Emerging #Influenza D Virus #Threat: What We Know so Far! (J Clin Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 5;8(2). pii: E192. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020192.

Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

Asha K1, Kumar B2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. asha.biotech@rediffmail.com. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. binod_biochem@rediffmail.com.



Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease.

KEYWORDS: emerging pathogen; epidemic; influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); influenza-like illness; pandemic; respiratory illness

PMID: 30764577 DOI: 10.3390/jcm8020192

Keywords: Influenza C; Influenza D; Cattle; Pigs.


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Giuseppe Michieli

I am an Italian blogger, active since 2005 with main focus on emerging infectious diseases such as avian influenza, SARS, antibiotics resistance, and many other global Health issues. Other fields of interest are: climate change, global warming, geological and biological sciences. My activity consists mainly in collection and analysis of news, public services updates, confronting sources and making decision about what are the 'signals' of an impending crisis (an outbreak, for example). When a signal is detected, I follow traces during the entire course of an event. I started in 2005 my blog ''A TIME'S MEMORY'', now with more than 40,000 posts and 3 millions of web interactions. Subsequently I added an Italian Language blog, then discontinued because of very low traffic and interest. I contributed for seven years to a public forum (FluTrackers.com) in the midst of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014, I left the site to continue alone my data tracking job.