[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Octapeptin C4 and polymyxin resistance occur via distinct pathways in an epidemic XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 isolate
Miranda E Pitt, Minh Duc Cao, Mark S Butler, Soumya Ramu, Devika Ganesamoorthy, Mark A T Blaskovich, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew A Cooper
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky458, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky458
Published: 14 November 2018
Polymyxin B and E (colistin) have been pivotal in the treatment of XDR Gram-negative bacterial infections; however, resistance has emerged. A structurally related lipopeptide, octapeptin C4, has shown significant potency against XDR bacteria, including polymyxin-resistant strains, but its mode of action remains undefined.
We sought to compare and contrast the acquisition of resistance in an XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST258) clinical isolate in vitro with all three lipopeptides to potentially unveil variations in their mode of action.
The isolate was exposed to increasing concentrations of polymyxins and octapeptin C4 over 20 days. Day 20 strains underwent WGS, complementation assays, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and lipid A analysis.
Twenty days of exposure to the polymyxins resulted in a 1000-fold increase in the MIC, whereas for octapeptin C4 a 4-fold increase was observed. There was no cross-resistance observed between the polymyxin- and octapeptin-resistant strains. Sequencing of polymyxin-resistant isolates revealed mutations in previously known resistance-associated genes, including crrB, mgrB, pmrB, phoPQ and yciM, along with novel mutations in qseC. Octapeptin C4-resistant isolates had mutations in mlaDF and pqiB, genes related to phospholipid transport. These genetic variations were reflected in distinct phenotypic changes to lipid A. Polymyxin-resistant isolates increased 4-amino-4-deoxyarabinose fortification of lipid A phosphate groups, whereas the lipid A of octapeptin C4-resistant strains harboured a higher abundance of hydroxymyristate and palmitoylate.
Octapeptin C4 has a distinct mode of action compared with the polymyxins, highlighting its potential as a future therapeutic agent to combat the increasing threat of XDR bacteria.
Topic: mutation – colistin – genes – klebsiella pneumoniae – lipid a – polymyxins – polymyxin b – epidemics – antimicrobial susceptibility test – gene complementation –
Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Colistin; Polymyxins; Octapentin; K. pneumoniae.