Recent #advances in the #detection of #respiratory virus #infection in #humans (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2020 Jan 15. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25674. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans.

Zhang N1, Wang L2, Deng X3, Liang R3, Su M3, He C3, Hu L3, Su Y3, Ren J3, Yu F3, Du L4, Jiang S4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Research Center of Chinese Jujube, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 3 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, College of Life and Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 4 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, USA. 5 Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

 

Abstract

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people’s lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, human adenovirus (hAdV), and human rhinovirus (hRV). Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Respiratory viral infection; adenovirus; coronavirus; diagnostic methods; influenza virus; respiratory syncytial virus; rhinovirus

PMID: 31944312 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25674

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Diagnostic tests; 2019-nCoV.

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#Global #warming threatens #human #thermoregulation and #survival (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Global warming threatens human thermoregulation and survival

Rexford S. Ahima

First published January 6, 2020

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There is overwhelming evidence showing that human activities have contributed to global warming over the past century. Global warming has a severe impact on food and water supplies, housing and other infrastructure, health, and economic activities. The human body has thermoregulatory mechanisms that adapt to ambient temperature and maintain normal core body temperature for physiological functions. This JCI Viewpoint article discusses how extreme temperatures driven by global warming disrupt normal thermoregulation and imperil human health and survival.

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Keywords: Climate change; Global Warming; Infectious diseases.

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#Climatechange brings the #specter of new #infectious diseases (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Climate change brings the specter of new infectious diseases

Arturo Casadevall

First published January 6, 2020

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Climate change will bring major changes to the epidemiology of infectious diseases through changes in microbial and vector geographic range. Human defenses against microbial diseases rely on advanced immunity that includes innate and adaptive arms and endothermy, which creates a thermal restriction zone for many microbes. Given that microbes can adapt to higher temperatures, there is concern that global warming will select for microbes with higher heat tolerance that can defeat our endothermy defenses and bring new infectious disease.

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Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warming; Infectious Diseases.

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#Planning for the next #pandemic: a call for new #guidance (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Planning for the next pandemic: a call for new guidance

Joe Brierley, Stephen Playfor, Samiran Ray

Published: December 16, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30357-1

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Collaborative working, regional spare capacity, and goodwill maintain paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) function during sudden local or regional surges of demand, such as those observed after the Manchester bombing or the Grenfell Tower fire in the UK. Surges due to pandemics are less forgiving but are inevitable, and we also face an increasing number of unpredictable threats from environmental catastrophes and terrorism. Given recent substantial changes in the PICU case-mix, it seems clear that existing guidance for resource allocation during times of overwhelming need, such as during pandemics, requires urgent revision.

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Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Emerging diseases; Intensive Care; Pediatrics.

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#Patterns, #Drivers, and #Challenges of #Vector-Borne #Disease Emergence (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Patterns, Drivers, and Challenges of Vector-Borne Disease Emergence

Andrea Swei, Lisa I. Couper, Lark L. Coffey, Durrell Kapan, and Shannon Bennett

Published Online: 3 Dec 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2432

 

Abstract

Vector-borne diseases are emerging at an increasing rate and comprise a disproportionate share of all emerging infectious diseases. Yet, the key ecological and evolutionary dimensions of vector-borne disease that facilitate their emergence have not been thoroughly explored. This study reviews and synthesizes the existing literature to explore global patterns of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) under changing global conditions. We find that the vast majority of emerging VBZDs are transmitted by ticks (Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Culicidae) and the pathogens transmitted are dominated by Rickettsiaceae bacteria and RNA viruses (Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Togaviridae). The most common potential driver of these emerging zoonoses is land use change, but for many diseases, the driver is unknown, revealing a critical research gap. While most reported VBZDs are emerging in the northern latitudes, after correcting for sampling bias, Africa is clearly a region with the greatest share of emerging VBZD. We highlight critical gaps in our understanding of VBZD emergence and emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary research and consideration of deeper evolutionary processes to improve our capacity for anticipating where and how such diseases have and will continue to emerge.

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Mosquitoes; Emerging Diseases.

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Developing #vaccines against #epidemic-prone emerging #infectious diseases (Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2019 Nov 27. doi: 10.1007/s00103-019-03061-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Developing vaccines against epidemic-prone emerging infectious diseases.

Bernasconi V1, Kristiansen PA1, Whelan M2, Román RG1, Bettis A1, Yimer SA1, Gurry C1, Andersen SR1, Yeskey D3, Mandi H1, Kumar A1, Holst J1, Clark C1, Cramer JP2, Røttingen JA1,4, Hattchet R1, Saville M2, Norheim G5.

Author information: 1 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Marcus Thranes Gate 2, 0473, Oslo, Norway. 2 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), NW1 2BE, London, UK. 3 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Washington, DC, USA. 4 Research Council of Norway, Lysaker, Norway. 5 Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), Marcus Thranes Gate 2, 0473, Oslo, Norway. gunnstein.norheim@cepi.net.

 

Abstract

Today’s world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impact on economic growth in affected regions and beyond.The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI) is an innovative global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organizations that was launched as the result of a consensus that a coordinated, international, and intergovernmental plan was needed to develop and deploy new vaccines to prevent future epidemics. CEPI is focusing on supporting candidate vaccines against the World Health Organization (WHO) Blueprint priority pathogens MERS-CoV, Nipah virus, Lassa fever virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, as well as Chikungunya virus, which is on the WHO watch list. The current vaccine portfolio contains a wide variety of technologies, ranging across recombinant viral vectors, nucleic acids, and recombinant proteins. To support and accelerate vaccine development, CEPI will also support science projects related to the development of biological standards and assays, animal models, epidemiological studies, and diagnostics, as well as build capacities for future clinical trials in risk-prone contexts.

KEYWORDS: CEPI; Chikungunya; MERS-CoV; Nipah; Rift Valley fever

PMID: 31776599 DOI: 10.1007/s00103-019-03061-2

Keywords: Pandemic Preparedness; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Vaccines.

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The Acute #Respiratory #Infection Consortium: A Multi-Site, Multi-Disciplinary #Clinical #Research Network in the #DoD (Mil Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mil Med. 2019 Nov 1;184(Supplement_2):44-50. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usz174.

The Acute Respiratory Infection Consortium: A Multi-Site, Multi-Disciplinary Clinical Research Network in the Department of Defense.

Coles C1,2, Millar EV1,2, Burgess T1, Ottolini MG3.

Author information: 1 Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814. 2 Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., 6720A Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817. 3 Preventive Medicine & Biostatistics Department, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) result in substantial annual morbidity among military personnel and decrease operational readiness. Herein, we summarize the research efforts of the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP) related to ARIs.

METHODS:

The ARI Research Area of the IDCRP was established in response to the 2009 emergence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1. That year, IDCRP investigators deployed the ARI Consortium Natural History Study (ARIC NHS), a multi-centered, longitudinal observational study to assess etiology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in the U.S. military. The success of this initial effort spurred implementation of several new initiatives. These include the FluPlasma trial, designed to evaluate the efficacy of hyperimmune anti-influenza plasma for the treatment of severe influenza; the self-administered live-attenuated influenza vaccine (SNIF) trial, which assessed the immunogenicity and acceptance of a self-administered live-attenuated influenza vaccine in military personnel; the Study to Address Threats of ARI in Congregate Military Populations (ATARI), a prospective study of ILI transmission, etiology and epidemiology in recruits; and the Flu Breath Test (FBT) study, a preliminary study of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC) in influenza patients. In addition, the InFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) survey, a daily diary to measure influenza symptoms during clinical trials, was developed. Lastly, the Pragmatic Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the DoD (PAIVED) study, a two-year randomized trial designed to compare the effectiveness of the three types of licensed vaccines, launched in Fall 2018.

RESULTS:

The on-going ARIC NHS has enrolled over 2000 ILI and SARI cases since its inception, providing data on burden and clinical manifestations of ARI in military personnel and their families. The FluPlasma 2 trial concluded subject enrollment in 2018. Preliminary results from ATARI study show a high frequency of respiratory viruses circulating during the first two weeks of recruit training. Based on assessment of FLU-PRO responses, which were found to be reliable and reproducible, the survey may be a useful tool in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The Flu Breath Study will complete enrollment in 2019. Findings from PAIVED are intended to provide evidence needed for assessing influenza vaccination policy in the military.

CONCLUSIONS:

The ARI burden in the armed services remains significant every year and the threat is dynamic given emergent and evolving threats, such as influenzas. With strong successes to date, future initiatives of the ARI Research Area will focus on interventional studies, ARI transmission dynamics in congregate military settings, and determinants of risk of pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory viruses.

© Association of Military Surgeons of the United States 2019. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS: acute respiratory infections; influenza; influenza-like illness; military health

PMID: 31778194 DOI: 10.1093/milmed/usz174

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; Military; Serotherapy; Vaccines; USA; SARI.

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