#Impact of preexisting #dengue #immunity on #Zika virus #emergence in a dengue endemic region (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Impact of preexisting dengue immunity on Zika virus emergence in a dengue endemic region

Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer1,*, Federico Costa2,3,4,*, Eduardo J. M. Nascimento5,*, Nivison Nery Júnior2,3, Priscila M. S. Castanha6,7, Gielson Almeida Sacramento3, Jaqueline Cruz3, Mayara Carvalho3, Daiana De Olivera3, José E. Hagan3,4, Haritha Adhikarla4, Elsio A. Wunder Jr.3,4, Danilo F. Coêlho6,8, Sasha R. Azar9, Shannan L. Rossi10, Nikos Vasilakis11, Scott C. Weaver10, Guilherme S. Ribeiro2,3,12, Angel Balmaseda13,14, Eva Harris15, Maurício L. Nogueira16, Mitermayer G. Reis3,4,12, Ernesto T. A. Marques5,6,17,*, Derek A. T. Cummings18,19,*,†, Albert I. Ko3,4,*,†

1 Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. 2 Instituto da Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 3 Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/MS, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 4 Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. 5 Department of Infectious Disease and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 6 Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/MS, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 7 Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 8 Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50740-540, Brazil. 9 Institute for Translational Science, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 10 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 11 Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 12 Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 13 Sustainable Sciences Institute, Managua, Nicaragua. 14 Laboratorio Nacional de Virología, Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia, Ministry of Health, Managua, Nicaragua. 15 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. 16 Faculdade de Medicina de São Jose do Rio Preto, São Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. 17 Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 18 Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. 19 Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

†Corresponding author. Email: albert.ko@yale.edu (A.I.K.); datc@ufl.edu (D.A.T.C.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  08 Feb 2019: Vol. 363, Issue 6427, pp. 607-610 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6618

 

Zika dynamics in South America

The infection dynamics of Zika virus (ZIKV) are difficult to characterize. Many ZIKV infections are asymptomatic, and the clinical presentation of ZIKV is nonspecific. Rodriguez-Barraquer et al. took advantage of a long-term health study under way in Salvador, Brazil, the epicenter of the recent outbreak in the Americas. They used multiple serological assays, from before and after the emergence of ZIKV in October 2015, to distinguish ZIKV immune responses from those against Dengue virus (DENV). About 73% of the population was attacked by ZIKV. The presence of preexisting antibodies to DENV was associated with less risk of ZIKV infection and fewer symptoms.

Science, this issue p. 607

 

Abstract

The clinical outcomes associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas have been well documented, but other aspects of the pandemic, such as attack rates and risk factors, are poorly understood. We prospectively followed a cohort of 1453 urban residents in Salvador, Brazil, and, using an assay that measured immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) responses against ZIKV NS1 antigen, we estimated that 73% of individuals were infected during the 2015 outbreak. Attack rates were spatially heterogeneous, varying by a factor of 3 within a community spanning 0.17 square kilometers. Preexisting high antibody titers to dengue virus were associated with reduced risk of ZIKV infection and symptoms. The landscape of ZIKV immunity that now exists may affect the risk for future transmission.

Keywords: Dengue fever; Zika Virus; Brazil.

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#Geography of #Microcephaly in the #Zika Era: A Study of #Newborn Distribution and Socio-environmental Indicators in #Recife, #Brazil, 2015-2016 (Public Health Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Public Health Rep. 2018 Jul/Aug;133(4):461-471. doi: 10.1177/0033354918777256. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Geography of Microcephaly in the Zika Era: A Study of Newborn Distribution and Socio-environmental Indicators in Recife, Brazil, 2015-2016.

Souza AI1, de Siqueira MT2, Ferreira ALCG1, de Freitas CU3, Bezerra ACV4, Ribeiro AG5, Nardocci AC5.

Author information: 1 Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira, Recife, Brazil. 2 Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 3 Independent Researcher, Recife, Brazil. 4 Instituto Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 5 Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We assessed sociodemographic and health care factors of mothers and newborns during a 2015-2016 outbreak of microcephaly in Recife, Brazil, and we analyzed the spatial distribution and incidence risk of newborns with microcephaly in relation to socio-environmental indicators.

METHODS:

We collected data from August 2015 through May 2016 from Brazil’s Live Birth Information System and Bulletin of Microcephaly Notification, and we geocoded the data by maternal residence. We constructed thematic maps of districts, according to socio-environmental and vector indicators. We identified spatial aggregates of newborns with microcephaly by using the Bernoulli model. We performed logistic regression analyses to compare the incidence risk of microcephaly within socio-environmental indicator groups.

RESULTS:

We geocoded 17 990 of 19 554 (92.0%) live births in Recife, of which 202 (1.1%) newborns were classified as having microcephaly, based on a head circumference of ≥2 standard deviations below the mean. Larger proportions of newborns with microcephaly (compared with newborns without microcephaly) were born to mothers who delivered in a public hospital, did not attend college, were aged ≤19, or were black or mixed race. A higher risk of microcephaly (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 3.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88-8.06) occurred in districts with the lowest (vs highest) Municipal Human Development Index (ie, an index that assesses longevity, education, and income). The risk of microcephaly was significantly higher where rates of larvae density (IRR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.19-4.50) and larvae detection (IRR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.05-4.00) were higher and rates of sewage system (IRR = 2.20; 95% CI, 1.16-4.18) and garbage collection (IRR = 1.96; 95% CI, 0.99-3.88) were lower. Newborns with microcephaly lived predominantly in the poorest areas and in a high-risk cluster (relative risk = 1.89, P = .01) in the north.

CONCLUSIONS:

The disproportionate incidence of microcephaly in newborns in poor areas of Recife reinforces the need for government and public health authorities to formulate policies that promote social equity and support for families and their children with microcephaly.

KEYWORDS: Zika; ecological studies; environmental indicators; health inequalities; microcephaly; social indicators

PMID: 29920225 PMCID: PMC6055288 [Available on 2019-07-01] DOI:
10.1177/0033354918777256 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly; Society; Brazil.

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SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF #ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER #CONGENITAL #INFECTIONS IN #PREGNANT WOMEN IN #RIO DE JANEIRO, #BRAZIL (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2019 Jan 24. pii: S0001-706X(18)31538-9. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020. [Epub ahead of print]

SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER CONGENITAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

Carvalho FR1, Medeiros T2, de Oliveira Vianna RA3, Douglass-Jaimes G4, Guerra Nunes PC5, Salgado Quintans MD6, Fernandes C7, Baêta Cavalcanti SM8, Dos Santos FB9, de Oliveira SA10, Araújo Cardoso CA11, Silva AA12.

Author information: 1 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: fabianarc@id.uff.br. 2 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: thaliamedeiros@id.uff.br. 3 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: renatavianna03@gmail.com. 4 Environmental Analysis Program, Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA. Electronic address: guillermo.douglass-jaimes@pomona.edu. 5 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: pricgn@ioc.fiocruz.br. 6 Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: mdsquintans@id.uff.br. 7 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: cinttiafs@yahoo.com.br. 8 Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: silviacavalcanti67@gmail.com. 9 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: flaviab@ioc.fiocruz.br. 10 Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: sartimos@id.uff.br. 11 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: claudetecardoso@id.uff.br. 12 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: aasilva@id.uff.br.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Arboviruses (Zika, dengue and chikungunya) represent a major risk for pregnant women, especially because their vertical transmission can lead to neurological damage in newborns. Early diagnosis can be difficult due to similar clinical presentation with other congenital infections that are associated with congenital abnormalities.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the circulation of arboviruses and other pathogens responsible for congenital infections, reporting clinical aspects and geographic distribution of maternal rash in a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

METHODS:

Cross-sectional study with pregnant women presenting rash attended at the Exanthematic Diseases Unit (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro) from 2015 to 2018. Diagnosis of arboviruses was performed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and laboratorial screening for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and HIV was assessed. Demographic data was used for georeferencing analysis.

FINDINGS:

We included 121 pregnant women, of whom Zika virus was detected in 45 cases (37.2%), chikungunya in 33 (27.3%) and dengue in one (0.8%). Five patients presented syphilis, and we observed one case each of listeria, cytomegalovirus, and a syphilis-toxoplasmosis case. Similarity of clinical symptoms was observed in all groups; however, 84.8% of patients with chikungunya presented arthralgia. Following the decline of Zika cases, chikungunya infection was mostly observed during 2017-2018. Considering pregnant women infected with arboviruses and other infections, 41% resided in urban slums, mostly in Niterói.

MAIN CONCLUSIONS:

Simultaneous circulation of arboviruses and other agents responsible for congenital infections were observed; however, we did not identify co-infections between arboviruses. In this scenario, we emphasize the importance of adequate prenatal care to provide an accurate diagnosis of maternal rash.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; pregnancy; vertical transmission of infectious disease

PMID: 30685232 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020

Keywords: Arbovirus; Zika Virus; Chikungunya Fever; Dengue fever; Pregnancy; Brazil.

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#Clinical, #Neuroimaging, and #Neurophysiological Findings in #Children with #Microcephaly Related to #Congenital #Zika Virus Infection (Int J Environ Res Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 23;16(3). pii: E309. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16030309.

Clinical, Neuroimaging, and Neurophysiological Findings in Children with Microcephaly Related to Congenital Zika Virus Infection.

C Lage ML1, Carvalho AL2, Ventura PA3, Taguchi TB4, Fernandes AS5, Pinho SF6, Santos-Junior OT7, Ramos CL8, Nascimento-Carvalho CM9,10.

Author information: 1 Post-graduate Programme in Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Praça XV de Novembro-Largo do Terreiro de Jesus, 40025-010 Bahia, Brazil. marylulage@hotmail.com. 2 Pediatric Rehabilitation Centre, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das Árvores, Salvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 13110@sarah.br. 3 Pediatric Rehabilitation Centre, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das Árvores, Salvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 701064@sarah.br. 4 Pediatric Rehabilitation Centre, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das Árvores, Salvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 11786@sarah.br. 5 Pediatric Rehabilitation Centre, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das Árvores, Salvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 400868@sarah.br. 6 Pediatric Rehabilitation Centre, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das Árvores, Salvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 701053@sarah.br. 7 Diagnostic Imaging Department, Salvador Hospital, SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospital, Avenida Tancredo Neves, Caminho das ÁrvoresSalvador, 41820-900 Bahia, Brazil. 700991@sarah.br. 8 Bahiana School of Medicine, Bahiana Foundation for Science Development, Dom João VI, Salvador, 40290-000 Bahia, Brazil. ccclr1@gmail.com. 9 Post-graduate Programme in Health Sciences, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Praça XV de Novembro-Largo do Terreiro de Jesus, 40025-010 Bahia, Brazil. nascimentocarvalho@hotmail.com. 10 Departament of Paediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Praça XV de Novembro-Largo do Terreiro de Jesus, 40025-010 Bahia, Brazil. nascimentocarvalho@hotmail.com.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection appeared in Brazil in 2015, causing an epidemic outbreak with increased rates of microcephaly and other serious birth disorders. We reviewed 102 cases of children who were diagnosed with microcephaly at birth and who had gestational exposure to ZIKV during the outbreak. We describe the clinical, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings. Most mothers (81%) reported symptoms of ZIKV infection, especially cutaneous rash, during the first trimester of pregnancy. The microcephaly was severe in 54.9% of the cases. All infants presented with brain malformations. The most frequent neuroimaging findings were cerebral atrophy (92.1%), ventriculomegaly (92.1%), malformation of cortical development (85.1%), and cortical⁻subcortical calcifications (80.2%). Abnormalities in neurological exams were found in 97.0% of the cases, epileptogenic activity in 56.3%, and arthrogryposis in 10.8% of the infants. The sensorineural screening suggested hearing loss in 17.3% and visual impairment in 14.1% of the infants. This group of infants who presented with microcephaly and whose mothers were exposed to ZIKV early during pregnancy showed clinical and radiological criteria for congenital ZIKV infection. A high frequency of brain abnormalities and signs of early neurological disorders were found, and epileptogenic activity and signs of sensorineural alterations were common. This suggests that microcephaly can be associated with a worst spectrum of neurological manifestations.

KEYWORDS: Zika virus; microcephaly; neuroimaging; neurologic examination

PMID: 30678125 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16030309 Free full text

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly; Brazil.

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Association of #Prenatal #Ultrasonographic Findings With Adverse #Neonatal Outcomes Among #Pregnant Women With Zika Virus Infection in #Brazil (JAMA Netw Open., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

JAMA Netw Open. 2018 Dec 7;1(8):e186529. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6529.

Association of Prenatal Ultrasonographic Findings With Adverse Neonatal Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Zika Virus Infection in Brazil.

Pereira JP Jr1, Nielsen-Saines K2, Sperling J3, Maykin MM3, Damasceno L4, Cardozo RF1, Valle HA1, Dutra BRT1, Gama HD1, Adachi K2, Zin AA1, Tsui I5, Vasconcelos Z1, Brasil P4, Moreira ME1, Gaw SL3.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 2 Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Los Angeles. 3 Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco. 4 Laboratorio de Doenças Febris Agudas, Instituto de Infectologia Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 5 Jules Stein Eye Institute, Retina Division, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles).

 

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Congenital Zika virus infection causes a spectrum of adverse birth outcomes, including severe birth defects of the central nervous system. The association of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with adverse neonatal outcomes, beyond structural anomalies such as microcephaly, has not been described to date.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether prenatal ultrasonographic examination results are associated with abnormal neonatal outcomes in Zika virus-affected pregnancies.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

A prospective cohort study conducted at a single regional referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 1, 2015, to May 31, 2016, among 92 pregnant women diagnosed during pregnancy with Zika virus infection by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, who underwent subsequent prenatal ultrasonographic and neonatal evaluation.

EXPOSURES:

Prenatal ultrasonography.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

The primary outcome measure was composite adverse neonatal outcome (perinatal death, abnormal finding on neonatal examination, or abnormal finding on postnatal neuroimaging). Secondary outcomes include association of specific findings with neonatal outcomes.

RESULTS:

Of 92 mother-neonate dyads (mean [SD] maternal age, 29.4 [6.3] years), 55 (60%) had normal results and 37 (40%) had abnormal results on prenatal ultrasonographic examinations. The median gestational age at delivery was 38.6 weeks (interquartile range, 37.9-39.3). Of the 45 neonates with composite adverse outcome, 23 (51%) had normal results on prenatal ultrasonography. Eleven pregnant women (12%) had a Zika virus-associated finding that was associated with an abnormal result on neonatal examination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 11.6; 95% CI, 1.8-72.8), abnormal result on postnatal neuroimaging (aOR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.1-38.9), and composite adverse neonatal outcome (aOR, 27.2; 95% CI, 2.5-296.6). Abnormal results on middle cerebral artery Doppler ultrasonography were associated with neonatal examination abnormalities (aOR, 12.8; 95% CI, 2.6-63.2), postnatal neuroimaging abnormalities (aOR, 8.8; 95% CI, 1.7-45.9), and composite adverse neonatal outcome (aOR, 20.5; 95% CI, 3.2-132.6). There were 2 perinatal deaths. Abnormal findings on prenatal ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 48.9% (95% CI, 33.7%-64.2%) and a specificity of 68.1% (95% CI, 52.9%-80.1%) for association with composite adverse neonatal outcomes. For a Zika virus-associated abnormal result on prenatal ultrasonography, the sensitivity was lower (22.2%; 95% CI, 11.2%-37.1%) but the specificity was higher (97.9%; 95% CI, 88.7%-99.9%).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Abnormal results on prenatal ultrasonography were associated with adverse outcomes in congenital Zika infection. The absence of abnormal findings on prenatal ultrasonography was not associated with a normal neonatal outcome. Comprehensive evaluation is recommended for all neonates with prenatal Zika virus exposure.

PMID: 30646333 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6529

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Pregnancy; Brazil.

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#Bat #Influenza A(HL18NL11) Virus in Fruit Bats, #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Dispatch

Bat Influenza A(HL18NL11) Virus in Fruit Bats, Brazil

Angélica Cristine Almeida Campos, Luiz Gustavo Bentim Góes, Andres Moreira-Soto, Cristiano de Carvalho, Guilherme Ambar, Anna-Lena Sander, Carlo Fischer, Adriana Ruckert da Rosa, Debora Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Paula G. Kataoka, Wagner André Pedro, Luzia Fátima A. Martorelli, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto, Edison Luiz Durigon1, and Jan Felix Drexler1

Author affiliations: Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, A. Moreira-Soto, A.-L. Sander, C. Fischer, J.F. Drexler); Universidade de São Paulo-USP, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas-ICB, São Paulo, Brazil (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, E.L. Durigon); Universidade Estadual Paulista Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Araçatuba, Brazil (C. de Carvalho, W.A. Pedro, L.H. Queiroz); Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Rio Claro, Brazil (G. Ambar, A.P. Cruz-Neto); Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, São Paulo (A.R. da Rosa, D.C. de Oliveira, L.F.A. Martorelli, A.P.G. Kataoka); German Centre for Infection Research, Germany (J.F. Drexler); Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia (J.F. Drexler)

 

Abstract

Screening of 533 bats for influenza A viruses showed subtype HL18NL11 in intestines of 2 great fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus). High concentrations suggested fecal shedding. Genomic characterizations revealed conservation of viral genes across different host species, countries, and sampling years, suggesting a conserved cellular receptor and wide-ranging occurrence of bat influenza A viruses.

Keywords: Influenza A; Bat Influenza; H18N11; Bats; Brazil.

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Differential #Shedding and #Antibody #Kinetics of #Zika and #Chikungunya Viruses, #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Dispatch

Differential Shedding and Antibody Kinetics of Zika and Chikungunya Viruses, Brazil

Fernando A. Bozza1, Andres Moreira-Soto1, Alexandra Rockstroh, Carlo Fischer, Alessandra D. Nascimento, Andrea S. Calheiros, Christian Drosten, Patrícia T. Bozza, Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Sebastian Ulbert, and Jan Felix Drexler

Author affiliations: National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (F.A. Bozza, A.D. Nascimento); D’Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (F.A. Bozza, A.D. Nascimento); Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (A. Moreira-Soto, C. Fischer, C. Drosten, J.F. Drexler); Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Leipzig, Germany (A. Rockstroh, S. Ulbert); Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro (A.S. Calheiros, P.T. Bozza); German Centre for Infection Research, Berlin (C. Drosten, J.F. Drexler); Center for Technological Development in Health, Rio de Janeiro (T.M.L. Souza)

 

Abstract

In seroconversion panels for patients from Brazil, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection was improved by combining multiple antibody isotypes, techniques, and antigens, but sensitivity remained suboptimal. In contrast, chikungunya virus diagnostic testing was unambiguous. Recurrent recent arbovirus infections suggested by serologic data and unspecific symptoms highlight the need for exhaustive virologic testing.

Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Zika Virus; Diagnostic tests; Brazil.

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