Disproportionate #impact of #COVID19 among #pregnant and #postpartum #Black Women in  #Brazil through structural #racism lens (Clin Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 among pregnant and postpartum Black Women in  Brazil through structural racism lens

Debora de Souza Santos, RN, PhD, Nursing School, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil; Mariane de Oliveira Menezes, CM, MSc, Department of  Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista  (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil; Carla Betina Andreucci, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine,  Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCAR), São Carlos, Brazil; Marcos Nakamura- Pereira, MD, PhD, Fernandes Figueira National Institute of Women, Adolescent and Child  Health, Fundação Osvaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Roxana Knobel, MD,  PhD, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina  (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil; Leila Katz, MD, PhD, Postgraduation Program, Instituto de  Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil; Heloisa de Oliveira  Salgado, MSc, PhD, Departament of Social Medicine, Ribeirão Preto Medical School,  Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; Melania Maria Ramos de  Amorim, MD, PhD, Postgraduation Program, Instituto de Medicina Integral; Prof.  Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, Brazil; Maira LS Takemoto, CNM, PhD, Department of  Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, Brazil

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1066/5877027 by guest on 28 July 2020

Accepted Manuscript

Corresponding author: Maíra L S Takemoto, maira.libertad@unesp.br – Rua Carlos Guadanini, 2564, Botucatu-SP, Brazil – Postal code 18610-120, +55 21 971724103

___

Dear Editor, Tai and collaborators raised important questions about the potential  biomedical factors and social determinants that play a role in the observed racial  disparities on COVID-19 outcomes in the US[1]. Evidence of such disproportionate impact  is also arising on historically oppressed ethnic groups in Brazil, current  worldwide pandemic epicenter [2]. Our group is closely monitoring an overwhelming number of SARS-CoV-2-related maternal deaths in the country[3]. Racial disparities  among childbearing women within the healthcare system have been widely described,  and already pose difficult challenges to improve maternal outcomes in the country[4,5].  Thus, it was expected that Black Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women would face  additional challenges during the pandemic. We searched the Brazilian Acute Respiratory  Distress Syndrome Surveillance System looking for COVID-19 cases among pregnant or  postpartum women with complete data on ethnicity until July 14, 2020 (n=1,860), then  selecting records of White and Black women (n=669, Table 1).

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pregnancy; Society; Poverty; Racism; Brazil.

——

#Serial #Interval #Distribution of #SARS-CoV-2 Infection in #Brazil (J Trav Med., summary)

[Source: Journal of Travel Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Title: Serial Interval Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Brazil

Running Title: Serial Interval Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Brazil

Carlos A. Prete Jr1 (MSc), Lewis Buss2 (MD), Amy Dighe3 (PhD), Victor Bertollo Porto4 (PhD), Darlan da Silva Candido5 (MSc), Fábio Ghilardi2 (MD), Oliver G. Pybus5 (PhD), Wanderson K. de Oliveira4 (PhD), Júlio H. R. Croda4 (PhD), Ester C. Sabino2 (PhD), Nuno  Rodrigues Faria2,3,5 (PhD), Christl A. Donnelly3,6 (PhD), Vítor H. Nascimento1 (PhD).

1. Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 2. Instituto de Medicina Tropical, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 3. MRC Centre for Global  Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease; Epidemiology, School of  Public Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; 4. Secretaria de Vigilância em  Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Brazil; 5. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford,  United Kingdom; 6. Department of Statistics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

© International Society of Travel Medicine 2020.

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jtm/taaa115/5876265 by guest on 25 July 2020

UNCORRECTED MANUSCRIPT

Funding: This work was supported by a Medical Research Council (MR/S0195/1) and  FAPESP (2018/14389-0) CADDE partnership award and a John Fell Research Fund (grant  005166). NRF is supported by a Wellcome Trust and Royal Society Sir Henry Dale  Fellowship (204311/Z/16/Z). DDSC is supported by the Clarendon Fund and by the Oxford  University Zoology Department. CAPJ and VHN are supported in part by grants from  FAPESP (2018/12579-7), CNPq (304714/2018-6) and CAPES (Finance code 001). CAD is  thankful for Centre funding from the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK  Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat  agreement and is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union  (MR/R015600/1). AD is also supported by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC).

Contact details of corresponding author: Vítor H. Nascimento (vitnasci@usp.br) Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, University of São Paulo, Brazil Phone Number: +55-11-99293-5264

Corresponding Address: Dept. de Engenharia de Sistemas Eletrônicos, Escola  Politécnica da Univ. de São Paulo – Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, trav. 3, n. 158, São Paulo,  SP, Brazil. ZIP Code: 05508-900.

 

Highlights

Using 65 transmission pairs of SARS-CoV-2 reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health  we estimate the mean and standard deviation for the serial interval to be 2.97 and 3.29  days respectively. We also present a model for the serial interval probability distribution  using only two parameters.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Epidemiology; Brazil.

——

#Evolution and #epidemic spread of #SARS-CoV-2 in #Brazil (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

Darlan S. Candido1,2,*, Ingra M. Claro2,3,*, Jaqueline G. de Jesus2,3,*, William M. Souza4,*, Filipe R. R. Moreira5,*, Simon Dellicour6,7,*, Thomas A. Mellan8,*, Louis du Plessis1, Rafael H. M. Pereira9, Flavia C. S. Sales2,3, Erika R. Manuli2,3, Julien Thézé10, Luiz Almeida11, Mariane T. Menezes5, Carolina M. Voloch5, Marcilio J. Fumagalli4, Thaís M. Coletti2,3, Camila A. M. da Silva2,3, Mariana S. Ramundo2,3, Mariene R. Amorim12, Henrique H. Hoeltgebaum13, Swapnil Mishra8, Mandev S. Gill7, Luiz M. Carvalho14, Lewis F. Buss2, Carlos A. Prete Jr15, Jordan Ashworth16, Helder I. Nakaya17, Pedro S. Peixoto18, Oliver J. Brady19,20, Samuel M. Nicholls21, Amilcar Tanuri5, Átila D. Rossi5, Carlos K.V. Braga9, Alexandra L. Gerber11, Ana Paula de C. Guimarães11, Nelson Gaburo Jr22, Cecila Salete Alencar23, Alessandro C.S. Ferreira24, Cristiano X. Lima25,26, José Eduardo Levi27, Celso Granato28, Giulia M. Ferreira29, Ronaldo S. Francisco Jr11, Fabiana Granja12,30, Marcia T. Garcia31, Maria Luiza Moretti31, Mauricio W. Perroud Jr32, Terezinha M. P. P. Castiñeiras33, Carolina S. Lazari34, Sarah C. Hill1,35, Andreza Aruska de Souza Santos36, Camila L. Simeoni12, Julia Forato12, Andrei C. Sposito37, Angelica Z. Schreiber38, Magnun N. N. Santos38, Camila Zolini de Sá39, Renan P. Souza39, Luciana C. Resende-Moreira40, Mauro M. Teixeira41, Josy Hubner42, Patricia A. F. Leme43, Rennan G Moreira44, Maurício L. Nogueira45, Brazil-UK Centre for Arbovirus Discovery, Diagnosis, Genomics and Epidemiology (CADDE) Genomic Network, Neil M Ferguson8, Silvia F. Costa2,3, José Luiz Proenca-Modena12, Ana Tereza R. Vasconcelos11, Samir Bhatt8, Philippe Lemey7, Chieh-Hsi Wu46, Andrew Rambaut47, Nick J. Loman21, Renato S. Aguiar39, Oliver G. Pybus1, Ester C. Sabino2,3,†, Nuno Rodrigues Faria1,2,8,†

1 Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 2 Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 3 Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 4 Centro de Pesquisa em Virologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. 5 Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 6 Spatial Epidemiology Lab, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. 7 Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 8 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, J-IDEA, Imperial College London, London, UK. 9 Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brasília, Brazil. 10 Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, VetAgro Sup, UMR EPIA, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France. 11 Laboratório de Bioinformática, Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Petrópolis, Brazil. 12 Departamento de Genética, Evolução, Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biologia and Experimental Medicine Research Cluster (EMRC), Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 13 Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, UK. 14 Escola de Matemática Aplicada (EMAp), Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 1 5 Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 16 Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. 17 Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 18 Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 19 Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 20 Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 21 Institute for Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. 22 DB Diagnósticos do Brasil, São Paulo, Brazil. 23 LIM 03 Laboratório de Medicina Laboratorial, Hospital das Clínicas Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 24 Instituto Hermes Pardini, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 25 Departamento de Cirurgia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 26 Simile Instituto de Imunologia Aplicada Ltda, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 27 Laboratório DASA, São Paulo, Brazil. 28 Laboratório Fleury, São Paulo, Brazil. 29 Laboratório de Virologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil. 30 Centro de Estudos da Biodiversidade, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Boa Vista, Brazil. 31 Divisão de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 32 Hospital Estadual Sumaré, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 33 Departamento de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 34 Divisão de Laboratório Central do Hospital das Clínicas, da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 35 Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, UK. 36 University of Oxford, Latin American Centre, Oxford School of Global and Area Studies, Oxford, UK. 37 Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 38 Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 39 Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 40 Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 41 Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 42 Departamento de Biologia Celular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 43 Centro de Saúde da Comunidade, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. 44 Centro de Laboratórios Multiusuários, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 45 Laboratório de Pesquisas em Virologia, Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. 46 Mathematical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. 47 Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

†Corresponding author. Email: sabinoec@usp.br (E.C.S.); nuno.faria@zoo.ox.ac.uk (N.R.F.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  23 Jul 2020: eabd2161 | DOI: 10.1126/science.abd2161

 

Abstract

Brazil currently has one of the fastest growing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in the world. Owing to limited available data, assessments of the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1–1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil. We estimate that most (76%) of the Brazilian strains fell in three clades that were introduced from Europe between 22 February11 March 2020. During the early epidemic phase, we found that SARS-CoV-2 spread mostly locally and within-state borders. After this period, despite sharp decreases in air travel, we estimated multiple exportations from large urban centers that coincided with a 25% increase in average travelled distances in national flights. This study sheds new light on the epidemic transmission and evolutionary trajectories of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Brazil, and provide evidence that current interventions remain insufficient to keep virus transmission under control in the country.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Brazil.

—–

#Hydroxychloroquine with or without #Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate #Covid19 (N Engl J Med., abstract)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19

Alexandre B. Cavalcanti, M.D., Ph.D., Fernando G. Zampieri, M.D., Ph.D., Regis G. Rosa, M.D., Ph.D., Luciano C.P. Azevedo, M.D., Ph.D., Viviane C. Veiga, M.D., Ph.D., Alvaro Avezum, M.D., Ph.D., Lucas P. Damiani, M.Sc., Aline Marcadenti, Ph.D., Letícia Kawano-Dourado, M.D., Ph.D., Thiago Lisboa, M.D., Ph.D., Debora L. M. Junqueira, M.D., Pedro G.M. de Barros e Silva, M.D., Ph.D., et al.,  for the Coalition Covid-19 Brazil I Investigators*

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have been used to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). However, evidence on the safety and efficacy of these therapies is limited.

METHODS

We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label, three-group, controlled trial involving hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed Covid-19 who were receiving either no supplemental oxygen or a maximum of 4 liters per minute of supplemental oxygen. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive standard care, standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, or standard care plus hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 400 mg twice daily plus azithromycin at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 7 days. The primary outcome was clinical status at 15 days as assessed with the use of a seven-level ordinal scale (with levels ranging from one to seven and higher scores indicating a worse condition) in the modified intention-to-treat population (patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19). Safety was also assessed.

RESULTS

A total of 667 patients underwent randomization; 504 patients had confirmed Covid-19 and were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. As compared with standard care, the proportional odds of having a higher score on the seven-point ordinal scale at 15 days was not affected by either hydroxychloroquine alone (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 2.11; P=1.00) or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.73; P=1.00). Prolongation of the corrected QT interval and elevation of liver-enzyme levels were more frequent in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, than in those who were not receiving either agent.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients hospitalized with mild-to-moderate Covid-19, the use of hydroxychloroquine, alone or with azithromycin, did not improve clinical status at 15 days as compared with standard care. (Funded by the Coalition Covid-19 Brazil and EMS Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04322123. opens in new tab.)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Antivirals; Chloroquine; Azithromycin; Brazil.

——

#Ethnic and #regional #variations in #hospital #mortality from #COVID19 in #Brazil: a cross-sectional observational study (Lancet Glob Health, abstract)

[Source: Lancet Global Health, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Ethnic and regional variations in hospital mortality from COVID-19 in Brazil: a cross-sectional observational study

Pedro Baqui, PhD †, Ioana Bica, MPhil †, Valerio Marra, PhD, Ari Ercole, PhD, Prof Mihaela van der Schaar, PhD

Open Access | Published: July 02, 2020 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30285-0

 

Summary

Background

Brazil ranks second worldwide in total number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Understanding the possible socioeconomic and ethnic health inequities is particularly important given the diverse population and fragile political and economic situation. We aimed to characterise the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and assess variations in mortality according to region, ethnicity, comorbidities, and symptoms.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of COVID-19 hospital mortality using data from the SIVEP-Gripe (Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica da Gripe) dataset to characterise the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. In the study, we included hospitalised patients who had a positive RT-PCR test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and who had ethnicity information in the dataset. Ethnicity of participants was classified according to the five categories used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics: Branco (White), Preto (Black), Amarelo (East Asian), Indígeno (Indigenous), or Pardo (mixed ethnicity). We assessed regional variations in patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospital by state and by two socioeconomically grouped regions (north and central-south). We used mixed-effects Cox regression survival analysis to estimate the effects of ethnicity and comorbidity at an individual level in the context of regional variation.

Findings

Of 99 557 patients in the SIVEP-Gripe dataset, we included 11 321 patients in our study. 9278 (82·0%) of these patients were from the central-south region, and 2043 (18·0%) were from the north region. Compared with White Brazilians, Pardo and Black Brazilians with COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·45, 95% CI 1·33–1·58 for Pardo Brazilians; 1·32, 1·15–1·52 for Black Brazilians). Pardo ethnicity was the second most important risk factor (after age) for death. Comorbidities were more common in Brazilians admitted to hospital in the north region than in the central-south, with similar proportions between the various ethnic groups. States in the north had higher HRs compared with those of the central-south, except for Rio de Janeiro, which had a much higher HR than that of the other central-south states.

Interpretation

We found evidence of two distinct but associated effects: increased mortality in the north region (regional effect) and in the Pardo and Black populations (ethnicity effect). We speculate that the regional effect is driven by increasing comorbidity burden in regions with lower levels of socioeconomic development. The ethnicity effect might be related to differences in susceptibility to COVID-19 and access to health care (including intensive care) across ethnicities. Our analysis supports an urgent effort on the part of Brazilian authorities to consider how the national response to COVID-19 can better protect Pardo and Black Brazilians, as well as the population of poorer states, from their higher risk of dying of COVID-19.

Funding

None.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Brazil.

——

#Genomic and #phylogenetic characterization of an imported case of #SARS-CoV-2 in #Amazonas State, #Brazil (Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, abstract)

[Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of an imported case of SARS-CoV-2 in Amazonas State, Brazil

[ACCEPTED ARTICLES / PRELIMINARY VERSION]

Valdinete Alves do Nascimento1,2, André Lima Guerra Corado1,2, Fernanda Oliveira do Nascimento1,3, Ágatha Kelly Araújo da Costa1,3, Debora Camila Gomes Duarte1, Michele Silva de Jesus 1, Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz1,3, Luciana Mara Fé Gonçalves4, Cristiano Fernandes da Costa4, Edson Delatorre5, Felipe Gomes Naveca1,2,3,6,+

1 Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Fiocruz, Amazonas, Brasil; 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Fundação, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; 3 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia da Interação Patógeno-Hospedeiro, Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Amazonas, Brasil; 4 Fundação de Vigilância em Saúde do Amazonas, Amazonas, Brasil; 5 Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brasil; 6 Rede Genômica em Saúde do Estado do Amazonas, Amazonas, Brasil

DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760200310

 

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is currently causing a life-threatening pandemic. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing and genetic characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 detected in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, and the protocol we designed to generate high-quality SARS-CoV-2 full genome data. The isolate was obtained from an asymptomatic carrier returning from Madrid, Spain. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a total of nine mutations in comparison with the original Human case in Wuhan, China, and support this case as belonging to the recently proposed lineage A.2. Phylogeographic analysis further confirmed the likely European origin of this case. To our knowledge, this is the first SARS-CoV-2 genome obtained from the North Brazilian Region. We believe that the information generated in this study may contribute to the ongoing efforts toward the SARS-CoV-2 emergence.

key words: SARS-CoV-2 genome COVID-19 Coronavirus Brazil Amazon region

+ Corresponding author: felipe.naveca@fiocruz.br

Received 14 June 2020 – Accepted 15 June 2020

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Brazil; Genetics.

——

#EVD68 – ASSOCIATED #RESPIRATORY #INFECTION IN SOUTHERN #BRAZIL, 2018 – A POPULATION-BASED LABORATORY SURVEILLANCE (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology | Available online 11 June 2020, 104503 | In Press, Journal Pre-proof | Short communication

ENTEROVIRUS D68-ASSOCIATED RESPIRATORY INFECTION IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL, 2018 – A POPULATION-BASED LABORATORY SURVEILLANCE

SM Raboni a, HI Giamberardino b, MC Debur c, JS Santos a

a Virology Laboratory, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil;  b Epidemiology Division, Hospital Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Brazil; c Public Health Laboratory, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil

Received 4 May 2020, Revised 29 May 2020, Accepted 8 June 2020, Available online 11 June 2020.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104503

 

Highlights

  • Patients with SARI or ILI notified during epidemiological surveillance are investigated to detect respiratory virus.
  • Enteroviruses were detected in 69/6,535 (1%), being 39/69 (56.5%) of SARI, and 30/69 (43.5%) of ILI cases.
  • EV-D68 was detected in the 36 samples previously identified as EV/RV co-detection.
  • This finding settles the sustained circulation of EV-D68 in southern Brazil.

 

Abstract

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) strain was confirmed in 36/69 – 52.2% of enterovirus-positive samples collected through surveillance networks for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) in southern Brazil in 2018. This finding settles the sustained circulation of EV-D68 in southern Brazil.

Keywords: Enterovirus; EV-D68; SARI; Brazil.

——

#Arboviral diseases and #COVID19 in #Brazil: Concerns regarding climatic, #sanitation and #endemic scenario (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arboviral diseases and COVID‐19 in Brazil: Concerns regarding climatic, sanitation and endemic scenario

Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro,  João Paulo Telles,  Felipe Francisco Tuon

First published: 28 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26079

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26079

 

Abstract

Brazil is witnessing a massive increase of COVID‐19 cases and may face some difficulties, not only regarding to other respiratory pathogens, but also to other relevant issues parallelly occurring, for instance, the beggining of autumn and winter seasons, which provides a longer period with high transmissibility of respiratory viroses. Additionally, Brazil is localized in a geographical tropical area with relevant arboviral diseases, where Dengue fever presented highest incidence during March‐June, mainly at Southeast and Midwest regions, where probably it will occur overlapping curves of arboviruses and COVID‐19, which will overload our public health system. The main affected áreas by COVID‐19 in Brazil were the same that presented 66% of the Dengue fever cases in Brazil. Moreover, it is importante to highlight the difficulty found to distinguish Dengue fever and COVID‐19 and its implications, which present similar laboratorial and clinical characteristics. Besides that, it has been pointed out false‐positive results in serological tests for Dengue fever, which later were confirmed as COVID‐19. These issues demand urgent attention,once they culminate in serious and devastating impacts in the Brazilian health system, public health, and social conditions.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Arbovirus; Dengue fever; Brazil.

——

#SARS-CoV-2 #diagnostic #diary: from #rumors to the first case. Early #reports of molecular #tests from the #military research and diagnostic institute of #Rio de Janeiro (Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, abstract)

[Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic diary: from rumors to the first case. Early reports of molecular tests from the military research and diagnostic institute of Rio de Janeiro

Marcio da Costa Cipitelli, Elizabeth Valentin, Nadia Vaez Gonçalves da Cruz, Tatiana LS  Nogueira, Elaine Amaro, Rebeca Silva, Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro, Caleb GM Santos+

Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil

DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760200200

 

ABSTRACT

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) viral diseases such as COVID-19 represent a serious threat to global health. Regarding this recent pandemic we present a historical timeline of last months in a diagnostic lab. Initially, an alert was issued to us on January 22 (D) about the COVID-19cases in Brazil. In line with international standards, 30 days after (D30), the primers and probes for quantitative Polimerase Chain Reaction recommended by WHO were in silico tested and obtained by our institute. The first case of the new coronavirus in Brazil was confirmed in D36, on D44 the first case was confirmed in our state and on D56 our institute diagnosed the firstcase. Subsequently, on D66 the first two positive cases of members from our institute were reported and on D74 the first member of our molecular diagnosis team (MDT) tested positive. Until D84 (~4%) of our institute members tested positive. In our conditions, after around 900 tests, we recommend the combination of N1/N2 primer sets (CDC protocol) for preliminary assays and mandatory confirmation for positive results using Charité protocol. Moreover, we recommend that every professional be tested before starting work, in addition to weekly tests for everyone involved preventing the reduction of ability to respond to the pandemic. For the future, the widespread utilization of new sequencing technologies may be powerful tool in detecting the real pathogens in every sample, coinfections, multiple strains, phylogenomical, and phylogeographical interpretations and will contribute to faster and more accurate responses in epidemics.

key words: SARS-CoV-2 qPCR Global Pandemic COVID-19 Coronavirus

Financial support: Brazilian Army

MDR and CGMS contributed equally to this work.

+ Corresponding author: calebguedes@gmail.com  https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2700-0049

Received 28 April 2020   – Accepted 30 Apr 2020

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Diagnostic tests; Brazil.

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#Sabiá Virus–Like #Mammarenavirus in Patient with Fatal #Hemorrhagic Fever, #Brazil, 2020 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page:  (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 6—June 2020 | Research Letter

Sabiá Virus–Like Mammarenavirus in Patient with Fatal Hemorrhagic Fever, Brazil, 2020

Fernanda de Mello Malta1, Deyvid Amgarten1, Ana Catharina de Seixas Santos Nastri, Yeh-Li Ho, Luciana Vilas Boas Casadio, Marcela Basqueira, Gloria Selegatto, Murilo Castro Cervato, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto, Hermes Ryoiti Higashino, Felipe Arthur Faustino Medeiros, José Luiz Pinto Lima Gendler, Anna S. Levin, and João Renato Rebello Pinho

Author affiliations: Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil (F.M. Malta, D. Amgarten, M. Basqueira, M.C. Cervato, J.R.R. Pinho); Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (D. Amgarten, A.C. de Seixas Santos Nastri, Y.-L. Ho, L.V.R. Casadio, G. Selegatto, A.N. Duarte-Neto, H.R. Higashino, F.A.F. Medeiros, J.L.P.L. Gendler, A.S. Levin, J.R.R. Pinho)

 

Abstract

New World arenaviruses can cause chronic infection in rodents and hemorrhagic fever in humans. We identified a Sabiá virus–like mammarenavirus in a patient with fatal hemorrhagic fever from São Paulo, Brazil. The virus was detected through virome enrichment and metagenomic next-generation sequencing technology.

Keywords: Mammarenavirus; Human; Sabia virus; Brazil.

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