Conditionally Reprogrammed #Human Normal #Airway #Epithelial #Cells at ALI: A Physiological #Model for #Emerging #Viruses (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Conditionally Reprogrammed Human Normal Airway Epithelial Cells at ALI: A Physiological Model for Emerging Viruses

Xuefeng Liu, Yuntao Wu & Lijun Rong

Virologica Sinica (2020)



Cancer cell lines have been used widely in cancer biology, and as biological or functional cell systems in many biomedical research fields. These cells are usually defective for many normal activities or functions due to significant genetic and epigenetic changes. Normal primary cell yields and viability from any original tissue specimens are usually relatively low or highly variable. These normal cells cease after a few passages or population doublings due to very limited proliferative capacity. Animal models (ferret, mouse, etc.) are often used to study virus-host interaction. However, viruses usually need to be adapted to the animals by several passages due to tropism restrictions including viral receptors and intracellular restrictions. Here we summarize applications of conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs), long-term cultures of normal airway epithelial cells from human nose to lung generated by conditional cell reprogramming (CR) technology, as an ex vivo model in studies of emerging viruses. CR allows to robustly propagate cells from non-invasive or minimally invasive specimens, for example, nasal or endobronchial brushing. This process is rapid (2 days) and conditional. The CRCs maintain their differentiation potential and lineage functions, and have been used for studies of adenovirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, parvovirus, and SARS-CoV. The CRCs can be easily used for air-liquid interface (ALI) polarized 3D cultures, and these coupled CRC/ALI cultures mimic physiological conditions and are suitable for studies of viral entry including receptor binding and internalization, innate immune responses, viral replications, and drug discovery as an ex vivo model for emerging viruses.

Keywords: Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; SARS-CoV-2.


#Bat-borne #Virus #Diversity, #Spillover and Emergence (Nat Rev Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 Jun 11. doi: 10.1038/s41579-020-0394-z. Online ahead of print.

Bat-borne Virus Diversity, Spillover and Emergence

Michael Letko 1 2, Stephanie N Seifert 3, Kevin J Olival 4, Raina K Plowright 5, Vincent J Munster 6

Affiliations: 1 Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA. 2 Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA. 3 Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA. 4 EcoHealth Alliance, New York, NY, USA. 5 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. 6 Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, USA.

PMID: 32528128  DOI: 10.1038/s41579-020-0394-z



Most viral pathogens in humans have animal origins and arose through cross-species transmission. Over the past 50 years, several viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, have been linked back to various bat species. Despite decades of research into bats and the pathogens they carry, the fields of bat virus ecology and molecular biology are still nascent, with many questions largely unexplored, thus hindering our ability to anticipate and prepare for the next viral outbreak. In this Review, we discuss the latest advancements and understanding of bat-borne viruses, reflecting on current knowledge gaps and outlining the potential routes for future research as well as for outbreak response and prevention efforts.

Keywords: Bats; Wildlife; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases.


Identifying Suspect #Bat #Reservoirs of #Emerging #Infections (Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Identifying Suspect Bat Reservoirs of Emerging Infections

by  Daniel Crowley 1,*, Daniel Becker 2 , Alex Washburne 1 and Raina Plowright 1

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA; 2 Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 228; (registering DOI)

Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 10 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 17 May 2020

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research in Bat-borne Zoonotic Viruses)



Bats host a number of pathogens that cause severe disease and onward transmission in humans and domestic animals. Some of these pathogens, including henipaviruses and filoviruses, are considered a concern for future pandemics. There has been substantial effort to identify these viruses in bats. However, the reservoir hosts for Ebola virus are still unknown and henipaviruses are largely uncharacterized across their distribution. Identifying reservoir species is critical in understanding the viral ecology within these hosts and the conditions that lead to spillover. We collated surveillance data to identify taxonomic patterns in prevalence and seroprevalence and to assess sampling efforts across species. We systematically collected data on filovirus and henipavirus detections and used a machine-learning algorithm, phylofactorization, in order to search the bat phylogeny for cladistic patterns in filovirus and henipavirus infection, accounting for sampling efforts. Across sampled bat species, evidence for filovirus infection was widely dispersed across the sampled phylogeny. We found major gaps in filovirus sampling in bats, especially in Western Hemisphere species. Evidence for henipavirus infection was clustered within the Pteropodidae; however, no other clades have been as intensely sampled. The major predictor of filovirus and henipavirus exposure or infection was sampling effort. Based on these results, we recommend expanding surveillance for these pathogens across the bat phylogenetic tree.

Keywords: Nipah; Ebola; bats; phylofactor; phylogenetics

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Crowley, D.; Becker, D.; Washburne, A.; Plowright, R. Identifying Suspect Bat Reservoirs of Emerging Infections. Vaccines 2020, 8, 228.

Keywords: Filovirus; Henipavirus; Bats.


#Global #shifts in #mammalian #population trends reveal key #predictors of #virus #spillover risk (Proc Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Global shifts in mammalian population trends reveal key predictors of virus spillover risk

Christine K. Johnson, Peta L. Hitchens, Pranav S. Pandit, Julie Rushmore, Tierra Smiley Evans, Cristin C. W. Young and Megan M. Doyle

Published: 08 April 2020 | DOI:



Emerging infectious diseases in humans are frequently caused by pathogens originating from animal hosts, and zoonotic disease outbreaks present a major challenge to global health. To investigate drivers of virus spillover, we evaluated the number of viruses mammalian species have shared with humans. We discovered that the number of zoonotic viruses detected in mammalian species scales positively with global species abundance, suggesting that virus transmission risk has been highest from animal species that have increased in abundance and even expanded their range by adapting to human-dominated landscapes. Domesticated species, primates and bats were identified as having more zoonotic viruses than other species. Among threatened wildlife species, those with population reductions owing to exploitation and loss of habitat shared more viruses with humans. Exploitation of wildlife through hunting and trade facilitates close contact between wildlife and humans, and our findings provide further evidence that exploitation, as well as anthropogenic activities that have caused losses in wildlife habitat quality, have increased opportunities for animal–human interactions and facilitated zoonotic disease transmission. Our study provides new evidence for assessing spillover risk from mammalian species and highlights convergent processes whereby the causes of wildlife population declines have facilitated the transmission of animal viruses to humans.

Keywords: Emerging diseases, Infectious Diseases.


From #Hendra to #Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging #zoonotic viruses (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

From Hendra to Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging zoonotic viruses

Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E Anderson, John S Mackenzie, Michael H Merson

Published: February 11, 2020 / DOI:


As the world watches the rapid spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak, it is important to reflect on the lessons that can be learned from this and previous emerging zoonotic viruses (EZV) in a comparative and analytic way. Although the source of 2019-nCoV is yet to be confirmed, early findings suggest a high possibility of a bat origin.1 There have been six major EZV outbreaks in the past 25 years caused by proven or suspected bat-borne viruses (table).2, 3, 4, 5,6,7 With these in mind, four major points are worth considering in the context of the 2019-nCoV outbreak.


Keywords: COVID-19; Zoonoses; Emerging diseases; Henipavirus.


A Qualitative Study of #Zoonotic #Risk Factors Among Rural Communities in Southern #China (Int Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int Health  2020 Feb 10 [Online ahead of print]

A Qualitative Study of Zoonotic Risk Factors Among Rural Communities in Southern China

Hong-Ying Li 1, Guang-Jian Zhu 1, Yun-Zhi Zhang 2, Li-Biao Zhang 3, Emily A Hagan 1, Stephanie Martinez 1, Aleksei A Chmura 1, Leilani Francisco 4, Hina Tai 5, Maureen Miller 6, Peter Daszak 1

Affiliations: 1 EcoHealth Alliance, 460 West 34th Street, New York, NY 10001, USA. 2 Institute of Preventive Medicine, Dali University, Dali, 671000, China. 3 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, #105 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou, 510260, China. 4 Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. 5 School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Great River, NY 11739, USA. 6 Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

PMID: 32040190 DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihaa001




Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities.


Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels.


Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation.


This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS; Zoonotic Risk; coronavirus; ethnographic; qualitative; rural communities; southern China.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging diseases; China.


Recent #advances in the #detection of #respiratory virus #infection in #humans (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2020 Jan 15. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25674. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans.

Zhang N1, Wang L2, Deng X3, Liang R3, Su M3, He C3, Hu L3, Su Y3, Ren J3, Yu F3, Du L4, Jiang S4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Research Center of Chinese Jujube, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 3 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, College of Life and Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 4 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, USA. 5 Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.



Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people’s lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, human adenovirus (hAdV), and human rhinovirus (hRV). Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Respiratory viral infection; adenovirus; coronavirus; diagnostic methods; influenza virus; respiratory syncytial virus; rhinovirus

PMID: 31944312 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25674

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Diagnostic tests; 2019-nCoV.


#Global #warming threatens #human #thermoregulation and #survival (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Global warming threatens human thermoregulation and survival

Rexford S. Ahima

First published January 6, 2020


There is overwhelming evidence showing that human activities have contributed to global warming over the past century. Global warming has a severe impact on food and water supplies, housing and other infrastructure, health, and economic activities. The human body has thermoregulatory mechanisms that adapt to ambient temperature and maintain normal core body temperature for physiological functions. This JCI Viewpoint article discusses how extreme temperatures driven by global warming disrupt normal thermoregulation and imperil human health and survival.


Keywords: Climate change; Global Warming; Infectious diseases.


#Climatechange brings the #specter of new #infectious diseases (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Climate change brings the specter of new infectious diseases

Arturo Casadevall

First published January 6, 2020


Climate change will bring major changes to the epidemiology of infectious diseases through changes in microbial and vector geographic range. Human defenses against microbial diseases rely on advanced immunity that includes innate and adaptive arms and endothermy, which creates a thermal restriction zone for many microbes. Given that microbes can adapt to higher temperatures, there is concern that global warming will select for microbes with higher heat tolerance that can defeat our endothermy defenses and bring new infectious disease.


Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warming; Infectious Diseases.


#Planning for the next #pandemic: a call for new #guidance (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Planning for the next pandemic: a call for new guidance

Joe Brierley, Stephen Playfor, Samiran Ray

Published: December 16, 2019 / DOI:


Collaborative working, regional spare capacity, and goodwill maintain paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) function during sudden local or regional surges of demand, such as those observed after the Manchester bombing or the Grenfell Tower fire in the UK. Surges due to pandemics are less forgiving but are inevitable, and we also face an increasing number of unpredictable threats from environmental catastrophes and terrorism. Given recent substantial changes in the PICU case-mix, it seems clear that existing guidance for resource allocation during times of overwhelming need, such as during pandemics, requires urgent revision.


Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Emerging diseases; Intensive Care; Pediatrics.