#Vector #competence of biting #midges and #mosquitoes for #Shuni virus (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus

Tim W. R. Möhlmann , Judith Oymans, Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, Jeroen Kortekaas, Chantal B. F. Vogels

Published: February 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006609

 

Abstract

Background

Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus that belongs to the Simbu serogroup. SHUV was isolated from diverse species of domesticated animals and wildlife, and is associated with neurological disease, abortions, and congenital malformations. Recently, SHUV caused outbreaks among ruminants in Israel, representing the first incursions outside the African continent. The isolation of SHUV from a febrile child in Nigeria and seroprevalence among veterinarians in South Africa suggests that the virus may have zoonotic potential as well. The high pathogenicity, extremely broad tropism, potential transmission via both biting midges and mosquitoes, and zoonotic features of SHUV require further investigation. This is important to accurately determine the risk for animal and human health, and to facilitate preparations for potential epidemics. To gain first insight into the potential involvement of biting midges and mosquitoes in SHUV transmission we have investigated the ability of SHUV to infect two species of laboratory-colonised biting midges and two species of mosquitoes.

Methodology/Principal findings

Culicoides nubeculosus, C. sonorensis, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Aedes aegypti were orally exposed to SHUV by providing an infectious blood meal. Biting midges showed high infection rates of approximately 40%-60%, whereas infection rates of mosquitoes were only 0–2%. Moreover, successful dissemination in both species of biting midges and no evidence for transmission by orally exposed mosquitoes was found.

Conclusions/Significance

The results of this study suggest that different species of Culicoides midges are efficient in SHUV transmission, while the involvement of mosquitoes has not been supported.

 

Author summary

Arthropod-borne (arbo)viruses are notorious for causing unpredictable and large-scale epidemics and epizootics. Apart from viruses such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever virus that are well-known to cause a significant impact on human and animal health, many arboviruses remain neglected. Shuni virus (SHUV) is a neglected virus with zoonotic characteristics that was recently associated with severe disease in livestock and wildlife. Isolations from field-collected biting midges and mosquitoes suggests that SHUV may be transmitted by these insects. In this study, four main vectors that transmit other arboviruses were selected to test their susceptibility to SHUV. Laboratory-reared biting midge species (Culicoides nubeculosus and C. sonorensis) and mosquito species (Culex pipiens pipiens and Aedes aegypti) were exposed to SHUV via an infectious blood meal. SHUV was able to successfully disseminate in both biting midge species, whereas no evidence of transmission by both mosquito species was found. Our results suggest that SHUV can be transmitted efficiently by diverse Culicoides species, and thereby that these insects could play a major role in the disease transmission cycle.

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Citation: Möhlmann TWR, Oymans J, Wichgers Schreur PJ, Koenraadt CJM, Kortekaas J, Vogels CBF (2019) Vector competence of biting midges and mosquitoes for Shuni virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0006609. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006609

Editor: David Harley, University of Queensland, AUSTRALIA

Received: May 31, 2018; Accepted: June 13, 2018; Published: February 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Möhlmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper

Funding: TWRM, CJMK, and CBFV received funding from the Global One Health strategic programme of Wageningen University and Research, and JO, PJWS, and JK received funding from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality; project WOT-01-001-033. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Orthobunyavirus; Shuni virus; Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Midges.

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Dissecting #Flavivirus #Biology in #Salivary Gland Cultures from Fed and Unfed #Ixodes scapularis (Black-Legged #Tick) (mBio, abstract)

[Source: mBio, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Dissecting Flavivirus Biology in Salivary Gland Cultures from Fed and Unfed Ixodes scapularis (Black-Legged Tick)

Jeffrey M. Grabowski, Olof R. Nilsson, Elizabeth R. Fischer, Dan Long, Danielle K. Offerdahl, Yoonseong Park, Dana P. Scott, Marshall E. Bloom

Thomas E. Morrison, Editor

DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02628-18

 

ABSTRACT

The Ixodes scapularis tick transmits a number of pathogens, including tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs). In the United States, confirmed human infections with the Powassan virus (POWV) TBFV have a fatality rate of ∼10% and are increasing in incidence. Tick salivary glands (SGs) serve as an organ barrier to TBFV transmission, and little is known regarding the location of TBFV infection in SGs from fed ticks. Previous studies showed I. scapularis vanin (VNN) involved with TBFV infection of I. scapularis ISE6 embryonic cells, suggesting a potential role for this gene. The overall goal of this study was to use SG cultures to compare data on TBFV biology in SGs from fully engorged, replete (fed) ticks and from unfed ticks. TBFV multiplication was higher in SGs from fed ticks than in those from unfed ticks. Virus-like particles were observed only in granular acini of SGs from unfed ticks. The location of TBFV infection of SGs from fed ticks was observed in cells lining lobular ducts and trachea but not observed in acini. Transcript knockdown of VNN decreased POWV multiplication in infected SG cultures from both fed and unfed ticks. This work was the first to identify localization of TBFV multiplication in SG cultures from a fed tick and a tick transcript important for POWV multiplication in the tick SG, an organ critical for TBFV transmission. This research exemplifies the use of SG cultures in deciphering TBFV biology in the tick and as a translational tool for screening and identifying potential tick genes as potential countermeasure targets.

 

IMPORTANCE

Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) are responsible for more than 15,000 human disease cases each year, and Powassan virus lineage 2 (POWV-L2) deer tick virus has been a reemerging threat in North America over the past 20 years. Rapid transmission of TBFVs in particular emphasizes the importance of preventing tick bites, the difficulty in developing countermeasures to prevent transmission, and the importance of understanding TBFV infection in tick salivary glands (SGs). Tick blood feeding is responsible for phenomenal physiological changes and is associated with changes in TBFV multiplication within the tick and in SGs. Using SG cultures from Ixodes scapularis female ticks, the primary aims of this study were to identify cellular localization of virus-like particles in acini of infected SGs from fed and unfed ticks, localization of TBFV infection in infected SGs from fed ticks, and a tick transcript (with associated metabolic function) involved in POWV-L2 infection in SG cultures.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Powassan virus; Ticks.

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Src Family #Kinase Inhibitors Block Translation of #Alphavirus Subgenomic mRNAs (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Src Family Kinase Inhibitors Block Translation of Alphavirus Subgenomic mRNAs

Rebecca Broeckel, Sanjay Sarkar, Nicholas A. May, Jennifer Totonchy, Craig N. Kreklywich, Patricia Smith, Lee Graves, Victor R. DeFilippis, Mark Heise, Thomas E. Morrison,Nathaniel Moorman, Daniel N. Streblow

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02325-18

 

ABSTRACT

Alphaviruses are arthropod-transmitted RNA viruses that can cause arthralgia, myalgia, and encephalitis in humans. Since the role of cellular kinases in alphavirus replication is unknown, we profiled kinetic changes in host kinase abundance and phosphorylation following chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection of fibroblasts. Based upon the results of this study, we treated CHIKV infected cells with kinase inhibitors targeting the SFK-PI3K-AKT-mTORC signaling pathways. Treatment of cells with Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors blocked the replication of CHIKV, as well as multiple other alphaviruses including Mayaro virus, o’nyong-nyong virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Dissecting the effect of SFK inhibition on alphavirus replication, we found that viral structural protein levels were significantly reduced, but synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs was unaffected. By measuring the association of viral RNA with polyribosomes we found that the SFK inhibitor dasatinib blocks alphavirus subgenomic RNA translation. Our results demonstrate a role for SFK signaling in alphavirus subgenomic RNA translation and replication. Targeting host factors involved in alphavirus replication represents an innovative, perhaps paradigm-shifting strategy for exploring replication of CHIKV and other alphaviruses, while promoting antiviral therapeutic development.

Copyright © 2019 Broeckel et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Chikungunya fever; Viral pathogenesis.

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SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF #ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER #CONGENITAL #INFECTIONS IN #PREGNANT WOMEN IN #RIO DE JANEIRO, #BRAZIL (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2019 Jan 24. pii: S0001-706X(18)31538-9. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020. [Epub ahead of print]

SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER CONGENITAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

Carvalho FR1, Medeiros T2, de Oliveira Vianna RA3, Douglass-Jaimes G4, Guerra Nunes PC5, Salgado Quintans MD6, Fernandes C7, Baêta Cavalcanti SM8, Dos Santos FB9, de Oliveira SA10, Araújo Cardoso CA11, Silva AA12.

Author information: 1 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: fabianarc@id.uff.br. 2 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: thaliamedeiros@id.uff.br. 3 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: renatavianna03@gmail.com. 4 Environmental Analysis Program, Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA. Electronic address: guillermo.douglass-jaimes@pomona.edu. 5 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: pricgn@ioc.fiocruz.br. 6 Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: mdsquintans@id.uff.br. 7 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: cinttiafs@yahoo.com.br. 8 Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: silviacavalcanti67@gmail.com. 9 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: flaviab@ioc.fiocruz.br. 10 Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: sartimos@id.uff.br. 11 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: claudetecardoso@id.uff.br. 12 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: aasilva@id.uff.br.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Arboviruses (Zika, dengue and chikungunya) represent a major risk for pregnant women, especially because their vertical transmission can lead to neurological damage in newborns. Early diagnosis can be difficult due to similar clinical presentation with other congenital infections that are associated with congenital abnormalities.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the circulation of arboviruses and other pathogens responsible for congenital infections, reporting clinical aspects and geographic distribution of maternal rash in a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

METHODS:

Cross-sectional study with pregnant women presenting rash attended at the Exanthematic Diseases Unit (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro) from 2015 to 2018. Diagnosis of arboviruses was performed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and laboratorial screening for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and HIV was assessed. Demographic data was used for georeferencing analysis.

FINDINGS:

We included 121 pregnant women, of whom Zika virus was detected in 45 cases (37.2%), chikungunya in 33 (27.3%) and dengue in one (0.8%). Five patients presented syphilis, and we observed one case each of listeria, cytomegalovirus, and a syphilis-toxoplasmosis case. Similarity of clinical symptoms was observed in all groups; however, 84.8% of patients with chikungunya presented arthralgia. Following the decline of Zika cases, chikungunya infection was mostly observed during 2017-2018. Considering pregnant women infected with arboviruses and other infections, 41% resided in urban slums, mostly in Niterói.

MAIN CONCLUSIONS:

Simultaneous circulation of arboviruses and other agents responsible for congenital infections were observed; however, we did not identify co-infections between arboviruses. In this scenario, we emphasize the importance of adequate prenatal care to provide an accurate diagnosis of maternal rash.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; pregnancy; vertical transmission of infectious disease

PMID: 30685232 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020

Keywords: Arbovirus; Zika Virus; Chikungunya Fever; Dengue fever; Pregnancy; Brazil.

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#Serological Evidence of #Tick-Borne #Encephalitis and #WNV #Infections Among #Children with #Arthritis in #Turkey (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Serological Evidence of Tick-Borne Encephalitis and West Nile Virus Infections Among Children with Arthritis in Turkey

Huseyin Yilmaz, Kenan Barut, Asiye Karakullukcu, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Bekir Kocazeybek, Eda Altan Tarakci, Utku Y. Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Zahide Bilgin, Meltem Ulutas Esatgil, Christine Klaus, Juergen A. Richt, and Nuri Turan

Published Online: 28 Jan 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2349

 

Abstract

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are mainly transmitted by arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts including humans, resulting in fever and neurological signs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA in Turkish children with fever and/or arthritis. For this purpose, 110 sera and buffy-coat samples were collected; sera were analyzed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to TBEV and WNV, and buffy-coat-derived white blood cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for TBEV-RNA and WNV-RNA. IgM antibodies to TBEV were detected in five children between the ages of 3 and 7 years; no IgG antibodies to TBEV were detected. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in two children and IgM antibodies to WNV were detected in six children, between the ages of 3 and 7 years. One of the children had IgM antibodies to WNV and to TBEV. Children who had antibodies to TBEV and WNV had fever and/or arthritis but no obvious neurological signs. Molecular diagnostic approaches revealed that neither TBEV-RNA nor WNV-RNA was present in any of the buffy-coat samples, not even in children with IgM-specific antibodies. Our serological results indicate that children in Turkey are exposed to TBEV and WNV.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Tick-borne encephalitis; WNV; Seroprevalence; Arthritis; Turkey.

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#Arbovirus #coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected #publichealth concern? (PLoS Biol., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Biology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / UNSOLVED MYSTERY

Arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected public health concern?

Chantal B. F. Vogels , Claudia Rückert , Sean M. Cavany , T. Alex Perkins, Gregory D. Ebel, Nathan D. Grubaugh

Published: January 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Epidemiological synergy between outbreaks of viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses, has resulted in coinfection of humans with multiple viruses. Despite the potential impact on public health, we know only little about the occurrence and consequences of such coinfections. Here, we review the impact of coinfection on clinical disease in humans, discuss the possibility for co-transmission from mosquito to human, and describe a role for modeling transmission dynamics at various levels of co-transmission. Solving the mystery of virus coinfections will reveal whether they should be viewed as a serious concern for public health.

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Citation: Vogels CBF, Rückert C, Cavany SM, Perkins TA, Ebel GD, Grubaugh ND (2019) Arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected public health concern? PLoS Biol 17(1): e3000130. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130

Published: January 22, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Vogels et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: CBFV is supported by NWO Rubicon 019.181EN.004, CR and GDE are supported by NIH NIAID AI067380, SMC and TAP are supported by NIH NIAID 1P01AI098670, and TAP is supported by DARPA D16AP00114. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: CHIKV, chikungunya virus; DENV, dengue virus; NS1, nonstructural protein 1; STAT1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1; STAT2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2; XRN1, 5′-3′ exoribonuclease 1; ZIKV, Zika virus

Keywords: Arbovirus; Zika Virus; Chikungunya fever; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti.

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Expanding #Usutu virus #circulation in #Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018

Fabrizio Carletti1, Francesca Colavita1, Francesca Rovida2, Elena Percivalle2, Fausto Baldanti2,3, Ida Ricci4, Claudio De Liberato4, Francesca Rosone4, Francesco Messina1, Eleonora Lalle1, Licia Bordi1, Francesco Vairo5, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi1, Giuseppe Ippolito6, Giuseppina Cappiello7, Alberto Spanò7, Silvia Meschi1, Concetta Castilletti1

Affiliations: 1 Laboratory of Virology, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 2 Molecular Virology Unit, Microbiology and Virology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; 3 Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy; 4 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle regioni Lazio e Toscana, Rome, Italy; 5 Regional Service for Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases (SERESMI)-Lazio Region, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 6 Scientific Direction, National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’ IRCCS, Rome, Italy; 7 Unit of Microbiology, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy

Correspondence: Silvia Meschisilvia.meschiinmi.it

Citation style for this article: Carletti Fabrizio, Colavita Francesca, Rovida Francesca, Percivalle Elena, Baldanti Fausto, Ricci Ida, De Liberato Claudio, Rosone Francesca, Messina Francesco, Lalle Eleonora, Bordi Licia, Vairo Francesco, Capobianchi Maria Rosaria, Ippolito Giuseppe, Cappiello Giuseppina, Spanò Alberto, Meschi Silvia, Castilletti Concetta. Expanding Usutu virus circulation in Italy: detection in the Lazio region, central Italy, 2017 to 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(3):pii=1800649. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800649

Received: 03 Dec 2018;   Accepted: 16 Jan 2019

 

Abstract

Blood donation screening for West Nile virus (WNV) was mandatory in the Lazio region in 2017 and 2018 (June-November) according to the national surveillance plan. In these years, all five donations reactive in WNV nucleic acid amplification tests harboured instead Usutu virus (USUV). Clade ‘Europe 2’ was identified in four blood donations and a 2018 mosquito pool. The cocirculation of WNV and USUV in Lazio warrants increased laboratory support and awareness of possible virus misidentification.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Usutu Virus; WNV; Italy.

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