#UK #vaccines #network: Mapping #priority #pathogens of #epidemic #potential and vaccine #pipeline developments (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Sep 12. pii: S0264-410X(19)31197-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]

UK vaccines network: Mapping priority pathogens of epidemic potential and vaccine pipeline developments.

Noad RJ1, Simpson K2, Fooks AR3, Hewson R4, Gilbert SC5, Stevens MP6, Hosie MJ7, Prior J8, Kinsey AM9, Entrican G10, Simpson A11, Whitty CJM12, Carroll MW13.

Author information: 1 Pathobiology and Population Science, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK. Electronic address: rnoad@rvc.ac.uk. 2 JKS Bioscience Ltd, 2 Midanbury Court, 44 Midanbury Lane, Southampton SO18 4HF, UK. Electronic address: Karl.simpson@jksbioscience.co.uk. 3 Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK. Electronic address: Tony.Fooks@apha.gsi.gov.uk. 4 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. 5 Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address: sarah.gilbert@ndm.ox.ac.uk. 6 The Roslin Institute & Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. Electronic address: Mark.Stevens@roslin.ed.ac.uk. 7 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, College of Veterinary, Medical and Life Sciences, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. Electronic address: margaret.hosie@glasgow.ac.uk. 8 CBR Division, Dstl Porton Down, Wiltshire SP3 4DZ, UK. Electronic address: jlprior@dstl.gsi.gov.uk. 9 Medical Research Council, One Kemble Street, London WC2B 4AN, UK. Electronic address: anna.kinsey@mrc.ukri.org. 10 Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Near Edinburgh, Scotland EH26 0PZ, UK. Electronic address: Gary.Entrican@moredun.ac.uk. 11 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: Andrew.simpson@phe.gov.uk. 12 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel St., London WC1E 7HT, UK. Electronic address: christopher.whitty@lshtm.ac.uk. 13 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: miles.carroll@phe.gov.uk.

 

Abstract

During the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa an expert panel was established on the instructions of the UK Prime Minister to identify priority pathogens for outbreak diseases that had the potential to cause future epidemics. A total of 13 priority pathogens were identified, which led to the prioritisation of spending in emerging diseases vaccine research and development from the UK. This meeting report summarises the process used to develop the UK pathogen priority list, compares it to lists generated by other organisations (World Health Organisation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and summarises clinical progress towards the development of vaccines against priority diseases. There is clear technical progress towards the development of vaccines. However, the availability of these vaccines will be dependent on sustained funding for clinical trials and the preparation of clinically acceptable manufactured material during inter-epidemic periods.

Copyright © 2019.

KEYWORDS: Epidemic; Outbreak; Pathogen; Priority; UKVN; Vaccine

PMID: 31522809 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; UK; Vaccines.

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What Is Known About #Candida auris (JAMA, summary)

[Source: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

JAMA Insights  / Clinical Update / September 6, 2019

What Is Known About Candida auris

Suzanne F. Bradley, MD1,2

Author Affiliations: 1 Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor; 2 Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

JAMA. Published online September 6, 2019. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.13843

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Summary

Candida auris is a new species that was reported in Asia as a rare cause of ear infections in 2009; it had not been found among large repositories of yeast isolates collected prior to 2013.1,2 However, the widespread dissemination of C auris is not due to a single strain. For reasons that are not clear, multiple strains, called clades, have emerged independently in various parts of the world.1,2 Cases of C auris have been identified in 33 countries across 5 continents.1-3

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Article Information

Corresponding Author: Suzanne F. Bradley, MD, Infectious Diseases Section 111i, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (sbradley@umich.edu).

Published Online: September 6, 2019. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.13843

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Bradley reported receiving grants from Pfizer and the Veterans Administration and is the editor in chief for the Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology journal.

Keywords: Candida auris; Emerging diseases; Nosocomial outbreaks; Drugs resistance; Fluconazole.

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#Zoonotic #Diseases in #Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Diseases in Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions

Salah Al Awaidy and Hilal Al Hashami

Published Online: 5 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2458

 

Abstract

Objective:

This article describes the situation analysis of endemic and emerging zoonoses, and includes prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman. It also suggests possible recommendations toward elimination and risk reduction of emerging zoonoses.

Methods:

Epidemiologic information has been drawn from official to assess the situation. There has been significant progress in reducing the risk of brucellosis, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Rabies, West Nile fever, Q fever, and cystic hydatid disease have been confined to wildlife or livestock.

Results:

There is an increasing threat of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in Oman due to globalization of travel and trade, development activities, and impact of climate change and vector bionomics. Prevention, control, and subsequent elimination of zoonoses on a sustainable basis shall not be possible without intersectoral collaboration between the human and animal health sectors. There are challenges for establishing such strong collaboration and coordination mechanisms in Oman. Institutional and cultural barriers, data and resource sharing, and national capability for rapid and effective investigation of zoonotic infections and emerging zoonoses in humans and animal reservoirs are among others.

Conclusions:

In the light of achievements made on the prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman during the past decades, priority zoonoses should be identified for elimination, and continuous efforts should be made to further strengthen a holistic multidisciplinary and multisectorial approach for controlling zoonoses at source. Pivotal interventions would include urgent adoption of “One Health” strategic approach as well as establishment of a robust, integrated surveillance system with a strong laboratory investigation capacity to eliminate priority zoonoses and minimize the risk of entry, establishment, and spread of emerging zoonoses in Oman.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Oman.

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Core Minimal #Datasets to Advance #Clinical #Research for Priority #Epidemic Diseases (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 13. pii: ciz760. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz760. [Epub ahead of print]

Core Minimal Datasets to Advance Clinical Research for Priority Epidemic Diseases.

Rojek AM1, Moran J1, Horby PW1.

Author information: 1 Epidemic Diseases Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

 

Abstract

The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in west Africa has prompted significant progress in responding to the clinical needs of patients affected by emerging infectious disease outbreaks. Amongst the noteworthy successes of vaccine trials, and the commendable efforts to implement clinical treatment trials during Ebola outbreaks, we should also focus on strengthening the collection and curation of epidemiological and observational data that can improve the conception and design of clinical research.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

KEYWORDS: ebola virus disease; emerging infection; epidemic; pandemic

PMID: 31406989 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz760

Keywords: Infectious diseases; Emerging diseases.

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#Recombinant #VSV #Vector #Vaccines for #WHO #Blueprint #Priority #Pathogens (Hum Vaccin Immunother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 Aug 1. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1649532. [Epub ahead of print]

Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector Vaccines for WHO Blueprint Priority Pathogens.

Fathi A1,2,3, Dahlke C1,2,3, Addo MM1,2,3.

Author information: 1a Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medical-Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , Hamburg , Germany. 2b Department for Clinical Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine , Hamburg , Germany. 3c German Center for Infection Research, partner site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems , Germany.

 

Abstract

The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 has flagged the need for the timely development of vaccines for high-threat pathogens. To be better prepared for new epidemics, the WHO has compiled a list of priority pathogens that are likely to cause future outbreaks and for which R&D efforts are, therefore, paramount (R&D Blueprint: https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/en/). To this end, the detailed characterization of vaccine platforms is needed. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been established as a robust vaccine vector backbone for infectious diseases for well over a decade. The recent clinical trials testing the vaccine candidate VSV-EBOV against EBOV disease now have added a substantial amount of clinical data and suggest VSV to be an ideal vaccine vector candidate for outbreak pathogens. In this review we discuss insights gained from the clinical VSV-EBOV vaccine trials as well as from animal studies investigating vaccine candidates for Blueprint pathogens.

KEYWORDS: Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Marburg virus; Nipah virus; V920; VSV-EBOV; emerging infections; rVSV; vector vaccine; vesicular stomatitis virus

PMID: 31368826 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1649532

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Emerging diseases; Vaccines.

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#Polio, #AIDS, and #Ebola: A Recurrent #Ethical #Dilemma (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 24. pii: ciz662. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz662. [Epub ahead of print]

Polio, AIDS, and Ebola: A Recurrent Ethical Dilemma.

Kazanjian P1.

Author information: 1 University of Michigan Michigan Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital South, Medical Center Drive Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.

 

Abstract

During the 2014 West African outbreak, a dilemma emerged about the ethics of conducting randomized placebo-controlled trials in the midst of a rapidly spreading, devastating epidemic for which there was no effective treatment. The dilemma has in fact has deep historic roots; it has appeared in several previous fearsome epidemics-during the poliomyelitis epidemic in the 1930s-1950s, and again during the AIDS epidemic in the1980s-1990s. Moreover, ethical and social questions characterizing each of these epidemics-the increased risks of withholding potentially life-saving drugs for people assigned to a control arm and the damaging effect on eroding community trust-were conceptualized beforehand in the 1925 novel Arrowsmith. A historical analysis both reaffirms that rigorous placebo controlled trials remain indispensable tools in epidemic settings and also provides guidance on how to approach the ethical and social issues that will likely arise when these trials are carried out in future epidemic emergencies.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS: AIDS; Ebola; Epidemics; Ethical dilemma; Placebo-controlled trial; Polio

PMID: 31339992 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz662

Keywords: Emerging Diseases; Bioethics.

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A #Review of #Hearing Loss Associated with #Zika, #Ebola, and #Lassa Fever (Am J Trop Med Hyg., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Jul 22. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0934. [Epub ahead of print]

A Review of Hearing Loss Associated with Zika, Ebola, and Lassa Fever.

Ficenec SC1, Schieffelin JS1, Emmett SD2,3,4.

Author information: 1 Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana. 2 Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. 3 Duke Global Health Institute, Durham, North Carolina. 4 Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

 

Abstract

The neglected tropical diseases Zika, Ebola, and Lassa fever (LF) have all been noted to cause some degree of hearing loss (HL). Hearing loss is a chronic disability that can lead to a variety of detrimental effects, including speech and language delays in children, decreased economic productivity in adults, and accelerated cognitive decline in older adults. The objective of this review is to summarize what is known regarding HL secondary to these viruses. Literature for this review was gathered using the PubMed database. Articles were excluded if there were no data of the respective viruses, postinfectious complications, or conditions related to survivorship. A total of 50 articles were included in this review. Fourteen articles discussing Zika virus and subsequent complications were included. Across these studies, 56 (21.2%) of 264 Zika-infected individuals were found to have HL. Twenty-one articles discussing Ebola virus and subsequent complications were included, with 190 (5.7%) of 3,350 Ebola survivors found to have HL. Fifteen additional articles discussing LF and subsequent complications were included. Of 926 individuals with LF, 79 (8.5%) were found to have HL. These results demonstrate a relationship between HL and infection. The true prevalence is likely underestimated, however, because of lack of standardization of reporting and measurement. Future studies of viral sequelae would benefit from including audiometric evaluation. This information is critical to understanding pathophysiology, preventing future cases of this disability, and improving quality of life after survival of infection.

PMID: 31333155 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0934

Keywords: Emerging diseases; Zika virus; Ebola; Lassa fever; Hearing loss.

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