Cross-sectional #Seroprevalence and #Genotype of #HepatitisE Virus in #Humans and #Swine in a High-density #Pig-farming Area in Central #China (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cross-sectional Seroprevalence and Genotype of Hepatitis E Virus in Humans and Swine in a High-density Pig-farming Area in Central China

Authors: Yilin Shu, Yameng Chen, Sheng Zhou, Shoude Zhang, Qin Wan, Changcai Zhu, Zhijiang Zhang, Hailong Wu, Jianbo Zhan, Ling Zhang

RESEARCH ARTICLE / First Online: 01 July 2019

 

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common public health problem in developing countries. However, the current prevalence of HEV and the relationship of HEV genotype between swine and human within high-density pig-farming areas in central China are still inadequately understood. Here, cross-sectional serological and genotypic surveys of HEV among the 1232 general population, 273 workers occupationally exposed to swine, and 276 pigs in a high-density pig-breeding area, were undertaken by ELISA and nested RT-PCR methods. Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 26.22% of general population and 48.35% of occupational workers. The prevalence of swine serum HEV-Ag was 6.52%. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher among the workers occupationally exposed to swine than among the general population. An increased HEV seropositivity risk among the general population was associated with either being a peasant or male and was very strongly associated with the increase of age. Among the occupationally exposed group, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies increased with age and working years. Among the 30 HEV-IgM-positive people, the infection rates of clerks in the public, peasants, pork retailers, and pig farmers were higher than those of others. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to subgenotype 4d, and four people and four pigs shared 97.04%–100% sequence homology. This study revealed a high HEV seroprevalence among the general population and workers occupationally exposed to swine in the Anlu City, and supports the notion that swine are a source of human HEV infection.

Keywords: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) – Seroepidemiological study – Zoonosis – Cross-sectional study – Genotype

Yilin Shu, Yameng Chen and Sheng Zhou authors contributed equally to this work.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00136-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Anlu animal husbandry and veterinary bureau for these supporting information on pig density at Anlu city in the central China in 2016. This work was partly supported by General Projects of Health and Family Planning Commission of Hubei Province of China no. WJ2017M174, and WJ2017M240 and Occupational Hazard and Identification Control of Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory Open Fund, no. OCHI2017G02.

Author Contributions

YS, JZ, LZ and HW designed the study. YS, YC, SZ and QW performed the experiments. YS, SZ, CZ and ZZ analyzed the data. HC, YS and LZ drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Additional informed consent was obtained from all patients for which identifying information is included in this article.

Keywords: Hepatitis E; Pigs; Human; China; Seroprevalence.

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#Respiratory Illness in a #Piggery Associated with the First Identified #Outbreak of #Swine #Influenza in #Australia: Assessing the #Risk to #Human Health and #Zoonotic Potential (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 25;4(2). pii: E96. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096.

Respiratory Illness in a Piggery Associated with the First Identified Outbreak of Swine Influenza in Australia: Assessing the Risk to Human Health and Zoonotic Potential.

Smith DW1,2, Barr IG3,4, Loh R5, Levy A6, Tempone S7, O’Dea M8, Watson J9, Wong FYK10, Effler PV11,12.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 2 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 3 World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 5 Sustainability and Biosecurity, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Perth, WA 6151, Australia. richmond.loh@dpird.wa.gov.au. 6 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. avram.levy@health.wa.gov.au. 7 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. simone.tempone@health.wa.gov.au. 8 School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia. M.ODea@murdoch.edu.au. 9 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. James.Watson@csiro.au. 10 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. Frank.Wong@csiro.au. 11 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au. 12 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au.

 

Abstract

Australia was previously believed to be free of enzootic swine influenza viruses due strict quarantine practices and use of biosecure breeding facilities. The first proven Australian outbreak of swine influenza occurred in Western Australian in 2012, revealing an unrecognized zoonotic risk, and a potential future pandemic threat. A public health investigation was undertaken to determine whether zoonotic infections had occurred and to reduce the risk of further transmission between humans and swine. A program of monitoring, testing, treatment, and vaccination was commenced, and a serosurvey of workers was also undertaken. No acute infections with the swine influenza viruses were detected. Serosurvey results were difficult to interpret due to previous influenza infections and past and current vaccinations. However, several workers had elevated haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to the swine influenza viruses that could not be attributed to vaccination or infection with contemporaneous seasonal influenza A viruses. However, we lacked a suitable control population, so this was inconclusive. The experience was valuable in developing better protocols for managing outbreaks at the human-animal interface. Strict adherence to biosecurity practices, and ongoing monitoring of swine and their human contacts is important to mitigate pandemic risk. Strain specific serological assays would greatly assist in identifying zoonotic transmission.

KEYWORDS: Australia; human; influenza; pandemic; swine

PMID: 31242646 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Pigs; Human; Serology; Australia.

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Novel Recombinant #Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered #Pigs in #Guangdong Province (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Novel Recombinant Seneca Valley Virus Isolated from Slaughtered Pigs in Guangdong Province

Authors: Jianxin Liu, Yunfeng Zha, Huizi Li, Yanwei Sun, Fuguang Wang, Rong Lu, Zhangyong Ning

Letter / First Online: 25 June 2019

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Dear Editor,

Since the first outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Seneca Valley virus (SVV) associated with porcine idiopathic vesicular disease, has shown increasing geographic distribution. Cases of SVV have been reported from several countries including the United States (US), Colombia, Thailand, Canada, and China (Pasma et al.2008; Zhang et al.2015; Sun et al.2017; Wu et al.2017; Liu et al.2018; Saeng-Chuto et al.2018). SVV was first identified in the US in 2002 and is the only member of the genus Senecavirus in the family Picornaviridae (Hales et al.2008; Leme et al.2017). The SVV genome contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein, which is cleaved into various mature viral proteins including the leader protein (L), structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4), and non-structural proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (Hales et al.2008). Structural proteins bind to their receptor, anthrax toxin receptor 1, to mediate viral invasion and stimulate specific immunity…

(…)

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (2019B020218004).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Keywords: Picornavirus; Seneca Valley Virus; Pigs; China; Guangdong.

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Emergence of #plasmid-mediated #oxazolidinone #resistance #gene poxtA from CC17 #Enterococcus faecium of #pig origin (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA from CC17 Enterococcus faecium of pig origin

Jinhu Huang, Mengli Wang, Yi Gao, Li Chen, Liping Wang

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz250, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz250

Published: 24 June 2019

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA on broad-host-range Inc18 plasmids from CC17 Enterococcus faecium of pig origin.

Methods

Oxazolidinone-resistant E. faecium isolates were screened for the presence of poxtA. The poxtA-carrying isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, conjugation, S1-PFGE and hybridization. The poxtA-carrying plasmids were completely sequenced and their instability was verified.

Results

Two individual CC17 E. faecium strains were positive for poxtA. S1-PFGE and hybridization revealed the presence of a poxtA-carrying plasmid of ∼62 kb in both WZ27-2 and the transconjugant, while poxtA-carrying plasmids of different sizes were observed in QF25-1 and the transconjugant. The two poxtA-carrying plasmids, pC25-1 and pC27-2, belonged to the broad-host-range plasmids of the Inc18 family and carried dfrG, aadE, Δsat4, aph(3′)-III, erm(B), tet(M), tet(L) and fexB. Plasmid pC27-2 was virtually identical to pC25-1, with minor differences. The calculated transfer frequency was ∼0.87 × 10−8 and ∼1.03 × 10−7 per recipient to plasmids pC25-1 and pC27-2, respectively. Instability assays of the region with four adjacent IS1216Es, which forms three IS1216E translocatable units, revealed the formation of a series of mosaic circular intermediates.

Conclusions

We report the emergence of the plasmid-mediated oxazolidinone resistance gene poxtA in E. faecium from different farms in China. Comparison of the poxtAgenetic context suggests that IS1216E elements play an important role in the dissemination of poxtA. The co-occurrence of poxtA with other antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes on the broad-host-range plasmids of the Inc18 family may lead to the co-selection of poxtA, contributing to its persistence and accelerating its dissemination.

Topic: plasmids – electrophoresis, gel, pulsed-field – enterococcus faecium – genetics – antimicrobials – antimicrobial susceptibility test – transfer technique – resistance genes

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Oxazolidinone; Enterococcus faecium; Pigs.

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Monitoring #antimicrobial #resistance #trends in commensal #Escherichia coli from #livestock, the #Netherlands, 1998 to 2016 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends in commensal Escherichia coli from livestock, the Netherlands, 1998 to 2016

Ayla Hesp1,2, Kees Veldman1, Jeanet van der Goot1, Dik Mevius1,2, Gerdien van Schaik3,4

Affiliations: 1 Department of Bacteriology and Epidemiology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands; 2 Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3 GD Animal Health, Deventer, the Netherlands; 4 Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands

Correspondence:  Ayla Hesp

Citation style for this article: Hesp Ayla, Veldman Kees, van der Goot Jeanet, Mevius Dik, van Schaik Gerdien. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends in commensal Escherichia coli from livestock, the Netherlands, 1998 to 2016. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(25):pii=1800438. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.25.1800438

Received: 07 Aug 2018;   Accepted: 23 Apr 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals is essential for public health surveillance. To enhance interpretation of monitoring data, evaluation and optimisation of AMR trend analysis is needed.

Aims

To quantify and evaluate trends in AMR in commensal Escherichia coli, using data from the Dutch national AMR monitoring programme in livestock (1998–2016).

Methods

Faecal samples were collected at slaughter from broilers, pigs and veal calves. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were obtained by broth microdilution for E. coli for 15 antimicrobials of eight antimicrobial classes. A Poisson regression model was applied to resistant isolate counts, with explanatory variables representing time before and after 2009 (reference year); for veal calves, sampling changed from 2012 represented by an extra explanatory variable.

Results

Resistant counts increased significantly from 1998-2009 in broilers and pigs, except for tetracyclines and sulfamethoxazole in broilers and chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides in pigs. Since 2009, resistant counts decreased for all antimicrobials in broilers and for all but the phenicols in pigs. In veal calves, for most antimicrobials no significant decrease in resistant counts could be determined for 2009–16, except for sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid. Within animal species, antimicrobial-specific trends were similar.

Conclusions

Using Dutch monitoring data from 1998-2016, this study quantified AMR trends in broilers and slaughter pigs and showed significant trend changes in the reference year 2009. We showed that monitoring in commensal E. coli is useful to quantify trends and detect trend changes in AMR. This model is applicable to similar data from other European countries.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; E. Coli; Pigs; Poultry; Netherlands.

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Detection of #plasmid-mediated #tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in #Escherichia coli from #pork, #Sichuan and #Shandong Provinces, #China, February 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019

Li Bai1,2,3, Pengcheng Du3,4, Yinju Du5, Honghu Sun1,2,6, Pei Zhang1,2, Yuping Wan6, Qi Lin6, Séamus Fanning1,2,7, Shenghui Cui8, Yongning Wu1,2

Affiliations: 1 Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2 Food Safety Research Unit of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3 These authors contributed equally to this work; 4 Institute of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5 Center for disease control and prevention of Liaocheng city, Liaocheng, People’s Republic of China; 6 Chengdu institute for Food and Drug Control, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 7 UCD-Centre for Food Safety, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland; 8 Department of Food Science, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence:  Yongning Wu

Citation style for this article: Bai Li, Du Pengcheng, Du Yinju, Sun Honghu, Zhang Pei, Wan Yuping, Lin Qi, Fanning Séamus, Cui Shenghui, Wu Yongning. Detection of plasmid-mediated tigecycline-resistant gene tet(X4) in Escherichia coli from pork, Sichuan and Shandong Provinces, China, February 2019. Euro Surveill.2019;24(25):pii=1900340. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.25.1900340

Received: 29 May 2019;   Accepted: 20 Jun 2019

 

Abstract

The plasmid-mediated high-level tigecycline resistance gene, tet(X4), was detected in seven Escherichia coli isolates from pork in two Chinese provinces. Two isolates belonged to the epidemic spreading sequence type ST101. Tet(X4) was adjacent to ISVsa3 and concurrent with floR in all seven isolates. In addition to IncFIB, the replicon IncFII was found to be linked to tet(X4). This report follows a recent detection of tet(X3)/(X4) in E. coli from animals and humans in China.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tigecycline; Plasmids; Pigs; E. Coli; Food Safety; China; Sichuan; Shandong.

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Vector #Mosquito #Ecology and Japanese #Encephalitis Virus Genotype III Strain Detection from #Culex tritaeniorhynchus and #Pig in Huaihua, #China (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector Mosquito Ecology and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype III Strain Detection from Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Pig in Huaihua, China

Chen Chen, Teng Zhao, Yuting Jiang, Chunxiao Li, Gang Wang, Jian Gao, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Xiaoxia Guo, and Tongyan Zhao

Published Online: 10 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2453

 

Abstract

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is the major cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. An investigation of mosquito species diversity, JEV infection rate, and seasonal population fluctuations of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Huaihua County, Hunan Province, China, revealed the distribution of vector mosquito populations and genotypes and molecular characteristics of current, common JEV strains in this region. Research on mosquito species diversity in different habitats in Huaihua revealed that local community composition was relatively simple, including five species from four genera (two Culex spp., one Anopheles sp., one Aedes sp., and one Armigeres sp.). Cx. tritaeniorhynchuswas clearly the dominant species comprising 94.2–98.6% of all specimens and was always the most common species captured in paddy fields, pigpens, and human dwellings. The seasonal abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was relatively even, with a single seasonal peak in late August. Two Huaihua JEV strains isolated from the mosquito and pig were highly congruent. The genetic affinities were determined by analyzing capsid/premembrane (C/PrM) and envelope (E) gene variation. The results showed that they were of genotype III and most closely related to the live, attenuated vaccine strains SAl4-14-2 and SA14 and JaGAr01. The Huaihua E protein shares high similarity (mosquito 98.8% and pig 97.6%) at the nucleotide level with the SA14-14-2 vaccine. Although we found that the E gene sequences of the Huaihua JEV mosquito strain and pig strain have 11 and 15 amino acid site substitutions compared with the SAl4-14-2 vaccine, key sites that associated with JEV’s antigenic activity and neurovirulence were unchanged. The SA14-14-2 vaccine should therefore be effective in preventing JEV infection in the Huaihua region.

Keywords: Japanese Encephalitis Virus; Mosquitoes; Culex spp.; Pigs; China.

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