IncI1 ST3 and IncI1 ST7 #plasmids from CTX-M-1-producing #Escherichia coli obtained from #patients with #bloodstream infections are closely related to plasmids from E. coli of #animal origin (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

IncI1 ST3 and IncI1 ST7 plasmids from CTX-M-1-producing Escherichia coli obtained from patients with bloodstream infections are closely related to plasmids from E. coli of animal origin

Adam Valcek, Louise Roer, Søren Overballe-Petersen, Frank Hansen, Valeria Bortolaia, Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon, Helle B Korsgaard, Anne Mette Seyfarth, Rene S Hendriksen, Henrik Hasman, Anette M Hammerum

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz199,

Published: 14 May 2019




Fully sequenced IncI1 plasmids obtained from CTX-M-1-producing Escherichia coli of human and animal origin were compared.


Twelve E. coli isolates sharing identical ESBL genes and plasmid multilocus STs sequenced on Illumina and MinION platforms were obtained from the Danish antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme, DANMAP. After de novoassembly, the sequences of plasmids harbouring blaCTX-M-1 were manually curated and ORFs annotated. Within-group comparisons were performed separately for the IncI1 ST3 plasmid type and the IncI1 ST7 plasmid type. The IncI1 ST3 plasmid group was obtained from 10 E. coli isolates (2 from patients with bloodstream infections, 6 from food and 2 from animals). The IncI1 ST7 plasmids originated from E. coli isolates obtained from a patient with bloodstream infection and from a pig. Sequences of IncI1 ST3 and IncI1 ST7 plasmids harbouring blaCTX-M-1 with determined origin were retrieved from GenBank and used for comparison within the respective group.


The 10 IncI1 ST3 blaCTX-M-1 plasmids were highly similar in structure and organization with only minor plasmid rearrangements and differences in the variable region. The IncI1 ST7 blaCTX-M-1 plasmids also showed high similarity in structure and organization. The high level of similarity was also observed when including plasmids from E. coli of animal origin from Australia, Switzerland, the Netherlands and France.


This study shows broad spread of a very successful CTX-M-1-producing IncI1 type plasmid among E. coli of both human and animal origin.

Topic: plasmids – drug resistance, microbial – food – genes – ichthyosis, x-linked – sequence tagged sites – escherichia coli – sodium thiosulfate – bloodstream infections – genbank


© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; E. Coli; Bacteremia; Pigs; Human; Plasmids.



Characterization of #multiresistance gene cfr(C) variants in #Campylobacter from #China (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Characterization of multiresistance gene cfr(C) variants in Campylobacter from China

Dejun Liu, Xing Li, Weiwen Liu, Hong Yao, Zhihai Liu, Andrea T Feßler, Junjia He, Yuqing Zhou, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Stefan Schwarz, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz197,

Published: 12 May 2019




To investigate the occurrence, the genetic environment and the functionality of novel variants of the MDR gene cfr(C) in Campylobacter from China.


A total of 370 Campylobacter isolates of porcine and chicken origin collected from three regions of China in 2015 were screened for cfr(C) by PCR. The phenotypes and genotypes of cfr(C)-positive isolates were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE, MLST, S1-PFGE, Southern blotting and WGS. Quantitative RT–PCR was used to compare the expression levels of the cfr(C) variants in their original isolate and clone constructs in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168.


Four (1.1%) porcine Campylobacter coli isolates were positive for cfr(C). They failed to show elevated MICs of phenicols. The deduced Cfr(C) sequences identified exhibited 2–6 amino acid changes compared with the original Cfr(C) reported in the USA. Cloning of the cfr(C) variant genes into C. jejuni NCTC 11168 resulted in ≥32-fold increases in the MICs of phenicols, indicating that the cfr(C) variant genes are functional. The cfr(C)-carrying isolates belonged to three genotypes and WGS analysis revealed the cfr(C) genes were chromosomally located in MDR genomic islands, which contained multiple antibiotic resistance genes of Gram-positive origin.


This study identified chromosomal cfr(C) genes in C. coli isolates from China. They appeared functionally dormant in the original isolates but were fully functional when cloned and expressed in C. jejuni. The cfr(C) genes were co-transferred with other antibiotic resistance genes, possibly from Gram-positive bacteria. These findings reveal new insights into the function and transmission of cfr(C) in Campylobacter.

Topic: phenotype – polymerase chain reaction – amino acids – antibiotic resistance,  bacterial – campylobacter jejuni – southern blot assay – campylobacter coli – chickens – china – chromosomes – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – genes – genes, mdr – genome – genotype – gram-positive bacteria – reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction – suidae – genetics – antimicrobial susceptibility test – multi-antibiotic resistance – campylobacter – malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome – whole genome sequencing


© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter jejuni; Campylobacter coli; Pigs; Poultry; China.


Highly Pathogenic #Swine #Getah Virus in Blue #Foxes, Eastern #China, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Highly Pathogenic Swine Getah Virus in Blue Foxes, Eastern China, 2017

Ning Shi, Li-Xia Li, Rong-Guang Lu, Xi-Jun Yan, and Hao Liu

Author affiliations: Foshan University, Foshan, China (N. Shi, H. Liu); Jilin Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Forestry Department of Jilin Province, Changchun, China (L.-X. Li); Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun (R.-G. Lu, X.-J. Yan)



We isolated Getah virus from infected foxes in Shandong Province, eastern China. We sequenced the complete Getah virus genome, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship with a highly pathogenic swine epidemic strain in China. Epidemiologic investigation showed that pigs might play a pivotal role in disease transmission to foxes.

Keywords: Getah virus; Pigs; Foxes; China.


A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying #plasmid from #MRSA and #MSSA ST9 isolates of #swine origin (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A novel small tet(T)–tet(L)–aadD-carrying plasmid from MRSA and MSSA ST9 isolates of swine origin

Nansong Jiang, Jun Li, Andrea T Feßler, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz177,

Published: 03 May 2019



Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant isolates, are major pathogens of humans and animals.1 Plasmids play a key role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes within the gene pool to which staphylococci and other Firmicutes have access.2 Tetracycline is one of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) was often identified on plasmids of S. aureus, particularly among those of livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) of ST398.3 In contrast, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(T) has only been reported in a few streptococcal and enterococcal strains.4 As…



© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA; Tetracycline; Pigs.


#Seroprevalence of #Hepatitis E Virus #Infection in #Pigs from Southern #Bulgaria (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs from Southern Bulgaria

Ilia Tsachev, Magdalena Baymakova, Massimo Ciccozzi, Roman Pepovich, Todor Kundurzhiev, Plamen Marutsov, Kiril K. Dimitrov, Krasimira Gospodinova, Maria Pishmisheva, and Liliya Pekova

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019 / DOI:



Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been isolated from humans and several animals’ species. During the last years, the knowledge of HEV infection dramatically changed and enriched. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV in industrial pigs in different districts of Southern Bulgaria. Three hundred sixty swine serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies. The samples were collected from four industrial farms from three districts of Southern Bulgaria. HEV-specific antibodies in porcine serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PrioCHECK HEV Ab porcine). The overall HEV seroprevalence was 60.3%. The seropositivity varied widely depending on age groups and investigated farms. The overall prevalence in weaners was 25%, in fattening pigs 75.8%, and in group of sows was found the highest HEV positivity of 80%. The occurrence of HEV positivity in sows and fattening pigs presented odds ratio (OR) = 17.200 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.8–33.7) and OR = 11.342 (95% CI: 6.1–21.0), respectively, compared to weaners. The study indicated that HEV is widespread in industrial farms in Bulgaria and presented high seroprevalence in pigs. The results found that HEV seropositivity showed age dependency. The National Health Authorities should raise awareness of HEV and its zoonotic potential.

Keywords: Hepatitis E; Pigs; Bulgaria.


#Virus #survival and fitness when multiple genotypes and subtypes of #influenza A viruses exist and circulate in #swine (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Apr 9;532:30-38. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.016. [Epub ahead of print]

Virus survival and fitness when multiple genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses exist and circulate in swine.

Ma J1, Shen H1, McDowell C1, Liu Q1, Duff M1, Lee J1, Lang Y1, Hesse D1, Richt JA1, Ma W2.

Author information: 1 Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. 2 Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:



We performed swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in Midwest USA and isolated 100 SIVs including endemic and reassortant H1 and H3 viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes. To determine virus evolution when different genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in the same swine herd, a virus survival experiment was conducted in pigs mimicking field situations. Five different SIVs were used to infect five pigs individually, then two groups of sentinel pigs were introduced to investigate virus transmission. Results showed that each virus replicated efficiently in lungs of each infected pig, but only reassortant H3N2 and H1N2v viruses transmitted to the primary contact pigs. Interestingly, the parental H1N2v was the majority of virus detected in the second group of sentinel pigs. These data indicate that the H1N2v seems to be more viable in swine herds than other SIV genotypes, and reassortment can enhance viral fitness and transmission.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: H1N2v; Pigs; Surveillance; Swine influenza virus; Virus competition and survival

PMID: 31003122 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.016

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; Pigs; H1N1; H3N2; H1N2.


#Interferon as a #Mucosal #Adjuvant for an #Influenza #Vaccine in #Pigs (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Interferon as a Mucosal Adjuvant for an Influenza Vaccine in Pigs

Authors: Lirong Liu, Wenhui Fan, He Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Liang Cui, Meng Wang, Xiaoyuan Bai, Wenxian Yang, Lei Sun, Limin Yang, Wenjun Liu, Jing Li

RESEARCH ARTICLE / First Online: 15 April 2019



Interferon, a natural protein that is produced by a variety of cells during viral infection, activates the transcription of multiple functional genes in cells, regulates synergy among various signaling pathways, and mediates many biological functions such as antiviral activity, immune regulation, and cell growth. However, clinical research on interferon in livestock is lacking. In this study, recombinant porcine interferon (PoIFNα) was used as an adjuvant, in combination with inactivated influenza virus, to vaccinate 6-week-old pigs via nasal infusion. The transcription of target genes was then monitored and the functions of PoIFNα were determined with respect to the activation of mucosal immunity. We found that a combination of low-dose PoIFNα and inactivated influenza virus could significantly up-regulate the expression of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 by real-time PCR, suggesting the induction of a strong mucosal innate immune response after administration. In addition, low-dose PoIFNα can significant enhancing the transcription of genes encoding homing factors including CCR9 and CCR10 (P < 0.001), thereby resulting in the induction of higher levels of HA-specific antibodies (P < 0.05), which can be determined by ELISA and IFA. Post-immunization challenges with H1N1 virus demonstrated that PoIFNα, combined with inactivated influenza virus, could alleviate clinical signs in pigs during the early stages of viral infection. These studies reveal low-dose PoIFNα as a potential mucosal adjuvant for influenza virus in pigs.

Keywords: Porcine interferon α (PoIFNα) – H1N1 – influenza virus – Intranasal administration – Cytokines


Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


We gratefully acknowledge the workers of Beijing Sinder Technology Co., Ltd. for their help with pig immunization and sample collection. This work was supported by Grants from the National Key R&D Programme of China (2017YFD051105), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31630079), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101004), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB29010000). W.J.L. is the principal investigator of the Innovative Research Group of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81621091). J.L. is supported by Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS (2019).

Author Contributions

JL and WL supervised the Project and designed the study; JL and LL planned and conducted the experimental work, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript; WF, HZ, SZ, LC, MW, XB, WY, LY, and LS provided technical support. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

The pig experimental design and protocols used in this study were approved by the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences of Research Ethics Committee (Permit Number: PZIMCAS2017001). All pig experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the Regulations for the Administration of Affairs Concerning Experimental Animals approved by the State Council of People’s Republic of China.

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; H1N1; Pigs; Vaccines; Interferons.