#Serological evidence of #swine exposure to #H1N1pdm09 #influenza A virus in #Burkina Faso (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2020 Feb;241:108572. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108572. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Serological evidence of swine exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in Burkina Faso.

Tialla D1, Sausy A2, Cissé A3, Sagna T4, Ilboudo AK5, Ouédraogo GA6, Hübschen JM7, Tarnagda Z8, Snoeck CJ9.

Author information: 1 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; Ecole Nationale de l’Elevage et de la Santé Animale (ENESA), Secteur 28, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: tialladfaso@yahoo.fr. 2 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: aurelie.sausy@lih.lu. 3 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: assanacisse@yahoo.fr. 4 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: stanilinda@gmail.com. 5 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: ilboudokader@yahoo.fr. 6 Laboratoire de Recherche et d’Enseignement en Santé et Biotechnologies Animales (LARESBA), Université Nazi Boni, 01 BP 109, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: ogeorgesanicet@yahoo.fr. 7 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: judith.huebschen@lih.lu. 8 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: zekiba@hotmail.com. 9 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: chantal.snoeck@lih.lu.

 

Abstract

Despite improvement of human and avian influenza surveillance, swine influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce and pandemic preparedness is still deemed inadequate, including in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study therefore aimed to investigate the (past) exposure of pigs to influenza A viruses. Practices of people with occupational contacts with pigs and their knowledge on influenza A were investigated in order to formulate future prevention guidelines. In 2016-2017, pig nasopharyngeal swabs and sera were collected and screened for the presence of influenza virus by RT-PCR or of anti-influenza antibodies by competitive ELISA. Seropositive samples were further characterized in virus microneutralization assays against human and swine H1N1 virus strains. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from people with occupational contact with pigs and screened similarly. Demographic data as well as practices related to their profession were recorded. No influenza A virus was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs in humans (n = 358) or in pigs (n = 600). Seroprevalence in pigs reached 6.8 % (41/600) and seropositive animals were found in 50.0 % of extensive settings (10/20) and 19.0 % of (semi-)intensive farms (4/21). All positive sera reacted against the pandemic H1N1/2009 strain, while seropositivity against two Eurasian avian-like and one American swine H1N1 strains and individual titers were lower. These results suggested exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 virus and cross-reactivity to other H1N1 strains. Farmers with higher frequency of contact to pigs, absence of protective equipment and lack of knowledge on zoonoses are likely key players in driving human-to-swine virus transmission.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Burkina Faso; Epidemiology; Influenza A virus; Pandemic H1N1/2009; Pigs; Public health; Reverse zoonosis

PMID: 31928706 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108572

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Burkina Faso.

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#Interspecies #Transmission of #Reassortant #Swine #Influenza A Virus Containing #Genes from Swine Influenza A #H1N1pdm09 and A(#H1N2) Viruses (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020 / Research

Interspecies Transmission of Reassortant Swine Influenza A Virus Containing Genes from Swine Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H1N2) Viruses

Helen E. Everett  , Bethany Nash, Brandon Z. Londt1, Michael D. Kelly, Vivien Coward, Alejandro Nunez, Pauline M. van Diemen, Ian H. Brown, and Sharon M. Brookes

Author affiliations: Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK

 

Abstract

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated. This reassortant virus has a novel gene constellation, incorporating the internal gene cassette of pH1N1-origin viruses and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of swine IAV H1N2 origin. We investigated the pathogenesis and infection dynamics of the H1N2r isolate in pigs (the natural host) and in ferrets, which represent a human model of infection. Clinical and virologic parameters were mild in both species and both intraspecies and interspecies transmission was observed when initiated from either infected pigs or infected ferrets. This novel reassortant virus has zoonotic and reverse zoonotic potential, but no apparent increased virulence or transmissibility, in comparison to pH1N1.

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Influenza A; Reassortant strain; H1N1pdm09; H1N2; Pigs; UK.

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#Surveillance of #swine #influenza viruses in sentinel #familial #farms in Hung Yen province in Northern #Vietnam in 2013-2014 (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/zph.12671. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance of swine influenza viruses in sentinel familial farms in Hung Yen province in Northern Vietnam in 2013-2014.

Baudon E1,2, Peyre M2, Tung DD3, Thi Nga P3, Khong NV3, Cowling BJ1, Peiris M1.

Author information: 1 The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 2 French Agricultural Research Center for International Development (CIRAD), Montpellier, France. 3 National Institute of Veterinary Research, Hanoi, Vietnam.

 

Abstract

From May 2013 to April 2014, 15 swine family-run farms (17 pig litters) in two districts in Hung Yen province, near Hanoi, were virologically and epizootiologically monitored for swine influenza viruses (SIV) monthly. No SIV was isolated from nasal swabs. Maternal antibodies were detected in 10 litters, and seroconversion against SIV was detected in six litters. There was a marked difference in patterns of SIV transmission in the two districts. Van Lam district which has low density of swine with mainly smallholder farms had low intensity of SIV, with much of the infection caused by H1N1 2009 pandemic-like viruses A(H1N1)pdm09, likely originated from humans. In contrast, Van Giang district, which has high swine density and larger farms, had high levels of typical SIV (triple reassortants H3N2 and H3N2 Binh Duong lineage viruses) circulating within swine. With one exception, the SIV lineages detected were those we concurrently isolated from studies in a large central abattoir in Hanoi. Influenza-like illness symptoms reported by farmers were poorly correlated with serological evidence of SIV infection.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Vietnam; familial farm; maternal antibody; surveillance; swine influenza; value chain

PMID: 31855326 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12671

Keyword: Swine Influenza; Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Serology; Pigs; Vietnam.

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Re-evaluation of the #evolution of #influenza #H1 viruses using direct PCA (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Dec 17;9(1):19287. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-55254-z.

Re-evaluation of the evolution of influenza H1 viruses using direct PCA.

Konishi T1.

Author information: 1 Graduate School of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita, Japan. konishi@akita-pu.ac.jp.

 

Abstract

The history of influenza H1 virus was re-evaluated by applying a new methodology to sequencing data; this objective method enables comparisons among viral types. The approach led to the segregation of all segments of swine and human viruses into three distinct groups: two of them included the pandemic 1977 and 2009 human viruses, and the remaining group may be new in humans. These three groups might have originated from avian viruses and drifted out independently. Genome shifts occurred occasionally among swine viruses; however, distances between avian and swine/human viruses negated the existence of direct shifts from avian viruses. In humans, only one or two viruses appeared each year, which suggests the presence of competition among viruses that migrated freely. All segments drifted continuously under certain rules and constant velocity. Viruses that had caused an outbreak did not appear again over subsequent decades, which may mean populations had become immune to such viruses. In contrast, the viruses in livestock were rather conserved and maintained unique strains in small, separate areas. Such collections of swine strains included human segments, which could become an epidemic in the future.

PMID: 31848356 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-55254-z

Keywords: Influenza; H1N1; Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; Pigs.

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Complete #genome #sequencing of #H1N1pdm09 #swine #influenza isolates from #Nigeria reveals likely reverse #zoonotic #transmission at the #human-animal interface in intensive piggery (Infect Ecol Epidemiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2019 Dec 2;9(1):1696632. doi: 10.1080/20008686.2019.1696632. eCollection 2019.

Complete genome sequencing of H1N1pdm09 swine influenza isolates from Nigeria reveals likely reverse zoonotic transmission at the human-animal interface in intensive piggery.

Meseko CA1, Heidari A2, Odaibo GN3, Olaleye DO3.

Author information: 1 Regional Center for Animal Influenza, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria. 2 Formerly, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, (IZSVe), FAO Reference Center for Animal Influenza and Newcastle Disease virus, OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease virus, OIE Collaborating Laboratory for Diseases at the Human-Animal Interface, Padova, Italy. 3 WHO National Influenza Center, Department of Virology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Prevailing agro-ecological conditions and intermingling of human and animals in intensive farms in urban and peri-urban areas in Africa favour cross species transmission of pathogens at the human-animal interface. However, molecular epidemiology studies of zoonotic swine influenza viruses in this region are limited. In this study, isolates of pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) obtained from pigs in Nigeria were fully sequenced. BLAST of swine influenza virus genes from Nigeria was carried out in GenBank and gene alignment was done using MEGA version 7. Maximum likelihood method (PhyML program) was used to determine gene evolutionary relationships with other viruses and phylogenetic trees were constructed to infer genomic clusters and relationship. Swine influenza viruses isolated and sequenced in this study were monophyletic and 99% congenetic with human isolates from Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana and USA suggesting reverse zoonotic transmission from humans to pigs in intensive husbandry. A Q240R and S31N substitution among others were detected in the haemagglutinin and matrix genes, respectively, indicating potentials for mutations during interspecies co-mingling and transmission. The A/H1N1pdm09 viruses circulating in pigs that are also exposed to avian influenza in the same epidemiological zones could engender emergence of novel viruses with zoonotic or pandemic potential requiring enhanced surveillance and monitoring.

© 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis.

KEYWORDS: A/H1N1pdm09; Influenza virus; Nigeria; complete genome sequencing; human-animal interface; pigs

PMID: 31839904 PMCID: PMC6896411 DOI: 10.1080/20008686.2019.1696632

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Human; Pigs; Nigeria.

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#PanGenomic #Analysis of #ASF Virus (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Pan-Genomic Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus

Authors: Ziming Wang, Lijia Jia, Jing Li, Haizhou Liu, Di Liu

Open Access / Letter / First Online: 11 December 2019

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00173-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Dear Editor,

African swine fever (ASF) is a severe haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and wild boar with extremely high mortality rate. It is cataloged as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The etiological agent that causes the highly lethal disease is the African swine fever virus (ASFV) (Sanchez-Vizcaino et al.2015). ASFV is the only known member of the genus Asfivirus and family Asfarviridae. The family Asfarviridae belongs to the member of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) superfamily (Iyer et al.2006; Costard et al.2009). Overall, the ASFV virion presents an icosahedral morphology with a multilayered structure (Wang et al.2019). The genome of ASFV is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule that varies in length from about 170 to 193 kilobase pairs and encodes between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs) depending on the isolate (Dixon et al.2013). In addition, ASFV also infects African wild suids, including warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) and bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), which act as asymptomatic carriers. Soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata complex also serve as a natural reservoir and transmit the disease to suids. In East Africa, ASFV is maintained in an ancient sylvatic cycle involving warthogs and soft ticks (Ornithodoros genus) that inhabit their burrows (Jori et al.2013).

(…)

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1603803, 2018YFC0840402 and 2016YFC1200800) and the Research Project of African Swine Fever of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJZD-SW-L06).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Keywords: Asfivirus; Africa Swine Fever; Pigs; Ticks.

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#Genome #investigations show host #adaptation and #transmission of LA- #MRSA CC398 from #pigs into #Danish #healthcare #institutions (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genome investigations show host adaptation and transmission of LA-MRSA CC398 from pigs into Danish healthcare institutions

Raphael Niklaus Sieber, Anders Rhod Larsen, Tinna Ravnholt Urth, Søren Iversen, Camilla Holten Møller, Robert Leo Skov, Jesper Larsen & Marc Stegger

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 18655 (2019)

 

Abstract

Over the last decade, an increasing number of infections with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) in persons without contact to livestock has been registered in Denmark. These infections have been suggested to be the result of repeated spillover of random isolates from livestock into the community. However, other studies also found emerging sub-lineages spreading among humans. Based on genome-wide SNPs and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we assessed the population structure and genomic content of Danish LA-MRSA CC398 isolates from healthcare-associated infections from 2014 to 2016 (n = 73) and compared these to isolates from pigs in Denmark from 2014 (n = 183). Phylogenetic analyses showed that most human isolates were closely related to and scattered among pig isolates showing that the majority of healthcare-associated infections are the result of repeated spillover from pig farms, even though cases of human-to-human transmission also were identified. GWAS revealed frequent loss of antimicrobial resistance genes and acquisition of human-specific virulence genes in the human isolates showing adaptation in response to changes in selective pressures in different host environments, which over time could lead to the emergence of LA-MRSA CC398 lineages more adapted to human colonization and transmission.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Pigs; Human; Nosocomial outbreaks; Denmark.

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