özkul, Andreas Nitsche, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Koray Ergünay

Published: May 6, 2019 / DOI: / This is an uncorrected proof.




The recent reports of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in Turkey, in parallel with the territorial expansion identified in several surrounding countries, have raised concerns about the establishment and re-establishment of these invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Turkey. This cross-sectional study was performed to detect Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in regions of recent incursions, and screen for viral pathogens known to be transmitted elsewhere by these species.


Mosquitoes were collected at several locations in Artvin, Rize and Trabzon provinces of the Black Sea region during 2016–2017, identified morphologically, pooled and analyzed via generic or specific nucleic acid amplification assays. Viruses in positive pools were identified by product sequencing, cell culture inoculation and next generation sequencing (NGS) in selected specimens.

Principal findings

The study group comprised 791 specimens. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species in all locations (89.6%), followed by Ae. aegypti (7.8%) and Culex pipiens (2.5%). Mosquitoes were screened for viruses in 65 pools where fifteen (23.1%) were reactive. The infecting strains was identified as West Nile virus (WNV) in 5 pools (7.7%) with Ae. albopictus or Cx. pipiensmosquitoes. The obtained WNV sequences phylogenetically grouped with local and global lineage 1 clade 1a viruses. In 4 (6.2%) and 6 (9.2%) pools, respectively, cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) sequences were characterized. NGS provided a near-complete AEFV genome in a pool of Ae. albopictus. The strain is provisionally called “AEFV-Turkey”, and functional analysis of the genome revealed several conserved motifs and regions associated with virus replication. Merida-like virus Turkey (MERDLVT), a recently-described novel rhabdovirus, was also co-detected in a Cx. pipiens pool also positive for WNV.


Invasive Aedes mosquitoes are established in certain locations of northeastern Turkey. Herein we conclusively show the role of these species in WNV circulation in the region. Biosurveillance is imperative to monitor the spread of these species further into Asia Minor and to detect possible introduction of pathogens.


Author summary

Mosquitoes can transmit viruses to susceptible humans during blood-feeding. The presence and establishment of particular mosquito species within a region is the prerequisite for the introduction and emergence of the diseases transmitted by that species. Aedes mosquitoes transmit dengue and yellow fever, as well as recently-emergent chikungunya and Zika viruses to susceptible humans. Mosquitoes were collected in the Black Sea region of Anatolia, NE Turkey, where invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently encroached, and specimens were screened for a variety of viruses. We observed particular Aedes species that are associated with disease transmission, suggesting that these species have been established in the region. We did not detect dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya or Zika viruses, but West Nile virus was found in several pools of these invasive species. Moreover, we detected a number of related viruses that exclusively infect mosquitoes, identified for the first time in Anatolia. Using advanced sequencing technologies, the near-complete genome of a new Aedes flavivirus (AEFV-Turkey) was achieved.


Citation: Akıner MM, Öztürk M, Başer AB, Günay F, Hacıoğlu S, Brinkmann A, et al. (2019) Arboviral screening of invasive Aedes species in northeastern Turkey: West Nile virus circulation and detection of insect-only viruses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007334.

Editor: Pattamaporn Kittayapong, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, THAILAND

Received: January 3, 2019; Accepted: March 26, 2019; Published: May 6, 2019

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: The nucleotide sequences characterized in this study are deposited and can be accessed at the GenBank via the following accession numbers: MF361262, MF361264, MF361265, MF361263, MF361267, MF361268, MK251047, MK251048, MK251049, MK251050, MK251051, MK251052, MK251053, MK251054, MK251055 and MK251056. All remaining data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was supported in part by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Board, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSB-GEIS), United States of America (FY18 award P0034_18_WR (PI: Yvonne-Marie Linton) under US Army subcontract W911QY-16-C-0160). BA and FG were also included in AIM-COST. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The material to be published reflects the views of the authors and should not be construed to represent those of the US Department of the Army or the US Department of Defense.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Rhabdovirus; Mosquitoes; WNV; Aedes albopictus; Culex spp.; Turkey; Merida-like Turkey virus.


Measuring #Mosquito-borne Viral #Suitability in #Myanmar and Implications for Local #Zika Virus #Transmission (PLoS Curr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Curr. 2018 Sep 28;10. pii: ecurrents.outbreaks.7a6c64436a3085ebba37e5329ba169e6. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.7a6c64436a3085ebba37e5329ba169e6.

Measuring Mosquito-borne Viral Suitability in Myanmar and Implications for Local Zika Virus Transmission.

Perez-Guzman PN1, Carlos Junior Alcantara L2, Obolski U3, de Lima MM2, Ashley EA4, Smithuis F5, Horby P6, Maude RJ7, Lin Z8, Kyaw AMM8, Lourenço J9.

Author information: 1 Department of Global Health and Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK. 2 Laboratory of Haematology, Genetics and Computational Biology, FIOCRUZ, Brazil. 3 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK. 4 Myanmar-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Yangon; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK. 5 Myanmar-Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Yangon; Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK. 6 Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK. 7 Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University,Thailand; Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, USA. 8 Myanmar Ministry of Health and Sports, Naypyidaw, Myanmar. 9 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.




In South East Asia, mosquito-borne viruses (MBVs) have long been a cause of high disease burden and significant economic costs. While in some SEA countries the epidemiology of MBVs is spatio-temporally well characterised and understood, in others such as Myanmar our understanding is largely incomplete.


Here, we use a simple mathematical approach to estimate a climate-driven suitability index aiming to better characterise the intrinsic, spatio-temporal potential of MBVs in Myanmar.


Results show that the timing and amplitude of the natural oscillations of our suitability index are highly informative for the temporal patterns of DENV case counts at the country level, and a mosquito-abundance measure at a city level. When projected at fine spatial scales, the suitability index suggests that the time period of highest MBV transmission potential is between June and October independently of geographical location. Higher potential is nonetheless found along the middle axis of the country and in particular in the southern corridor of international borders with Thailand.


This research complements and expands our current understanding of MBV transmission potential in Myanmar, by identifying key spatial heterogeneities and temporal windows of importance for surveillance and control. We discuss our findings in the context of Zika virus given its recent worldwide emergence, public health impact, and current lack of information on its epidemiology and transmission potential in Myanmar. The proposed suitability index here demonstrated is applicable to other regions of the world for which surveillance data is missing, either due to lack of resources or absence of an MBV of interest.

PMID: 31032144 PMCID: PMC6472868 DOI: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.7a6c64436a3085ebba37e5329ba169e6

Keywords: Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Zika virus; Myanmar.


#Epidemiological #trend of #chikungunya #outbreak in #Pakistan: 2016–2018 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., summary)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]


Epidemiological trend of chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: 2016–2018

Nazish Badar, Muhammad Salman, Jamil Ansari, Aamer Ikram, Javaria Qazi, Muhammad Masroor Alam

Published: April 18, 2019 / DOI:


Citation: Badar N, Salman M, Ansari J, Ikram A, Qazi J, Alam MM (2019) Epidemiological trend of chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: 2016–2018. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007118.

Editor: Maya Williams, Naval Medical Research Center, UNITED STATES

Published: April 18, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Badar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


An unprecedented expansion of vector-borne diseases, especially those caused by viruses transmitted through mosquitoes, has posed a serious public health challenge worldwide. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which mainly invades tropical and subtropical regions, is one of the recently emerging pathogens associated with severe morbidity in humans. Although Pakistan is known to be endemic for arboviral infections, only Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and dengue have been officially recognized over the last three decades, despite a recent trend of increasingly frequent chikungunya cases, first detected in December 2016.


Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Fever; Pakistan.


#Arboviral #diseases and #malaria in #Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee (Commun Dis Intell (2018), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Commun Dis Intell (2018). 2019 Apr 15;43. doi: 10.33321/cdi.2019.43.14.

Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2014–15: Annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee

Knope K1, Doggett SL2, Jansen CC3, Johansen CA4,5, Kurucz N6, Feldman R7, Lynch SE8, Hobby MP9, Sly A10, Jardine A11, Bennett S3, Currie BJ12, the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

Author information: 1 Zoonoses, Foodborne and Emerging Infectious Diseases Section, Health Protection Policy Branch, Office of Health Protection, Department of Health, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; 2 Department of Medical Entomology, Pathology West, Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales; 3 Communicable Diseases Branch, Department of Health, Queensland Government, Herston, Qld 4006; 4 Arbovirus Surveillance and Research Laboratory, School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia. 5
As of July 2015: Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, QEII Medical Centre, Western Australian Department of Health, Nedlands, Western Australia. 6 Medical Entomology, Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Division, Northern Territory Department of Health, Royal Darwin Hospital, Casuarina, Northern Territory; 7 Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Department of Health, Melbourne, Victoria; 8 Agriculture Victoria Research, AgriBio Centre for AgriBioscience, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083, Australia; 9 Health Protection, Public Health, South Australian Department of Health, Adelaide, South Australia; 10 Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Compliance Division, Eagle Farm, Queensland; 11 Medical Entomology, Environmental Health Directorate, Department of Health, Western Australia; 12 Royal Darwin Hospital Northern Territory; Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory



This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance in Australia during the 2014–15 season (1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) and includes data from human notifications, sentinel chicken, vector and virus surveillance programs. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received notifications for 12,849 cases of disease transmitted by mosquitoes during the 2014–15 season. The Australasian alphaviruses Barmah Forest virus and Ross River virus accounted for 83% (n=10,723) of notifications. However, over-diagnosis and possible false positive diagnostic test results for these two infections mean that the true burden of infection is likely overestimated, and as a consequence, revised case definitions were implemented from 1 January 2016. There were 151 notifications of imported chikungunya virus infection. There were 74 notifications of dengue virus infection acquired in Australia and 1,592 cases acquired overseas, with an additional 34 cases for which the place of acquisition was unknown. Imported cases of dengue were most frequently acquired in Indonesia (66%). There were 7 notifications of Zika virus infection. No cases of locally-acquired malaria were notified during the 2014–15 season, though there were 259 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria and one notification for which no information on the place of acquisition was supplied. Imported cases of malaria were most frequently acquired in southern and eastern Africa (23%) and Pacific Island countries (20%). In 2014–15, arbovirus and mosquito surveillance programs were conducted in most of the states and territories. Surveillance for exotic mosquitoes at international ports of entry continues to be a vital part of preventing the establishment of vectors of mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue to new areas of Australia. In 2014-15, there was a sharp increase in the number of exotic mosquitoes detected at the Australian border, with 36 separate exotic mosquito detections made, representing a 280% increase from the 2013-14 period where there were 13 exotic mosquito detections.

KEYWORDS: arbovirus; Barmah Forest virus; chikungunya; dengue; Zika; disease surveillance; epidemiology; flavivirus; Japanese encephalitis; West Nile virus; Kunjin virus; malaria; mosquito-borne disease; mosquitoes; Murray Valley encephalitis virus; Ross River virus; yellow fever; exotic mosquitoes

PMID: 30982295

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Flaviviru; Barmah forest virus; Chikungunya fever; Zika virus; WNV; Malaria; Australia.