#Development, #environmental #degradation, and #disease spread in the #Brazilian #Amazon (PLOS Biol., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Biology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon

Marcia C. Castro , Andres Baeza, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Ana Paula Dal’Asta, Giulio A. De Leo, Andrew P. Dobson, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Raquel Martins Lana, Rachel Lowe, Antonio Miguel Vieira Monteiro, Mercedes Pascual, Mauricio Santos-Vega


Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526 / This is an uncorrected proof.



The Amazon is Brazil’s greatest natural resource and invaluable to the rest of the world as a buffer against climate change. The recent election of Brazil’s president brought disputes over development plans for the region back into the spotlight. Historically, the development model for the Amazon has focused on exploitation of natural resources, resulting in environmental degradation, particularly deforestation. Although considerable attention has focused on the long-term global cost of “losing the Amazon,” too little attention has focused on the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases that directly impact the local population, with spillover effects to other neighboring areas. We discuss the impact of Amazon development models on human health, with a focus on vector-borne disease risk. We outline policy actions that could mitigate these negative impacts while creating opportunities for environmentally sensitive economic activities.


Citation: Castro MC, Baeza A, Codeço CT, Cucunubá ZM, Dal’Asta AP, De Leo GA, et al. (2019) Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS Biol 17(11): e3000526. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526

Published: November 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) under funding from the National Science Foundation (DBI-1639145) supported this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: DETER, Detection of Deforestation in Real Time; EIA, environmental impact assessment; EMBRAPA, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation; INPE, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais; NMCP, National Malaria Control Program; OTCA, Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica; PAHO, Pan American Health Organization

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Keywords: Public Health; Environmental disasters; Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Brazil; Amazon.


#Nosocomial #Transmission of Emerging Viruses via #Aerosol-Generating #Medical #Procedures (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Oct 12;11(10). pii: E940. doi: 10.3390/v11100940.

Nosocomial Transmission of Emerging Viruses via Aerosol-Generating Medical Procedures.

Judson SD1,2, Munster VJ3.

Author information: 1 Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. sethdjudson@gmail.com. 2 Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. sethdjudson@gmail.com. 3 Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. munstervj@niaid.nih.gov.



Recent nosocomial transmission events of emerging and re-emerging viruses, including Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Nipah virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus, have highlighted the risk of nosocomial transmission of emerging viruses in health-care settings. In particular, concerns and precautions have increased regarding the use of aerosol-generating medical procedures when treating patients with such viral infections. In spite of increasing associations between aerosol-generating medical procedures and the nosocomial transmission of viruses, we still have a poor understanding of the risks of specific procedures and viruses. In order to identify which aerosol-generating medical procedures and emerging viruses pose a high risk to health-care workers, we explore the mechanisms of aerosol-generating medical procedures, as well as the transmission pathways and characteristics of highly pathogenic viruses associated with nosocomial transmission. We then propose how research, both in clinical and experimental settings, could advance current infection control guidelines.

KEYWORDS: aerosols; cross infection; ebolavirus; health personnel; hemorrhagic fevers; infection control; risk; viral; virus diseases; viruses

PMID: 31614743 DOI: 10.3390/v11100940

Keywords: Emerging diseases; Infectious Diseases; Nosocomial outbreaks.


#UK #vaccines #network: Mapping #priority #pathogens of #epidemic #potential and vaccine #pipeline developments (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Sep 12. pii: S0264-410X(19)31197-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]

UK vaccines network: Mapping priority pathogens of epidemic potential and vaccine pipeline developments.

Noad RJ1, Simpson K2, Fooks AR3, Hewson R4, Gilbert SC5, Stevens MP6, Hosie MJ7, Prior J8, Kinsey AM9, Entrican G10, Simpson A11, Whitty CJM12, Carroll MW13.

Author information: 1 Pathobiology and Population Science, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK. Electronic address: rnoad@rvc.ac.uk. 2 JKS Bioscience Ltd, 2 Midanbury Court, 44 Midanbury Lane, Southampton SO18 4HF, UK. Electronic address: Karl.simpson@jksbioscience.co.uk. 3 Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK. Electronic address: Tony.Fooks@apha.gsi.gov.uk. 4 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. 5 Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address: sarah.gilbert@ndm.ox.ac.uk. 6 The Roslin Institute & Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. Electronic address: Mark.Stevens@roslin.ed.ac.uk. 7 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, College of Veterinary, Medical and Life Sciences, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. Electronic address: margaret.hosie@glasgow.ac.uk. 8 CBR Division, Dstl Porton Down, Wiltshire SP3 4DZ, UK. Electronic address: jlprior@dstl.gsi.gov.uk. 9 Medical Research Council, One Kemble Street, London WC2B 4AN, UK. Electronic address: anna.kinsey@mrc.ukri.org. 10 Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Near Edinburgh, Scotland EH26 0PZ, UK. Electronic address: Gary.Entrican@moredun.ac.uk. 11 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: Andrew.simpson@phe.gov.uk. 12 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel St., London WC1E 7HT, UK. Electronic address: christopher.whitty@lshtm.ac.uk. 13 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: miles.carroll@phe.gov.uk.



During the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa an expert panel was established on the instructions of the UK Prime Minister to identify priority pathogens for outbreak diseases that had the potential to cause future epidemics. A total of 13 priority pathogens were identified, which led to the prioritisation of spending in emerging diseases vaccine research and development from the UK. This meeting report summarises the process used to develop the UK pathogen priority list, compares it to lists generated by other organisations (World Health Organisation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and summarises clinical progress towards the development of vaccines against priority diseases. There is clear technical progress towards the development of vaccines. However, the availability of these vaccines will be dependent on sustained funding for clinical trials and the preparation of clinically acceptable manufactured material during inter-epidemic periods.

Copyright © 2019.

KEYWORDS: Epidemic; Outbreak; Pathogen; Priority; UKVN; Vaccine

PMID: 31522809 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; UK; Vaccines.


What Is Known About #Candida auris (JAMA, summary)

[Source: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

JAMA Insights  / Clinical Update / September 6, 2019

What Is Known About Candida auris

Suzanne F. Bradley, MD1,2

Author Affiliations: 1 Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor; 2 Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

JAMA. Published online September 6, 2019. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.13843



Candida auris is a new species that was reported in Asia as a rare cause of ear infections in 2009; it had not been found among large repositories of yeast isolates collected prior to 2013.1,2 However, the widespread dissemination of C auris is not due to a single strain. For reasons that are not clear, multiple strains, called clades, have emerged independently in various parts of the world.1,2 Cases of C auris have been identified in 33 countries across 5 continents.1-3



Article Information

Corresponding Author: Suzanne F. Bradley, MD, Infectious Diseases Section 111i, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, 2215 Fuller Rd, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (sbradley@umich.edu).

Published Online: September 6, 2019. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.13843

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Bradley reported receiving grants from Pfizer and the Veterans Administration and is the editor in chief for the Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology journal.

Keywords: Candida auris; Emerging diseases; Nosocomial outbreaks; Drugs resistance; Fluconazole.


#Zoonotic #Diseases in #Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Diseases in Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions

Salah Al Awaidy and Hilal Al Hashami

Published Online: 5 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2458




This article describes the situation analysis of endemic and emerging zoonoses, and includes prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman. It also suggests possible recommendations toward elimination and risk reduction of emerging zoonoses.


Epidemiologic information has been drawn from official to assess the situation. There has been significant progress in reducing the risk of brucellosis, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Rabies, West Nile fever, Q fever, and cystic hydatid disease have been confined to wildlife or livestock.


There is an increasing threat of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in Oman due to globalization of travel and trade, development activities, and impact of climate change and vector bionomics. Prevention, control, and subsequent elimination of zoonoses on a sustainable basis shall not be possible without intersectoral collaboration between the human and animal health sectors. There are challenges for establishing such strong collaboration and coordination mechanisms in Oman. Institutional and cultural barriers, data and resource sharing, and national capability for rapid and effective investigation of zoonotic infections and emerging zoonoses in humans and animal reservoirs are among others.


In the light of achievements made on the prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman during the past decades, priority zoonoses should be identified for elimination, and continuous efforts should be made to further strengthen a holistic multidisciplinary and multisectorial approach for controlling zoonoses at source. Pivotal interventions would include urgent adoption of “One Health” strategic approach as well as establishment of a robust, integrated surveillance system with a strong laboratory investigation capacity to eliminate priority zoonoses and minimize the risk of entry, establishment, and spread of emerging zoonoses in Oman.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Oman.


Core Minimal #Datasets to Advance #Clinical #Research for Priority #Epidemic Diseases (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 13. pii: ciz760. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz760. [Epub ahead of print]

Core Minimal Datasets to Advance Clinical Research for Priority Epidemic Diseases.

Rojek AM1, Moran J1, Horby PW1.

Author information: 1 Epidemic Diseases Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.



The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in west Africa has prompted significant progress in responding to the clinical needs of patients affected by emerging infectious disease outbreaks. Amongst the noteworthy successes of vaccine trials, and the commendable efforts to implement clinical treatment trials during Ebola outbreaks, we should also focus on strengthening the collection and curation of epidemiological and observational data that can improve the conception and design of clinical research.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

KEYWORDS: ebola virus disease; emerging infection; epidemic; pandemic

PMID: 31406989 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz760

Keywords: Infectious diseases; Emerging diseases.


#Recombinant #VSV #Vector #Vaccines for #WHO #Blueprint #Priority #Pathogens (Hum Vaccin Immunother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 Aug 1. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1649532. [Epub ahead of print]

Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vector Vaccines for WHO Blueprint Priority Pathogens.

Fathi A1,2,3, Dahlke C1,2,3, Addo MM1,2,3.

Author information: 1a Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medical-Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , Hamburg , Germany. 2b Department for Clinical Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine , Hamburg , Germany. 3c German Center for Infection Research, partner site Hamburg-Lübeck-Borstel-Riems , Germany.



The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 has flagged the need for the timely development of vaccines for high-threat pathogens. To be better prepared for new epidemics, the WHO has compiled a list of priority pathogens that are likely to cause future outbreaks and for which R&D efforts are, therefore, paramount (R&D Blueprint: https://www.who.int/blueprint/priority-diseases/en/). To this end, the detailed characterization of vaccine platforms is needed. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has been established as a robust vaccine vector backbone for infectious diseases for well over a decade. The recent clinical trials testing the vaccine candidate VSV-EBOV against EBOV disease now have added a substantial amount of clinical data and suggest VSV to be an ideal vaccine vector candidate for outbreak pathogens. In this review we discuss insights gained from the clinical VSV-EBOV vaccine trials as well as from animal studies investigating vaccine candidates for Blueprint pathogens.

KEYWORDS: Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Marburg virus; Nipah virus; V920; VSV-EBOV; emerging infections; rVSV; vector vaccine; vesicular stomatitis virus

PMID: 31368826 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1649532

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Emerging diseases; Vaccines.