Experimental #H1N1pdm09 #infection in #pigs mimics #human seasonal #influenza #infections (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Experimental H1N1pdm09 infection in pigs mimics human seasonal influenza infections

Theresa Schwaiger, Julia Sehl, Claudia Karte, Alexander Schäfer, Jane Hühr, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Charlotte Schröder, Bernd Köllner, Reiner Ulrich, Ulrike Blohm

Published: September 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222943



Pigs are anatomically, genetically and physiologically comparable to humans and represent a natural host for influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Thus, pigs may represent a relevant biomedical model for human IAV infections. We set out to investigate the systemic as well as the local immune response in pigs upon two subsequent intranasal infections with IAV H1N1pdm09. We detected decreasing numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes after the first infection. The simultaneous increase in the frequencies of proliferating cells correlated with an increase in infiltrating leukocytes in the lung. Enhanced perforin expression in αβ and γδ T cells in the respiratory tract indicated a cytotoxic T cell response restricted to the route of virus entry such as the nose, the lung and the bronchoalveolar lavage. Simultaneously, increasing frequencies of CD8αα expressing αβ T cells were observed rapidly after the first infection, which may have inhibited uncontrolled inflammation in the respiratory tract. Taking together, the results of this study demonstrate that experimental IAV infection in pigs mimics major characteristics of human seasonal IAV infections.


Citation: Schwaiger T, Sehl J, Karte C, Schäfer A, Hühr J, Mettenleiter TC, et al. (2019) Experimental H1N1pdm09 infection in pigs mimics human seasonal influenza infections. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222943. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222943

Editor: Balaji Manicassamy, University of Iowa, UNITED STATES

Received: May 28, 2019; Accepted: September 10, 2019; Published: September 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Schwaiger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was funded by Federal Excellence Initiative of Mecklenburg Western Pomerania and European Social Fund (ESF) Grant KoInfekt (ESF_14-BM-A55-00xx_16) to TCM.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Human; Pigs; Animal models.



A novel #reassortant #influenza A (#H1N1) virus #infection in #swine in #Shandong Province, eastern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13360. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China.

Yu Z1,2,3, Cheng K4, He H5, Wu J1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250023, China. 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Poultry Diseases Diagnosis and Immunology. 3 Poultry Breeding Engineering Technology Center of Shandong Province. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.



Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics. Hence, persistent surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine herds could contribute to the prevention and control of this virus. Here, we report a novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus generated by reassortment between 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses and swine viruses. We also found that this virus is prevalent in swine herds in Shandong Province, eastern China. Our findings suggest that surveillance of the emergence of the novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine is imperative.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; human; influenza; reassortant; swine

PMID: 31535780 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13360

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Reassortant strain; Shandong; China.


#Global #trends in #antimicrobial #resistance in #animals in low- and middle-income countries (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries

Thomas P. Van Boeckel1,2,6,*,†,  João Pires1,6,†, Reshma Silvester2, Cheng Zhao1, Julia Song3,4, Nicola G. Criscuolo1, Marius Gilbert5, Sebastian Bonhoeffer6,‡, Ramanan Laxminarayan1,2,4,‡

1 Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 2 Center for  Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, New Delhi, India. 3 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 4 Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 5 Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium. 6 Institute for Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

*Corresponding author. Email: thomas.vanboeckel@env.ethz.ch

† These authors contributed equally to this work.

‡ These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  20 Sep 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6459, eaaw1944 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1944


Livestock antibiotic resistance

Most antibiotic use is for livestock, and it is growing with the increase in global demand for meat. It is unclear what the increase in demand for antibiotics means for the occurrence of drug resistance in animals and risk to humans. Van Boeckel et al. describe the global burden of antimicrobial resistance in animals on the basis of systematic reviews over the past 20 years (see the Perspective by Moore). There is a clear increase in the number of resistant bacterial strains occurring in chickens and pigs. The current study provides a much-needed baseline model for low- and middle-income countries and provides a “one health” perspective to which future data can be added.

Science, this issue p. eaaw1944; see also p. 1251


Structured Abstract


The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Since 2000, meat production has plateaued in high-income countries but has grown by 68%, 64%, and 40% in Asia, Africa, and South America, respectively. The transition to high-protein diets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been facilitated by the global expansion of intensive animal production systems in which antimicrobials are used routinely to maintain health and productivity. Globally, 73% of all antimicrobials sold on Earth are used in animals raised for food. A growing body of evidence has linked this practice with the rise of antimicrobial-resistant infections, not just in animals but also in humans. Beyond potentially serious consequences for public health, the reliance on antimicrobials to meet demand for animal protein is a likely threat to the sustainability of the livestock industry, and thus to the livelihood of farmers around the world.


In LMICs, trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are poorly documented. In the absence of systematic surveillance systems, point prevalence surveys represent a largely untapped source of information to map trends in AMR in animals. We use geospatial models to produce global maps of AMR in LMICs and give policy-makers—or a future international panel—a baseline for monitoring AMR levels in animals and target interventions in the regions most affected by the rise of resistance.


We identified 901 point prevalence surveys from LMICs reporting AMR rates in animals for common indicator pathogens: Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobial compounds with resistance higher than 50% (P50) increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs and plateaued between 0.12 and 0.23 in cattle. Global maps of AMR (available at resistancebank.org) show hotspots of resistance in northeastern India, northeastern China, northern Pakistan, Iran, eastern Turkey, the south coast of Brazil, Egypt, the Red River delta in Vietnam, and the areas surrounding Mexico City and Johannesburg. Areas where resistance is just starting to emerge are Kenya, Morocco, Uruguay, southern Brazil, central India, and southern China. Uncertainty in our predictions was greatest in the Andes, the Amazon region, West and Central Africa, the Tibetan plateau, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Dense geographical coverage of point prevalence surveys did not systematically correlate with the presence of hotspots of AMR, such as in Ethiopia, Thailand, Chhattisgarh (India), and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The highest resistance rates were observed with the most commonly used classes of antimicrobials in animal production: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and penicillins.


The portfolio of antimicrobials used to raise animals for food is rapidly getting depleted, with important consequences for animal health, farmers’ livelihoods, and potentially for human health. Regions affected by the highest levels of AMR should take immediate actions to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials that are essential in human medicine by restricting their use in animal production. In some middle-income countries, particularly in South America, surveillance must be scaled up to match that of low-income African countries that are currently outperforming them despite more limited resources. Policy-makers coordinating the international response to AMR may consider sparing African countries from the most aggressive measures to restrict access to veterinary drugs, which may undermine livestock-based economic development and rightfully be perceived as unfair. However, in regions where resistance is starting to emerge, there is a window of opportunity to limit the rise of resistance by encouraging a transition to sustainable animal farming practices. High-income countries, where antimicrobials have been used on farms since the 1950s, should support this transition—for example, through a global fund to subsidize improvement in farm-level biosafety and biosecurity.



The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Antimicrobial consumption in animals is threefold that of humans and has enabled large-scale animal protein production. The consequences for the development of antimicrobial resistance in animals have received comparatively less attention than in humans. We analyzed 901 point prevalence surveys of pathogens in developing countries to map resistance in animals. China and India represented the largest hotspots of resistance, with new hotspots emerging in Brazil and Kenya. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobials showing resistance above 50% increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs. Escalating resistance in animals is anticipated to have important consequences for animal health and, eventually, for human health.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Worldwide; Cattle; Poultry; Pigs.


#MRSA in #swine, #farmers and #abattoir #workers in Southern #Italy (Food Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Food Microbiol. 2019 Sep;82:287-293. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

MRSA in swine, farmers and abattoir workers in Southern Italy.

Parisi A1, Caruso M1, Normanno G2, Latorre L1, Miccolupo A1, Fraccalvieri R1, Intini F3, Manginelli T3, Santagada G1.

Author information: 1 Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Apulia and Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, 71121, Foggia, Italy. 2 Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and the Environment (SAFE), Via Napoli 25, University of Foggia, 7121, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.normanno@unifg.it. 3 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Bari, Lungomare Starita 6, 70123, Bari, Italy.



Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important medical issue, since it causes serious and sometimes fatal infections in humans. Intensively reared swine may serve as reservoirs for MRSA that can infect swine workers, and also consumers (via contaminated meat). In this study, MRSA strains were isolated from 55 of the 85 (64.7%) intensive pig farms surveyed, and prevalence was greater on pig fattening farms than on breeding farms. In addition, we included in the study 63 foreign pigs imported for slaughter. Overall, the prevalence of MRSA in the 418 sampled swine was 59.1%; 12 genotypes were identified among the isolates; ST398 (96.4%) was most prevalent, followed by ST97 (2%), ST9 (0.8%) and ST1 (0.8%). MRSA isolates were also detected in 26 (17.3%) of the 150 operators included in the study; the genotypes detected were ST398 (85%), ST9 (7.6%), ST5 (3.8%) and ST1 (3.8%). All the strains were pvl negative and pia positive. Both swine and human strains displayed a multi-resistance pattern, and almost all were resistant to tetracycline. The results obtained in this study confirm the high prevalence of MRSA in swine reared and slaughtered in Italy, and underline the public health risk linked to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among intensively reared pigs.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial resistance; Food safety; MRSA; Professional risk; Public health; Swine

PMID: 31027785 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tetracycline; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Italy; Apulia; Pigs; Human.


Bidirectional #Human-Swine #Transmission of Seasonal #Influenza A #H1N1pdm09 Virus in #Pig Herd, #France, 2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Bidirectional Human-Swine Transmission of Seasonal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pig Herd, France, 2018

Amélie Chastagner1, Vincent Enouf1, David Peroz, Séverine Hervé, Pierrick Lucas, Stéphane Quéguiner, Stéphane Gorin, Véronique Beven, Sylvie Behillil, Philippe Leneveu, Emmanuel Garin, Yannick Blanchard, Sylvie van der Werf, and Gaëlle Simon

Author affiliations: French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health, and Safety, Ploufragan, France (A. Chastagner, S. Hervé, P. Lucas, S. Quéguiner, S. Gorin, V. Beven, Y. Blanchard, G. Simon); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (V. Enouf, S. Behillil, S. van der Werf); Atlantic Vétérinaires, Ancenis, France (D. Peroz); CEVA Santé Animale SA, Libourne, France (P. Leneveu); Coop de France, Paris (E. Garin); Plateforme Epidémiosurveillance Santé Animale, Lyon, France (E. Garin)



In 2018, a veterinarian became sick shortly after swabbing sows exhibiting respiratory syndrome on a farm in France. Epidemiologic data and genetic analyses revealed consecutive human-to-swine and swine-to-human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus transmission, which occurred despite some biosecurity measures. Providing pig industry workers the annual influenza vaccine might reduce transmission risk.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Human; Pigs; France.


Cross-sectional #Seroprevalence and #Genotype of #HepatitisE Virus in #Humans and #Swine in a High-density #Pig-farming Area in Central #China (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cross-sectional Seroprevalence and Genotype of Hepatitis E Virus in Humans and Swine in a High-density Pig-farming Area in Central China

Authors: Yilin Shu, Yameng Chen, Sheng Zhou, Shoude Zhang, Qin Wan, Changcai Zhu, Zhijiang Zhang, Hailong Wu, Jianbo Zhan, Ling Zhang

RESEARCH ARTICLE / First Online: 01 July 2019



Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common public health problem in developing countries. However, the current prevalence of HEV and the relationship of HEV genotype between swine and human within high-density pig-farming areas in central China are still inadequately understood. Here, cross-sectional serological and genotypic surveys of HEV among the 1232 general population, 273 workers occupationally exposed to swine, and 276 pigs in a high-density pig-breeding area, were undertaken by ELISA and nested RT-PCR methods. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 26.22% of general population and 48.35% of occupational workers. The prevalence of swine serum HEV-Ag was 6.52%. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher among the workers occupationally exposed to swine than among the general population. An increased HEV seropositivity risk among the general population was associated with either being a peasant or male and was very strongly associated with the increase of age. Among the occupationally exposed group, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies increased with age and working years. Among the 30 HEV-IgM-positive people, the infection rates of clerks in the public, peasants, pork retailers, and pig farmers were higher than those of others. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to subgenotype 4d, and four people and four pigs shared 97.04%–100% sequence homology. This study revealed a high HEV seroprevalence among the general population and workers occupationally exposed to swine in the Anlu City, and supports the notion that swine are a source of human HEV infection.

Keywords: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) – Seroepidemiological study – Zoonosis – Cross-sectional study – Genotype

Yilin Shu, Yameng Chen and Sheng Zhou authors contributed equally to this work.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00136-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.




The authors would like to thank the Anlu animal husbandry and veterinary bureau for these supporting information on pig density at Anlu city in the central China in 2016. This work was partly supported by General Projects of Health and Family Planning Commission of Hubei Province of China no. WJ2017M174, and WJ2017M240 and Occupational Hazard and Identification Control of Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory Open Fund, no. OCHI2017G02.

Author Contributions

YS, JZ, LZ and HW designed the study. YS, YC, SZ and QW performed the experiments. YS, SZ, CZ and ZZ analyzed the data. HC, YS and LZ drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.

Keywords: Hepatitis E; Pigs; Human; China; Seroprevalence.


#Respiratory Illness in a #Piggery Associated with the First Identified #Outbreak of #Swine #Influenza in #Australia: Assessing the #Risk to #Human Health and #Zoonotic Potential (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 25;4(2). pii: E96. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096.

Respiratory Illness in a Piggery Associated with the First Identified Outbreak of Swine Influenza in Australia: Assessing the Risk to Human Health and Zoonotic Potential.

Smith DW1,2, Barr IG3,4, Loh R5, Levy A6, Tempone S7, O’Dea M8, Watson J9, Wong FYK10, Effler PV11,12.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 2 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 3 World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 5 Sustainability and Biosecurity, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Perth, WA 6151, Australia. richmond.loh@dpird.wa.gov.au. 6 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. avram.levy@health.wa.gov.au. 7 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. simone.tempone@health.wa.gov.au. 8 School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia. M.ODea@murdoch.edu.au. 9 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. James.Watson@csiro.au. 10 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. Frank.Wong@csiro.au. 11 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au. 12 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au.



Australia was previously believed to be free of enzootic swine influenza viruses due strict quarantine practices and use of biosecure breeding facilities. The first proven Australian outbreak of swine influenza occurred in Western Australian in 2012, revealing an unrecognized zoonotic risk, and a potential future pandemic threat. A public health investigation was undertaken to determine whether zoonotic infections had occurred and to reduce the risk of further transmission between humans and swine. A program of monitoring, testing, treatment, and vaccination was commenced, and a serosurvey of workers was also undertaken. No acute infections with the swine influenza viruses were detected. Serosurvey results were difficult to interpret due to previous influenza infections and past and current vaccinations. However, several workers had elevated haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to the swine influenza viruses that could not be attributed to vaccination or infection with contemporaneous seasonal influenza A viruses. However, we lacked a suitable control population, so this was inconclusive. The experience was valuable in developing better protocols for managing outbreaks at the human-animal interface. Strict adherence to biosecurity practices, and ongoing monitoring of swine and their human contacts is important to mitigate pandemic risk. Strain specific serological assays would greatly assist in identifying zoonotic transmission.

KEYWORDS: Australia; human; influenza; pandemic; swine

PMID: 31242646 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Pigs; Human; Serology; Australia.