Lack of #serological and molecular evidence of #arbovirus #infections in #bats from #Brazil (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Lack of serological and molecular evidence of arbovirus infections in bats from Brazil

Cíntia Bittar , Rafael R. G. Machado  , Manuela T. Comelis, Larissa M. Bueno, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Matheus R. Beguelini, Renato P. de Souza, Maurício L. Nogueira, Paula Rahal

Published: November 7, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207010

 

Abstract

Viruses are important agents of emerging zoonoses and are a substantial public health issue. Among emerging viruses, an important group are arboviruses, which are characterized by being maintained in nature in cycles involving hematophagous arthropod vectors and a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Recently, bats have received increasing attention as an important source for the emergence of zoonoses and as possible viral reservoirs. Among the arboviruses, there are many representatives of the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus, which are responsible for important epidemics such as Dengue virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus. Due to the importance of analyzing potential viral reservoirs for zoonosis control and expanding our knowledge of bat viruses, this study aimed to investigate the presence of viruses of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera in bats. We analyzed serum, liver, lungs and intestine from 103 bats sampled in northeast and southern Brazil via Nested-PCR and the hemagglutination inhibition test. All samples tested in this study were negative for arboviruses, suggesting that no active or past infection was present in the captured bats. These data indicate that the bats examined herein probably do not constitute a reservoir for these viruses in the studied areas. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of bats as reservoirs and sources of infection of these viral zoonoses.

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Citation: Bittar C, Machado RRG, Comelis MT, Bueno LM, Morielle-Versute E, Beguelini MR, et al. (2018) Lack of serological and molecular evidence of arbovirus infections in bats from Brazil. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0207010. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207010

Editor: Naomi Forrester, Keele University Faculty of Natural Sciences, UNITED KINGDOM

Received: May 16, 2018; Accepted: October 23, 2018; Published: November 7, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Bittar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was financially supported by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation – http://www.fapesp.br/) grant number 2015/09704-6, received by RRGM and by CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – http://cnpq.br/) grant number 165802/2015-4, received by CB.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Alphavirus; Bats; Brazil; Seroprevalence.

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#Case Reports: Prolonged #Detection of #Zika Virus #RNA in #Vaginal and #Endocervical Samples from a #Brazilian Woman, 2018 (Am J Trop Med Hyg., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Nov 5. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0623. [Epub ahead of print]

Case Reports: Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus RNA in Vaginal and Endocervical Samples from a Brazilian Woman, 2018.

da Cruz TE1, Souza RP1, Pelloso SM2, Morelli F1, Suehiro TT1, Damke E1, Bonfim-Mendonça PS1, da Silva VRS1, Consolaro MEL1.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Analysis and Biomedicine, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. 2 Department of Nursing, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging public health problem, associated with increased risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome and adverse fetal outcomes, including congenital microcephaly. Zika virus sexual transmission is known, but detection of the virus in different parts of the female reproductive tract is not well established. In this case report, we describe prolonged detection of ZIKV RNA in the vaginal secretion and endocervical mucosa from a Brazilian woman convalescent to ZIKV infection. A viral load of 2 × 102 copies/mL was detected up to 31 days after symptom onset in both samples. Other biological fluids, including whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, and saliva samples, were negative for ZIKV RNA. These findings advance the understanding of ZIKV infection and provide data for additional testing strategies.

PMID:  30398145  DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0623

Keywords: Zika Virus; Brazil.

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#Vaccinia Virus among Domestic #Dogs and Wild Coatis, #Brazil, 2013–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 / Dispatch

Vaccinia Virus among Domestic Dogs and Wild Coatis, Brazil, 2013–2015

Galileu Barbosa Costa  , Lara Ribeiro de Almeida, Aline Gabriele Ribeiro Cerqueira, Wander Ulisses Mesquita, Jaqueline Silva de Oliveira, Júlia Bahia Miranda, Ana Teresa Saraiva-Silva, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Erna Geessien Kroon, Pedro Lúcio Lithg Pereira, Danielle Ferreira de Magalhães Soares, and Giliane de Souza Trindade

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (G.B. Costa, L.R. de Almeida, A.G.R. Cerqueira, J.S. de Oliveira, J.B. Miranda, A.T. Saraiva-Silva, J.S. Abrahão, B.P. Drumond, E.G. Kroon, P.L.L. Pereira, D.F. de Magalhães Soares, G. de Souza Trindade); Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil (W.U. Mesquita)

 

Abstract

To determine their potential role as a source of human infection, we tested domestic dogs (urban) and wild coatis (rural) in Brazil for vaccinia virus. Our findings of positive neutralizing antibodies and quantitative PCR results for 35/184 dogs and 13/90 coatis highlight a potential public health risk.

Keywords: Poxvirus; Orthopoxvirus; Vaccinia Virus; Dogs; Brazil.

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Descriptive #report of cases of congenital syndrome associated with #Zika virus #infection in the state of São Paulo, #Brazil, from 2015 to 2017 (Epidemiol Serv Saude, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Serv Saude. 2018 Oct 22;27(3):e2017382. doi: 10.5123/S1679-49742018000300012.

Descriptive report of cases of congenital syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2015 to 2017.

[Article in English, Portuguese; Abstract available in Portuguese from the publisher]

Martins RS1, Fróes MH1, Saad LDC1, Ignácio Junior SM1, Prado WDA1, Figueiredo EM1, Sato HK1, Ciccone FH1, Guimarães TC1, Katz G1.

Author information: 1 Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica Professor Alexandre Vranjac, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

 

Abstract in English, Portuguese, Spanish

OBJECTIVE:

to characterize cases of congenital syndrome associated with Zika virus infection (CZS) and other infectious etiologies, resident in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from October 30, 2015, to June 30, 2017.

METHODS:

this was a descriptive study of suspected cases of CZS and other infectious etiologies notified on the Public Health Events Registry.

RESULTS:

960 cases were investigated up to epidemiological week 26/2017, and 146 were confirmed for congenital infection; of these, 59 (40.4%) were confirmed for congenital infection without etiological identification and 87 (59.6%) with laboratory confirmation, of which 55 were congenital syndrome associated with Zika virus and 32 were congenital syndrome associated with other infectious agents.

CONCLUSION:

this study enabled the detection of 23.9% CZS cases among suspected cases of infectious etiology.

PMID: 30365699 DOI: 10.5123/S1679-49742018000300012

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Brazil.

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#Congenital #Zika Virus #Infection with Normal Neurodevelopmental Outcome, #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 11—November 2018 / Research Letter

Congenital Zika Virus Infection with Normal Neurodevelopmental Outcome, Brazil

Alessandra Lemos de Carvalho  , Carlos Brites, Tânia Barreto Taguchi, Suely Fernandes Pinho, Gúbio Campos, and Rita Lucena

Author affiliations: SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Salvador, Brazil (A.L. de Carvalho, T.B. Taguchi, S.F. Pinho); Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (C. Brites, G. Campos, R. Lucena)

 

Abstract

We describe a case of a 20-month-old girl with probable congenital Zika virus infection and normal neurodevelopment, despite microcephaly and abnormal neuroimaging. This case raises questions about early prognostic markers and draws attention to the need for investigation in suspected Zika cases, even if the child’s early neurodevelopment is normal.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly.

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Association and #birth #prevalence of #microcephaly attributable to #Zika virus infection among #infants in Paraíba, #Brazil, in 2015-16: a case-control study (Lancet Child Adolesc Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 Mar;2(3):205-213. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30020-8. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Association and birth prevalence of microcephaly attributable to Zika virus infection among infants in Paraíba, Brazil, in 2015-16: a case-control study.

Krow-Lucal ER1, de Andrade MR2, Cananéa JNA3, Moore CA4, Leite PL5, Biggerstaff BJ6, Cabral CM2, Itoh M7, Percio J8, Wada MY8, Powers AM6, Barbosa A9, Abath RB3, Staples JE6, Coelho GE5; Paraíba Microcephaly Work Group.

Collaborators (38): Araújo E, Medeiros ELA, Brant J, Cerroni M, de Barros Moreira Beltrão H, Fantinato FFST, Lise MLZ, Ohara PM, Resende E, Saad E, de St Maurice A, Dieke A, Harrist A, Kwit N, Marlow M, Soke G, de Arruda Pessoa R, da Silva RC, Diniz RC, de Araújo Ariette MC, Lira CF, Matos S, Wanderley TMM, Silva VOC, da Silva HS, Carmo EH, Carvalho M, Lentini N, Miranda R, Boland E, Burns P, Fischer M, Ledermann J, Coronado F, Dicent-Taillepierre J, Flannery B, Macedo de Oliveira A, Arena JF.

Author information: 1 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA; EIS Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 2 Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde (Episus), Brasilia, Brazil. 3 Secretariat of Health, Paraíba, Brazil. 4 Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 5 National Dengue Control Program, Brazil Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil. 6 Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 7 EIS Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 8 Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde (Episus), Brasilia, Brazil; National Dengue Control Program, Brazil Ministry of Health, Brasilia, Brazil. 9 Brazil Country Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Brasilia, Brazil.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In 2015, the number of infants born with microcephaly increased in Paraíba, Brazil, after a suspected Zika virus outbreak. We did a retrospective case-control investigation to assess the association of microcephaly and Zika virus.

METHODS:

We enrolled cases reported to the national database for microcephaly and born between Aug 1, 2015, and Feb 1, 2016, on the basis of their birth head circumference and total body length. We identified controls from the national birth registry and matched them to cases by location, aiming to enrol a minimum of two controls per case. Mothers of both cases and controls were asked about demographics, exposures, and illnesses and infants were measured at a follow-up visit 1-7 months after birth. We took blood samples from mothers and infants and classified those containing Zika virus IgM and neutralising antibodies as evidence of recent infection. We calculated prevalence of microcephaly and odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistic regression model with maximum penalised conditional likelihood, and combined these ORs with exposure probability estimates to determine the attributable risk.

FINDINGS:

We enrolled 164 of 706 infants with complete information reported with microcephaly at birth, of whom we classified 91 (55%) as having microcephaly on the basis of their birth measurements, 36 (22%) as small, 21 (13%) as disproportionate, and 16 (10%) as not having microcephaly. 43 (26%) of the 164 infants had microcephaly at follow-up for an estimated prevalence of 5·9 per 1000 livebirths. We enrolled 114 control infants matched to the 43 infants classified as having microcephaly at follow-up. Infants with microcephaly at follow-up were more likely than control infants to be younger (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·4-0·7), have recent Zika virus infection (21·9, 7·0-109·3), or a mother with Zika-like symptoms in the first trimester (6·2, 2·8-15·4). Once Zika virus infection and infant age were controlled for, we found no significant association between microcephaly and maternal demographics, medications, toxins, or other infections. Based on the presence of Zika virus antibodies in infants, we concluded that 35-87% of microcephaly occurring during the time of our investigation in northeast Brazil was attributable to Zika virus. We estimate 2-5 infants per 1000 livebirths in Paraíba had microcephaly attributable to Zika virus.

INTERPRETATION:

Time of exposure to Zika virus and evidence of infection in the infants were the only risk factors associated with microcephaly. This investigation has improved understanding of the outbreak of microcephaly in northeast Brazil and highlights the need to obtain multiple measurements after birth to establish if an infant has microcephaly and the need for further research to optimise testing criteria for congenital Zika virus infection.

FUNDING:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30169255 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30020-8

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Microcephaly; Brazil.

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Extended-spectrum #cephalosporin-resistant #Escherichia coli isolated from #chickens and chicken #meat in #Brazil is associated with rare and complex resistance plasmids and pandemic ST lineages (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from chickens and chicken meat in Brazil is associated with rare and complex resistance plasmids and pandemic ST lineages

Tiago Casella, Marisa Haenni, Naiady Konno Madela, Letícia Kellen de Andrade, Letícia Kalir Pradela, Leonardo Neves de Andrade, Ana Lúcia da Costa Darini, Jean-Yves Madec, Mara Corrêa, Lelles Nogueira

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky335, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky335

Published: 31 August 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

Brazil is the greatest exporter of chicken meat (CM) in the world. It is of utmost importance to monitor resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in this sector because resistance to ESCs in Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals may contaminate humans through the food chain. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize and compare ESC-resistant E. coli isolated from chickens and retail CM produced in south-eastern Brazil.

Methods

Five CM samples and 117 chicken cloacal swabs (CCSs) were inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime. Presumptive E. coli colonies were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. Virulence and acquired blaESBL and blaAmpC genes were sought and genetic environments characterized. Isolates were typed by phylogenetic grouping, XbaI-PFGE and MLST.

Results

All five CM samples and 36 CCSs (30.8%) were positive for the presence of ESC-resistant E. coli, leading to the selection of 58 resistant isolates. ESC resistance was mostly due to the presence of the chromosome-encoded blaCTX-M-2gene, but plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55 and blaCMY-2 were also detected. Multireplicon plasmids were sporadically identified, such as IncHI2/P-blaCTX-M-2 and IncFII/N-blaCTX-M-55. Phylogroup D predominated, while PFGE and MLST revealed a high genetic diversity.

Conclusions

Live Brazilian chickens and CM act as reservoirs of ESC-resistant E. coli and resistance genes are located on highly diverse genetic determinants. Potentially pathogenic strains, which may represent a threat to human health and a source of environmental contamination, were also identified. Active surveillance is therefore essential in Brazil’s chicken production line.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; E. Coli; Poultry; Food Safety; Brazil.

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