From #Hendra to #Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging #zoonotic viruses (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

From Hendra to Wuhan: what has been learned in responding to emerging zoonotic viruses

Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E Anderson, John S Mackenzie, Michael H Merson

Published: February 11, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30350-0

___

As the world watches the rapid spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak, it is important to reflect on the lessons that can be learned from this and previous emerging zoonotic viruses (EZV) in a comparative and analytic way. Although the source of 2019-nCoV is yet to be confirmed, early findings suggest a high possibility of a bat origin.1 There have been six major EZV outbreaks in the past 25 years caused by proven or suspected bat-borne viruses (table).2, 3, 4, 5,6,7 With these in mind, four major points are worth considering in the context of the 2019-nCoV outbreak.

(…)

Keywords: COVID-19; Zoonoses; Emerging diseases; Henipavirus.

——

A Qualitative Study of #Zoonotic #Risk Factors Among Rural Communities in Southern #China (Int Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int Health  2020 Feb 10 [Online ahead of print]

A Qualitative Study of Zoonotic Risk Factors Among Rural Communities in Southern China

Hong-Ying Li 1, Guang-Jian Zhu 1, Yun-Zhi Zhang 2, Li-Biao Zhang 3, Emily A Hagan 1, Stephanie Martinez 1, Aleksei A Chmura 1, Leilani Francisco 4, Hina Tai 5, Maureen Miller 6, Peter Daszak 1

Affiliations: 1 EcoHealth Alliance, 460 West 34th Street, New York, NY 10001, USA. 2 Institute of Preventive Medicine, Dali University, Dali, 671000, China. 3 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, #105 Xingang Road West, Guangzhou, 510260, China. 4 Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA. 5 School of Medicine, St. George’s University, Great River, NY 11739, USA. 6 Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

PMID: 32040190 DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihaa001

 

Abstract

Background:

Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities.

Methods:

Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels.

Results:

Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation.

Conclusions:

This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS; Zoonotic Risk; coronavirus; ethnographic; qualitative; rural communities; southern China.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging diseases; China.

——

Recent #advances in the #detection of #respiratory virus #infection in #humans (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2020 Jan 15. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25674. [Epub ahead of print]

Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans.

Zhang N1, Wang L2, Deng X3, Liang R3, Su M3, He C3, Hu L3, Su Y3, Ren J3, Yu F3, Du L4, Jiang S4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, Research Center of Chinese Jujube, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 3 State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, College of Life and Science, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China. 4 Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, USA. 5 Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

 

Abstract

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people’s lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, human adenovirus (hAdV), and human rhinovirus (hRV). Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Respiratory viral infection; adenovirus; coronavirus; diagnostic methods; influenza virus; respiratory syncytial virus; rhinovirus

PMID: 31944312 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25674

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Diagnostic tests; 2019-nCoV.

——

#Global #warming threatens #human #thermoregulation and #survival (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Global warming threatens human thermoregulation and survival

Rexford S. Ahima

First published January 6, 2020

___

There is overwhelming evidence showing that human activities have contributed to global warming over the past century. Global warming has a severe impact on food and water supplies, housing and other infrastructure, health, and economic activities. The human body has thermoregulatory mechanisms that adapt to ambient temperature and maintain normal core body temperature for physiological functions. This JCI Viewpoint article discusses how extreme temperatures driven by global warming disrupt normal thermoregulation and imperil human health and survival.

(…)

Keywords: Climate change; Global Warming; Infectious diseases.

——

#Climatechange brings the #specter of new #infectious diseases (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Climate change brings the specter of new infectious diseases

Arturo Casadevall

First published January 6, 2020

___

Climate change will bring major changes to the epidemiology of infectious diseases through changes in microbial and vector geographic range. Human defenses against microbial diseases rely on advanced immunity that includes innate and adaptive arms and endothermy, which creates a thermal restriction zone for many microbes. Given that microbes can adapt to higher temperatures, there is concern that global warming will select for microbes with higher heat tolerance that can defeat our endothermy defenses and bring new infectious disease.

(…)

Keywords: Climate Change; Global Warming; Infectious Diseases.

——

#Planning for the next #pandemic: a call for new #guidance (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Planning for the next pandemic: a call for new guidance

Joe Brierley, Stephen Playfor, Samiran Ray

Published: December 16, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(19)30357-1

___

Collaborative working, regional spare capacity, and goodwill maintain paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) function during sudden local or regional surges of demand, such as those observed after the Manchester bombing or the Grenfell Tower fire in the UK. Surges due to pandemics are less forgiving but are inevitable, and we also face an increasing number of unpredictable threats from environmental catastrophes and terrorism. Given recent substantial changes in the PICU case-mix, it seems clear that existing guidance for resource allocation during times of overwhelming need, such as during pandemics, requires urgent revision.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Emerging diseases; Intensive Care; Pediatrics.

——

#Patterns, #Drivers, and #Challenges of #Vector-Borne #Disease Emergence (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Patterns, Drivers, and Challenges of Vector-Borne Disease Emergence

Andrea Swei, Lisa I. Couper, Lark L. Coffey, Durrell Kapan, and Shannon Bennett

Published Online: 3 Dec 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2432

 

Abstract

Vector-borne diseases are emerging at an increasing rate and comprise a disproportionate share of all emerging infectious diseases. Yet, the key ecological and evolutionary dimensions of vector-borne disease that facilitate their emergence have not been thoroughly explored. This study reviews and synthesizes the existing literature to explore global patterns of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) under changing global conditions. We find that the vast majority of emerging VBZDs are transmitted by ticks (Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Culicidae) and the pathogens transmitted are dominated by Rickettsiaceae bacteria and RNA viruses (Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Togaviridae). The most common potential driver of these emerging zoonoses is land use change, but for many diseases, the driver is unknown, revealing a critical research gap. While most reported VBZDs are emerging in the northern latitudes, after correcting for sampling bias, Africa is clearly a region with the greatest share of emerging VBZD. We highlight critical gaps in our understanding of VBZD emergence and emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary research and consideration of deeper evolutionary processes to improve our capacity for anticipating where and how such diseases have and will continue to emerge.

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Mosquitoes; Emerging Diseases.

——-