#MERS #Coronavirus in #Dromedaries in #Ethiopia Is Antigenically #Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Jun 19;10:1326. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326. eCollection 2019.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Dromedaries in Ethiopia Is Antigenically Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC.

Shirato K1, Melaku SK2, Kawachi K3, Nao N1, Iwata-Yoshikawa N4, Kawase M1, Kamitani W3, Matsuyama S1, Tessema TS5, Sentsui H6.

Author information: 1 Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 2 Department of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 3 Laboratory of Clinical Research on Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. 4 Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 5 Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 6 Laboratory of Veterinary Epizootiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Japan.

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging respiratory disease caused by the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS has been endemic to Saudi Arabia since 2012. The reservoir of MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel, suggesting that MERS is primarily a zoonotic disease. MERS-CoV is common in dromedaries throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and East Africa as evidenced by neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV; however, human cases have remained limited to the Middle East. To better understand the cause of this difference, the virological properties of African camel MERS-CoV were analyzed based on the spike (S) protein in Ethiopia. Nasal swabs were collected from 258 young dromedaries (≤ 2 years old) in the Afar region of Ethiopia, of which 39 were positive for MERS-CoV, as confirmed by genetic tests. All positive tests were exclusive to the Amibara woreda region. Using next-generation sequencing, two full-length genomes of Amibara isolates were successfully decoded; both isolates belonged to the C2 clade based on phylogenetic analysis of full-length and S protein sequences. Recombinant EMC isolates of MERS-CoV, in which the S protein is replaced with those of Amibara isolates, were then generated to test the roles of these proteins in viral properties. Amibara S recombinants replicated more slowly in cultured cells than in EMC S recombinants. In neutralizing assays, Amibara S recombinants were neutralized by lower concentrations of sera from both Ethiopian dromedaries and EMC isolate (wild-type)-immunized mouse sera, relative to the EMC S recombinants, indicating that viruses coated in the Amibara S protein were easier to neutralize than the EMC S protein. Neutralization experiments performed using S1/S2 chimeric recombinants of the EMC and Amibara S proteins showed that the neutralization profile was dependent on the S1 region of the S protein. These results suggest that the slower viral replication and the ease of neutralization seen in the Ethiopian MERS-CoV are due to strain-specific differences in the S protein and may account for the absence of human MERS-CoV cases in Ethiopia.

KEYWORDS: Ethiopia; Middle East respiratory syndrome; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; antigenicity; dromedary; neutralization

PMID: 31275264 PMCID: PMC6593072 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Camels; Ethiopia.

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Ultra-small #microorganisms in the #polyextreme conditions of the Dallol #volcano, Northern Afar, #Ethiopia (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 27 May 2019

Ultra-small microorganisms in the polyextreme conditions of the Dallol volcano, Northern Afar, Ethiopia

Felipe Gómez, Barbara Cavalazzi, Nuria Rodríguez, Ricardo Amils, Gian Gabriele Ori, Karen Olsson-Francis, Cristina Escudero, Jose M. Martínez & Hagos Miruts

Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 7907 (2019)

 

Abstract

The Dallol geothermal area in the northern part of the Danakil Depression (up to 124–155 meter below sea level) is deemed one of the most extreme environments on Earth. The area is notable for being part of the Afar Depression, an incipient seafloor-spreading center located at the triple junction, between Nubian, Somali and Arabian plates, and for hosting environments at the very edge of natural physical-chemical extremities. The northern part of the Danakil Depression is dominated by the Assale salt plain (an accumulation of marine evaporite deposits) and hosts the Dallol volcano. Here, the interaction between the evaporitic deposit and the volcanisms have created the unique Dallol hot springs, which are highly acidic (pH ~ 0) and saline (saturation) with maximum temperatures ranging between 90 and 109 °C. Here we report for the first time evidence of life existing with these hot springs using a combination of morphological and molecular analyses. Ultra-small structures are shown to be entombed within mineral deposits, which are identified as members of the Order Nanohaloarchaea. The results from this study suggest the microorganisms can survive, and potential live, within this extreme environment, which has implications for understanding the limits of habitability on Earth and on (early) Mars.

Keywords: Extremophiles; Ethiopia; Astrobiology; Nanohaloarchaea.

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#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)

 

Abstract

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.

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Treating #cholera in severely #malnourished #children in the Horn of #Africa and #Yemen (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen

Mija Ververs, Rupa Narra

Published: 05 October 2017 / DOI: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32601-6

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

Summary

Populations in Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia, and Ethiopia are experiencing starvation and concurrent outbreaks of confirmed or suspected cholera (acute watery diarrhoea [AWD]).1 Drought, conflict, and population displacement in these countries have led to increased food insecurity and a higher incidence of severe acute malnutrition (SAM).1 Limited access to safe water and poor sanitation have exacerbated cholera and AWD outbreaks and led to the dangerous comorbidity of cholera and SAM in young children.

Keywords: Cholera; Yemen; South Sudan; Somalia; Hunger.

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#Risk factors for #MERS #coronavirus #infection in dromedary #camels in #BurkinaFaso, #Ethiopia, and #Morocco, 2015 (@eurosurveillanc, abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 22, Issue 13, 30 March 2017  / Research article

Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015

E Miguel 1 2 , V Chevalier 1 , G Ayelet 3 , MN Ben Bencheikh 4 , H Boussini 5 , DK Chu 6 , I El Berbri 4 , O Fassi-Fihri 4 , B Faye 7 , G Fekadu 8 , V Grosbois 1 , BC Ng 6 , RA Perera 6 , T So 6 , A Traore 5 , F Roger 2 , M Peiris 6

Author affiliations: 1. Cirad UPR AGIRs, Montpellier, France; 2. UMR CNRS, IRD, UM, 5290 MIVEGEC, Montpellier, France; 3. National Veterinary Institute, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia; 4. Institut Agronomique Vétérinaire Hassan 2, Rabat, Morocco; 5. INERA-CNRST, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso; 6. School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Adminstrative Region, China; 7. Cirad UMR SELMET, Montpellier, France; 8. Haramaya university, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Eve Miguel (eve.miguel@ird.fr)

Citation style for this article: Miguel E, Chevalier V, Ayelet G, Ben Bencheikh MN, Boussini H, Chu DK, El Berbri I, Fassi-Fihri O, Faye B, Fekadu G, Grosbois V, Ng BC, Perera RA, So T, Traore A, Roger F, Peiris M. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus infection in dromedary camels in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Morocco, 2015. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(13):pii=30498. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.13.30498

Received:16 June 2016; Accepted:03 February 2017

 

Abstract

Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February–March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2–28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12.2%; 95% CI: 7–20.4) and Morocco (up to 7.6%; 95% CI: 1.9–26.1). The RNA detection rate was higher in camels bred for milk or meat than in camels for transport (p = 0.01) as well as in younger camels (p = 0.06). High seropositivity rates (up to 100%; 95% CI: 100–100 and 99.4%; 95% CI: 95.4–99.9) were found in Morocco and Ethiopia, followed by Burkina Faso (up to 84.6%; 95% CI: 77.2–89.9). Seropositivity rates were higher in large/medium herds (≥51 camels) than small herds (p = 0.061), in camels raised for meat or milk than for transport (p = 0.01), and in nomadic or sedentary herds than in herds with a mix of these lifestyles (p < 0.005).

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Burkina Faso; Ehtiopia; Morocco.

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#ESBL and #Antibiogram in #Enterobacteriaceae from #Clinical and #DrinkingWater Sources from Bahir Dar City, #Ethiopia (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

Bayeh Abera , Mulugeta Kibret, Wondemagegn Mulu

Published: November 15, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166519

 

Abstract

Background

The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods

Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015. ESBL-producing-Enterobacteriaceae were detected using double-disk method by E-test Cefotaxim/cefotaxim+ clavulanic acid and Ceftazidime/ceftazidime+ clavulanic acid (BioMerieux SA, France) on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK).

Results

Overall, 274 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Of these, 210 (44%) were from patients and 64 (17.1%) were from drinking water. The median age of the patients was 28 years. Urinary tract infection and blood stream infection accounted for 60% and 21.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (75%) of neonatal sepsis. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in clinical and drinking water samples were 57.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The predominant ESBL-producers were K. pneumoniae 34 (69.4%) and Escherichia coli 71 (58.2%). Statistically significant associations were noted between ESBL-producing and non- producing Enterobacteriaceae with regard to age of patients, infected body sites and patient settings (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed higher levels of resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole than non-ESBL producers (P = 0.001)

Conclusions

ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae coupled with high levels of other antimicrobials become a major concern for treatment of patients with invasive infections such as blood stream infections, neonatal sepsis and urinary tract infections. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in drinking water sources.

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Citation: Abera B, Kibret M, Mulu W (2016) Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166519. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166519

Editor: Martyn Kirk, Australian National University, AUSTRALIA

Received: April 4, 2016; Accepted: October 31, 2016; Published: November 15, 2016

Copyright: © 2016 Abera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: In the manuscript.

Funding: The authors cordially acknowledge the Biotechnology Research Institute of Bahir University for the financial support on grant number 1/339/1.11.10.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Enterobacteriaceae; Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Ethiopia.

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