#MERS #Coronavirus in #Dromedaries in #Ethiopia Is Antigenically #Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Jun 19;10:1326. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326. eCollection 2019.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Dromedaries in Ethiopia Is Antigenically Different From the Middle East Isolate EMC.

Shirato K1, Melaku SK2, Kawachi K3, Nao N1, Iwata-Yoshikawa N4, Kawase M1, Kamitani W3, Matsuyama S1, Tessema TS5, Sentsui H6.

Author information: 1 Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 2 Department of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 3 Laboratory of Clinical Research on Infectious Diseases, Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Japan. 4 Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Musashimurayama, Japan. 5 Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 6 Laboratory of Veterinary Epizootiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Japan.

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging respiratory disease caused by the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS has been endemic to Saudi Arabia since 2012. The reservoir of MERS-CoV is the dromedary camel, suggesting that MERS is primarily a zoonotic disease. MERS-CoV is common in dromedaries throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and East Africa as evidenced by neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV; however, human cases have remained limited to the Middle East. To better understand the cause of this difference, the virological properties of African camel MERS-CoV were analyzed based on the spike (S) protein in Ethiopia. Nasal swabs were collected from 258 young dromedaries (≤ 2 years old) in the Afar region of Ethiopia, of which 39 were positive for MERS-CoV, as confirmed by genetic tests. All positive tests were exclusive to the Amibara woreda region. Using next-generation sequencing, two full-length genomes of Amibara isolates were successfully decoded; both isolates belonged to the C2 clade based on phylogenetic analysis of full-length and S protein sequences. Recombinant EMC isolates of MERS-CoV, in which the S protein is replaced with those of Amibara isolates, were then generated to test the roles of these proteins in viral properties. Amibara S recombinants replicated more slowly in cultured cells than in EMC S recombinants. In neutralizing assays, Amibara S recombinants were neutralized by lower concentrations of sera from both Ethiopian dromedaries and EMC isolate (wild-type)-immunized mouse sera, relative to the EMC S recombinants, indicating that viruses coated in the Amibara S protein were easier to neutralize than the EMC S protein. Neutralization experiments performed using S1/S2 chimeric recombinants of the EMC and Amibara S proteins showed that the neutralization profile was dependent on the S1 region of the S protein. These results suggest that the slower viral replication and the ease of neutralization seen in the Ethiopian MERS-CoV are due to strain-specific differences in the S protein and may account for the absence of human MERS-CoV cases in Ethiopia.

KEYWORDS: Ethiopia; Middle East respiratory syndrome; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; antigenicity; dromedary; neutralization

PMID: 31275264 PMCID: PMC6593072 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01326

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Camels; Ethiopia.

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#Respiratory Illness in a #Piggery Associated with the First Identified #Outbreak of #Swine #Influenza in #Australia: Assessing the #Risk to #Human Health and #Zoonotic Potential (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 25;4(2). pii: E96. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096.

Respiratory Illness in a Piggery Associated with the First Identified Outbreak of Swine Influenza in Australia: Assessing the Risk to Human Health and Zoonotic Potential.

Smith DW1,2, Barr IG3,4, Loh R5, Levy A6, Tempone S7, O’Dea M8, Watson J9, Wong FYK10, Effler PV11,12.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 2 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 3 World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 5 Sustainability and Biosecurity, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Perth, WA 6151, Australia. richmond.loh@dpird.wa.gov.au. 6 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. avram.levy@health.wa.gov.au. 7 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. simone.tempone@health.wa.gov.au. 8 School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia. M.ODea@murdoch.edu.au. 9 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. James.Watson@csiro.au. 10 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. Frank.Wong@csiro.au. 11 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au. 12 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au.

 

Abstract

Australia was previously believed to be free of enzootic swine influenza viruses due strict quarantine practices and use of biosecure breeding facilities. The first proven Australian outbreak of swine influenza occurred in Western Australian in 2012, revealing an unrecognized zoonotic risk, and a potential future pandemic threat. A public health investigation was undertaken to determine whether zoonotic infections had occurred and to reduce the risk of further transmission between humans and swine. A program of monitoring, testing, treatment, and vaccination was commenced, and a serosurvey of workers was also undertaken. No acute infections with the swine influenza viruses were detected. Serosurvey results were difficult to interpret due to previous influenza infections and past and current vaccinations. However, several workers had elevated haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to the swine influenza viruses that could not be attributed to vaccination or infection with contemporaneous seasonal influenza A viruses. However, we lacked a suitable control population, so this was inconclusive. The experience was valuable in developing better protocols for managing outbreaks at the human-animal interface. Strict adherence to biosecurity practices, and ongoing monitoring of swine and their human contacts is important to mitigate pandemic risk. Strain specific serological assays would greatly assist in identifying zoonotic transmission.

KEYWORDS: Australia; human; influenza; pandemic; swine

PMID: 31242646 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Pigs; Human; Serology; Australia.

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#Seroreactivity to #Chikungunya and #WNV Viruses in #Rwandan #Blood Donors (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroreactivity to Chikungunya and West Nile Viruses in Rwandan Blood Donors

Eric Seruyange, Karl Ljungberg, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Swaibu Katare, José Nyamusore, Yong-Dae Gwon, Magnus Evander, Heléne Norder, Peter Liljeström, and Tomas Bergström

Published Online: 27 Jun 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction:

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV) have previously been reported from several African countries, including those bordering Rwanda where they may have originated. However, there have been no serosurveillance reports from Rwanda regarding these two viral pathogens.

In this article, we present the first study of immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroreactivity of CHIKV and WNV in Rwandan blood donor samples.

Methods:

Blood donors from Rwanda (n = 874) and Sweden (n = 199) were tested for IgG reactivity against CHIKV, using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the E1 envelope protein fused with p62 as antigen, and against WNV using a commercial kit. Data on mosquito distribution were obtained from the 2012 assessment of yellow fever virus circulation in Rwanda.

Results:

Seroreactivity to CHIKV was high in Rwanda (63.0%), when compared with Swedish donors, where only 8.5% were IgG positive. However, a cross-reactivity to O’nyong’nyong virus in neutralization test was noted in Rwandan donors. No significant difference in WNV seroreactivity was found (10.4% for Rwandan and 14.1% for Swedish donors). The relatively high seroreactivity to WNV among Swedish donors could partly be explained by cross-reactivity with tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalent in Sweden. Donors from the Eastern Province of Rwanda had the highest IgG reactivity to the two investigated viruses (86.7% for CHIKV and 33.3% for WNV). Five genera of mosquitoes were found in Rwanda where Culex was the most common (82.5%). The vector of CHIKV, Aedes, accounted for 9.6% of mosquitoes and this species was most commonly found in the Eastern Province.

Conclusions:

Our results showed high seroreactivity to CHIKV in Rwandan donors. The highest IgG reactivity to CHIKV, and to WNV, was found in the Eastern Province, the area reporting the highest number of mosquito vectors for these two viruses. Infection control by eliminating mosquito-breeding sites in population-dense areas is recommended, especially in eastern Rwanda.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Rwanda.

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Detection of #Antibody and #Antigen for #Lassa Virus #Nucleoprotein in #Monkeys from Southern #Nigeria (J Epidemiol Glob Health., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2019 Jun;9(2):125-127. doi: 10.2991/jegh.k.190421.001.

Detection of Antibody and Antigen for Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein in Monkeys from Southern Nigeria.

Ogunro BN1,2,3, Olugasa BO2,3, Kayode A4,5, Ishola OO3, Kolawole ON2, Odigie EA6, Happi C4.

Author information: 1 Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2 Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 3 Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 4 African Center for Excellence in Genomics of Infectious Diseases (ACEGID), Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. 5 Department of Biological Sciences, Redeemer’s University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria. 6 Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Lassa fever is a deadly viral haemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa Virus (LASV). Rodents, especially, Mystomys natalensis, are the known reservoirs of LASV and humans are the defined hosts. Monkeys share many illnesses with humans and experimental LASV infections in monkeys are fatal but natural LASV infection of monkeys has not been reported. Serum samples obtained between August 2015 and December 2017 from 62 monkeys belonging to six species in Southern Nigeria were tested for LASV as part of an ongoing surveillance of monkeys in the region for zoonotic pathogens. Commercially available Recombinant LASV (ReLASV) Pan-Lassa enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits (Zalgen Labs, Germantown, MD, USA) were used to detect antibodies (IgG and IgM) and antigen specific for LASV nucleoprotein in the sera. Lassa-fever-specific IgG and IgM, and antigen specific for LASV nucleoprotein were detected in 5/62, 0/62, and 1/62 samples, respectively. The presence of LASV-specific antibodies in the sera suggests natural exposure to the virus, while the presence of LASV antigen may mean that monkeys are carriers of the virus. There is a need to broaden Lassa fever surveillance to include nonhuman primates (NHPs) for their probable role in the epidemiology of the disease.

© 2019 Atlantis Press International B.V.

KEYWORDS: ELISA; Lassa fever virus; monkeys; sylvatic cycle

PMID: 31241870 DOI: 10.2991/jegh.k.190421.001

Keywords: Lassa fever; Serology; Wildlife; Nigeria.

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#Human #response to live #plague #vaccine EV, #Almaty region, #Kazakhstan, 2014-2015 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Human response to live plague vaccine EV, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, 2014-2015

Zaurbek Sagiyev , Almas Berdibekov , Tatyana Bolger , Almagul Merekenova , Svetlana Ashirova , Zamir Nurgozhin ,Zhandos Dalibayev

Published: June 14, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218366

 

Abstract

Background

In Kazakhstan, a live plague vaccine EV 76 NIIEG has been used for plague prophylaxis since the mid-1930s. Vaccination is administered yearly among people living in plague-enzootic areas. Similar practices are used in other former Soviet Union countries. Yet, to this day, the effectiveness period of the vaccine is unknown. It is also not clear how different factors can affect the effectiveness of the vaccine over time.

Methods

We surveyed changes in antibody levels specific for F1 antigens of Yersinia pestis among vaccinated people 4, 8, and 12 months post- vaccination. Blood samples were taken from the participants of the study for producing sera, which was later analyzed using indirect hemagglutination reaction with antigenic erythrocyte assay (micromethod) for identifying antibodies to F1 Y.pestis.

Results

In first-time-receivers of the plague vaccine, antibody titer reached the highest level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer after 4 months, dropped drastically after 8 months, and dropped again after 12 months. Similar results were obtained among those who have been vaccinated previously. However, in that group, the percentage of people with a level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer remained statistically significant even after 8 and 12 months.

Conclusion

Based on the results of this study, we recommend initiating vaccination campaigns for the medical and veterinary staff, as well as the general population four months prior to the springtime epizootics of plague among wild rodents.

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Citation: Sagiyev Z, Berdibekov A, Bolger T, Merekenova A, Ashirova S, Nurgozhin Z, et al. (2019) Human response to live plague vaccine EV, Almaty region, Kazakhstan, 2014-2015. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218366. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218366

Editor: Chandra Shekhar Bakshi, New York Medical College, UNITED STATES

Received: October 31, 2018; Accepted: June 1, 2019; Published: June 14, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Sagiyev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The study was conducted under FELTP CDC/CAR, 2013-2015 (CDC Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program) to ZS. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Plague; Yersinia pestis; Vaccines; Serology; Kazakhstan.

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#Serological #evidence of #Zika virus #infection in febrile patients at Greater #Accra Regional Hospital, Accra #Ghana (BMC Res Notes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Res Notes. 2019 Jun 10;12(1):326. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4371-4.

Serological evidence of Zika virus infection in febrile patients at Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Accra Ghana.

Ankrah GA1, Bonney JHK2, Agbosu EE3, Pratt D3, Adiku TK1,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana. 2 Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana. Kbonney@noguchi.ug.edu.gh. 3 Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana. 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Increase in the evidence of global occurrence of Zika viral infection suggests that in Africa the circulation of the virus which causes 80% of asymptomatic infection could be undetected and/or overlooked. We sought to serologically detect Zika virus infection in febrile patients at Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Ghana.

RESULTS:

Of the 160 patient serum samples analyzed, 33 were found to have antibodies against Zika virus infection. Among the sero-positives 30 (91%) of the cases were anti-Zika virus IgM with the 21-30-year age group recording the highest number of 8 (26%) and 2 (7%) cases being the least for the 61 years and above age group. All sero-positive febrile patients developed at least one symptom consistent with Zika virus infection: 33 (100%) fever, 25 (76%) muscle pain, 24 (73%) joint pain, and conjunctivitis 2 (6%). Digestive symptoms recorded include 16 (49%) nausea, 12 (36%) vomiting and diarrhea 18 (55%). In addition, 28 (85%) loss of appetite, 14 (75%) rapid respiration and chest pain 15 (42%) were reported by seropositive febrile patients. Our data indicates exposure to Zika virus which suggests the possible circulation of the virus among febrile patients in Ghana with a sero-prevalence rate of 20.6%.

KEYWORDS: Anti-Zika virus immunoglobulins M and G (IgM and IgG) antibodies; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31182146 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4371-4

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Ghana.

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#WNV #Seroprevalence Among #Blood #Donors in #Hungary (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Hungary

Anna Nagy, Tímea Szöllősi, Mária Takács, Nóra Magyar, and Éva Barabás

Published Online: 11 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2401

 

Abstract

Background and Objectives:

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most important viral zoonotic infections in Hungary; however, no transfusion-transmitted WNV infections have been confirmed so far. In 2016, the number of clinical cases of WNV reported was 44, but the seasonal WNV screening of whole-blood donors has not yet been implemented. Our aims were to assess the WNV RNA reactivity and the prevalence of WNV-specific antibodies in the samples of blood donors collected in 2016.

Materials and Methods:

WNV RNA with Cobas TaqScreen and anti-WNV antibody determination from plasma samples of 2112 donors was performed. Cross-reactivity to tick-borne encephalitis virus was excluded. WNV neutralization test was used for the confirmation of anti-WNV IgG reactive results, and the presence of anti-WNV IgM antibodies was also determined.

Results:

None of the samples showed WNV RNA reactivity. The total weighted anti-WNV IgG prevalence was 2.34% (95% confidence interval 1.65–3.03), and in addition, three donors were found to be IgM positive. There was a comparable tendency between the data of WNV seroprevalence and cumulative incidence in six out of seven statistical regions in Hungary.

Conclusion:

Our results show a comparable data with publications that estimated the WNV seroprevalence in some other European endemic areas. As protective measures, both the 30-day deferral of blood donors who spent at least 24 h in WNV-exposed areas and the exclusion of affected Hungarian territories from blood donation are enforced by the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service. Our study is the first comprehensive serological survey to obtain actual data about WNV seroprevalence in the Hungarian human population.

Keywords: WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Hungary.

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