#Spike proteins of novel #MERS #coronavirus isolates from North- and West- #African dromedary #camels mediate robust viral entry into #human target cells (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Jul 19;535:261-265. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.07.016. [Epub ahead of print]

Spike proteins of novel MERS-coronavirus isolates from North- and West-African dromedary camels mediate robust viral entry into human target cells.

Kleine-Weber H1, Pöhlmann S2, Hoffmann M3.

Author information: 1 Infection Biology Unit, Deutsches Primatenzentrum – Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, University Göttingen, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. 2 Infection Biology Unit, Deutsches Primatenzentrum – Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; Faculty of Biology and Psychology, University Göttingen, Wilhelm-Weber-Str. 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: spoehlmann@dpz.eu. 3 Infection Biology Unit, Deutsches Primatenzentrum – Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

 

Abstract

The highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-related coronavirus (CoV) is transmitted from dromedary camels, the natural reservoir, to humans. For at present unclear reasons, MERS cases have so far only been observed in the Arabian Peninsula, although MERS-CoV also circulates in African dromedary camels. A recent study showed that MERS-CoV found in North/West- (Morocco) and West-African (Burkina Faso and Nigeria) dromedary camels are genetically distinct from Arabian viruses and have reduced replicative capacity in human cells, potentially due to amino acid changes in one or more viral proteins. Here, we show that the spike (S) proteins of the prototypic Arabian MERS-CoV strain, human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012, and the above stated African MERS-CoV variants do not appreciably differ in expression, DPP4 binding and ability to drive entry into target cells. Thus, virus-host-interactions at the entry stage may not limit spread of North- and West-African MERS-CoV in human cells.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Dromedary camel; Entry; MERS-coronavirus; Spike; Zoonosis

PMID: 31357164 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.07.016

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Viral pathogenesis.

——

Advertisements

#MERS #Coronavirus in #Dromedaries in #Ethiopia Is Antigenically #Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Jun 19;10:1326. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326. eCollection 2019.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Dromedaries in Ethiopia Is Antigenically Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC.

Shirato K1, Melaku SK2, Kawachi K3, Nao N1, Iwata-Yoshikawa N4, Kawase M1, Kamitani W3, Matsuyama S1, Tessema TS5, Sentsui H6.

Author information: 1 Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 2 Department of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 3 Laboratory of Clinical Research on Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. 4 Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 5 Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 6 Laboratory of Veterinary Epizootiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Japan.

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging respiratory disease caused by the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS has been endemic to Saudi Arabia since 2012. The reservoir of MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel, suggesting that MERS is primarily a zoonotic disease. MERS-CoV is common in dromedaries throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and East Africa as evidenced by neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV; however, human cases have remained limited to the Middle East. To better understand the cause of this difference, the virological properties of African camel MERS-CoV were analyzed based on the spike (S) protein in Ethiopia. Nasal swabs were collected from 258 young dromedaries (≤ 2 years old) in the Afar region of Ethiopia, of which 39 were positive for MERS-CoV, as confirmed by genetic tests. All positive tests were exclusive to the Amibara woreda region. Using next-generation sequencing, two full-length genomes of Amibara isolates were successfully decoded; both isolates belonged to the C2 clade based on phylogenetic analysis of full-length and S protein sequences. Recombinant EMC isolates of MERS-CoV, in which the S protein is replaced with those of Amibara isolates, were then generated to test the roles of these proteins in viral properties. Amibara S recombinants replicated more slowly in cultured cells than in EMC S recombinants. In neutralizing assays, Amibara S recombinants were neutralized by lower concentrations of sera from both Ethiopian dromedaries and EMC isolate (wild-type)-immunized mouse sera, relative to the EMC S recombinants, indicating that viruses coated in the Amibara S protein were easier to neutralize than the EMC S protein. Neutralization experiments performed using S1/S2 chimeric recombinants of the EMC and Amibara S proteins showed that the neutralization profile was dependent on the S1 region of the S protein. These results suggest that the slower viral replication and the ease of neutralization seen in the Ethiopian MERS-CoV are due to strain-specific differences in the S protein and may account for the absence of human MERS-CoV cases in Ethiopia.

KEYWORDS: Ethiopia; Middle East respiratory syndrome; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; antigenicity; dromedary; neutralization

PMID: 31275264 PMCID: PMC6593072 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Camels; Ethiopia.

——

A systematic #review of #MERS-CoV #seroprevalence and #RNA prevalence in dromedary #camels: Implications for animal #vaccination (Epidemics, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemics. 2019 Jun 5:100350. doi: 10.1016/j.epidem.2019.100350. [Epub ahead of print]

A systematic review of MERS-CoV seroprevalence and RNA prevalence in dromedary camels: Implications for animal vaccination.

Dighe A1, Jombart T2, Van Kerkhove MD3, Ferguson N4.

Author information: 1 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: a.dighe16@imperial.ac.uk. 2 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; UK Public Health Rapid Support Team, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: thibautjombart@gmail.com. 3 Department of Global Infectious Hazards Management, Health Emergencies Program, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, CH-1211, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: vankerkhovem@who.int.  4 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: neil.ferguson@imperial.ac.uk.

 

Abstract

Human infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is driven by recurring dromedary-to-human spill-over events, leading decision-makers to consider dromedary vaccination. Dromedary vaccine candidates in the development pipeline are showing hopeful results, but gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in dromedaries must be addressed to design and evaluate potential vaccination strategies. We aim to bring together existing measures of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels to assess the distribution of infection, highlighting knowledge gaps and implications for animal vaccination. We systematically reviewed the published literature on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science that reported seroprevalence and/or prevalence of active MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 60 studies met our eligibility criteria. Qualitative syntheses determined that MERS-CoV seroprevalence increased with age up to 80-100% in adult dromedaries supporting geographically widespread endemicity of MERS-CoV in dromedaries in both the Arabian Peninsula and countries exporting dromedaries from Africa. The high prevalence of active infection measured in juveniles and at sites where dromedary populations mix should guide further investigation – particularly of dromedary movement – and inform vaccination strategy design and evaluation through mathematical modelling.

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Dromedary camels; MERS-CoV; Prevalence of infection; Seroprevalence

PMID: 31201040 DOI: 10.1016/j.epidem.2019.100350

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Seroprevalence; Camels; Vaccines.

——

Bactrian #camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome #coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) after experimental #infection (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):717-723. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1618687.

Bactrian camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after experimental infection.

Adney DR1, Letko M2, Ragan IK1, Scott D2, van Doremalen N2, Bowen RA1, Munster VJ2.

Author information: 1 a Department of Biomedical Sciences , Colorado State University , Fort Collins , CO , USA. 2 b Rocky Mountain Laboratories , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Hamilton , MT , USA.

 

Abstract

In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged. To date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. Epidemiological investigations identified dromedary camels as the source of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission and evidence of MERS-CoV circulation has been observed throughout the original range of distribution. Other new-world camelids, alpacas and llamas, are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Currently, it is unknown whether Bactrian camels are susceptible to infection. The distribution of Bactrian camels overlaps partly with that of the dromedary camel in west and central Asia. The receptor for MERS-CoV, DPP4, of the Bactrian camel was 98.3% identical to the dromedary camel DPP4, and 100% identical for the 14 residues which interact with the MERS-CoV spike receptor. Upon intranasal inoculation with 107 plaque-forming units of MERS-CoV, animals developed a transient, primarily upper respiratory tract infection. Clinical signs of the MERS-CoV infection were benign, but shedding of large quantities of MERS-CoV from the URT was observed. These data are similar to infections reported with dromedary camel infections and indicate that Bactrians are susceptible to MERS-CoV and given their overlapping range are at risk of introduction and establishment of MERS-CoV within the Bactrian camel populations.

KEYWORDS: Bactrian camel; MERS-CoV; dromedary camel; natural reservoir; virus shedding

PMID: 31119984 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1618687

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels: Animal models.

——

#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)

 

Abstract

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.

——

Recent #Aspects on the #Pathogenesis Mechanism, #Animal #Models and Novel Therapeutic Interventions for #MERS #Coronavirus Infections (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Mar 26;10:569. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00569. eCollection 2019.

Recent Aspects on the Pathogenesis Mechanism, Animal Models and Novel Therapeutic Interventions for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections.

Skariyachan S1, Challapilli SB1, Packirisamy S1, Kumargowda ST1, Sridhar VS1.

Author information: 1 R&D Centre, Department of Biotechnology, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.

 

Abstract

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging zoonotic virus considered as one of the major public threat with a total number of 2 298 laboratory-confirmed cases and 811 associated deaths reported by World Health Organization as of January 2019. The transmission of the virus was expected to be from the camels found in Middle Eastern countries via the animal and human interaction. The genome structure provided information about the pathogenicity and associated virulent factors present in the virus. Recent studies suggested that there were limited insight available on the development of novel therapeutic strategies to induce immunity against the virus. The severities of MERS-CoV infection highlight the necessity of effective approaches for the development of various therapeutic remedies. Thus, the present review comprehensively and critically illustrates the recent aspects on the epidemiology of the virus, the structural and functional features of the viral genome, viral entry and transmission, major mechanisms of pathogenesis and associated virulent factors, current animal models, detection methods and novel strategies for the development of vaccines against MERS-CoV. The review further illustrates the molecular and computational virtual screening platforms which provide insights for the identification of putative drug targets and novel lead molecules toward the development of therapeutic remedies.

KEYWORDS: MERS-CoV; animal models; emerging zoonotic virus; mechanisms of pathogenesis; probable drug targets; vaccine development

PMID: 30984127 PMCID: PMC6448012 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00569

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Human.

——

#Risk #Factors for #MERS-CoV #Seropositivity among #Animal #Market and #Slaughterhouse #Workers, Abu Dhabi, #UAE, 2014–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Research

Risk Factors for MERS-CoV Seropositivity among Animal Market and Slaughterhouse Workers, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2014–2017

Ahmed Khudhair1, Marie E. Killerby1  , Mariam Al Mulla, Kheir Abou Elkheir, Wassim Ternanni, Zyad Bandar, Stefan Weber, Mary Khoury, George Donnelly, Salama Al Muhairi, Abdelmalik I. Khalafalla, Suvang Trivedi, Azaibi Tamin, Natalie J. Thornburg, John T. Watson, Susan I. Gerber, Farida Al Hosani1, and Aron J. Hall1

Author affiliations: Abu Dhabi Department of Health, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (A. Khudhair, M. Al Mulla, K.A. Elkheir, W. Ternanni, Z. Bandar, F. Al Hosani); Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi (M.E. Killerby, S. Weber, M. Khoury, G. Donnelly); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.E. Killerby, S. Trivedi, A. Tamin, N.J. Thornburg, J.T. Watson, S.I. Gerber, A.J. Hall); Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, Abu Dhabi (S. Al Muhairi, A.I. Khalafalla)

 

Abstract

Camel contact is a recognized risk factor for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Because specific camel exposures associated with MERS-CoV seropositivity are not fully understood, we investigated worker–camel interactions and MERS-CoV seroprevalence. We assessed worker seroprevalence in 2 slaughterhouses and 1 live-animal market in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, during 2014–2017 and administered an epidemiologic survey in 2016 and 2017. During 2014–2017, we sampled 100–235 workers, and 6%–19% were seropositive for MERS-CoV at each sampling round. One (1.4%) of 70 seronegative workers tested at multiple rounds seroconverted. On multivariable analyses, working as a camel salesman, handling live camels or their waste, and having diabetes were associated with seropositivity among all workers, whereas handling live camels combined with either administering medications or cleaning equipment was associated with seropositivity among market workers. Characterization of high-risk exposures is critical for implementation of preventive measures.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Human; Camels; Seroprevalence; UAE.

——