#Global #Disease #Outbreaks Associated with the 2015–2016 #ElNiño Event (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 13 February 2019

Global Disease Outbreaks Associated with the 2015–2016 El Niño Event

Assaf Anyamba, Jean-Paul Chretien, Seth C. Britch, Radina P. Soebiyanto, Jennifer L. Small, Rikke Jepsen, Brett M. Forshey, Jose L. Sanchez, Ryan D. Smith, Ryan Harris, Compton J. Tucker, William B. Karesh & Kenneth J. Linthicum

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 1930 (2019)

 

Abstract

Interannual climate variability patterns associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon result in climate and environmental anomaly conditions in specific regions worldwide that directly favor outbreaks and/or amplification of variety of diseases of public health concern including chikungunya, hantavirus, Rift Valley fever, cholera, plague, and Zika. We analyzed patterns of some disease outbreaks during the strong 2015–2016 El Niño event in relation to climate anomalies derived from satellite measurements. Disease outbreaks in multiple El Niño-connected regions worldwide (including Southeast Asia, Tanzania, western US, and Brazil) followed shifts in rainfall, temperature, and vegetation in which both drought and flooding occurred in excess (14–81% precipitation departures from normal). These shifts favored ecological conditions appropriate for pathogens and their vectors to emerge and propagate clusters of diseases activity in these regions. Our analysis indicates that intensity of disease activity in some ENSO-teleconnected regions were approximately 2.5–28% higher during years with El Niño events than those without. Plague in Colorado and New Mexico as well as cholera in Tanzania were significantly associated with above normal rainfall (p < 0.05); while dengue in Brazil and southeast Asia were significantly associated with above normal land surface temperature (p < 0.05). Routine and ongoing global satellite monitoring of key climate variable anomalies calibrated to specific regions could identify regions at risk for emergence and propagation of disease vectors. Such information can provide sufficient lead-time for outbreak prevention and potentially reduce the burden and spread of ecologically coupled diseases.

Keywords: ENSO; Extreme weather; Chikungunya fever; Plague; Cholera; Global Health.

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Beyond Members of the #Flaviviridae Family, #Sofosbuvir Also Inhibits #Chikungunya Virus Replication (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Beyond Members of the Flaviviridae Family, Sofosbuvir Also Inhibits Chikungunya Virus Replication

André C. Ferreira, Patrícia A. Reis, Caroline S. de Freitas, Carolina Q. Sacramento, Lucas Villas Bôas Hoelz, Mônica M. Bastos, Mayara Mattos, Natasha Rocha,Isaclaudia Gomes de Azevedo Quintanilha, Carolina da Silva Gouveia Pedrosa, Leticia Rocha Quintino Souza, Erick Correia Loiola, Pablo Trindade, Yasmine Rangel Vieira,Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Hugo C. de Castro Faria Neto, Nubia Boechat, Stevens K. Rehen, Karin Brüning, Fernando A. Bozza, Patrícia T. Bozza, Thiago Moreno L. Souza

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01389-18

 

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a febrile disease associated with chronic arthralgia, which may progress to neurological impairment. Chikungunya fever (CF) is an ongoing public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where control of the CHIKV vector, Aedes mosquitos, has failed. As there is no vaccine or specific treatment for CHIKV, patients receive only palliative care to alleviate pain and arthralgia. Thus, drug repurposing is necessary to identify antivirals against CHIKV. CHIKV RNA polymerase is similar to the orthologue enzyme of other positive-sense RNA viruses, such as members of the Flaviviridae family. Among the Flaviviridae, not only is hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase susceptible to sofosbuvir, a clinically approved nucleotide analogue, but so is dengue, Zika, and yellow fever virus replication. Here, we found that sofosbuvir was three times more selective in inhibiting CHIKV production in human hepatoma cells than ribavirin, a pan-antiviral drug. Although CHIKV replication in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes was less susceptible to sofosbuvir than were hepatoma cells, sofosbuvir nevertheless impaired virus production and cell death in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner. Sofosbuvir also exhibited antiviral activity in vivo by preventing CHIKV-induced paw edema in adult mice at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight/day and prevented mortality in a neonate mouse model at 40- and 80-mg/kg/day doses. Our data demonstrate that a prototypic alphavirus, CHIKV, is also susceptible to sofosbuvir. As sofosbuvir is a clinically approved drug, our findings could pave the way to it becoming a therapeutic option against CF.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Alphavirus; Chikungunya fever; Antivirals; Sofosbuvir.

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Src Family #Kinase Inhibitors Block Translation of #Alphavirus Subgenomic mRNAs (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Src Family Kinase Inhibitors Block Translation of Alphavirus Subgenomic mRNAs

Rebecca Broeckel, Sanjay Sarkar, Nicholas A. May, Jennifer Totonchy, Craig N. Kreklywich, Patricia Smith, Lee Graves, Victor R. DeFilippis, Mark Heise, Thomas E. Morrison,Nathaniel Moorman, Daniel N. Streblow

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02325-18

 

ABSTRACT

Alphaviruses are arthropod-transmitted RNA viruses that can cause arthralgia, myalgia, and encephalitis in humans. Since the role of cellular kinases in alphavirus replication is unknown, we profiled kinetic changes in host kinase abundance and phosphorylation following chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection of fibroblasts. Based upon the results of this study, we treated CHIKV infected cells with kinase inhibitors targeting the SFK-PI3K-AKT-mTORC signaling pathways. Treatment of cells with Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors blocked the replication of CHIKV, as well as multiple other alphaviruses including Mayaro virus, o’nyong-nyong virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Dissecting the effect of SFK inhibition on alphavirus replication, we found that viral structural protein levels were significantly reduced, but synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs was unaffected. By measuring the association of viral RNA with polyribosomes we found that the SFK inhibitor dasatinib blocks alphavirus subgenomic RNA translation. Our results demonstrate a role for SFK signaling in alphavirus subgenomic RNA translation and replication. Targeting host factors involved in alphavirus replication represents an innovative, perhaps paradigm-shifting strategy for exploring replication of CHIKV and other alphaviruses, while promoting antiviral therapeutic development.

Copyright © 2019 Broeckel et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Alphavirus; Chikungunya fever; Viral pathogenesis.

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SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF #ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER #CONGENITAL #INFECTIONS IN #PREGNANT WOMEN IN #RIO DE JANEIRO, #BRAZIL (Acta Trop., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Trop. 2019 Jan 24. pii: S0001-706X(18)31538-9. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020. [Epub ahead of print]

SIMULTANEOUS CIRCULATION OF ARBOVIRUSES AND OTHER CONGENITAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

Carvalho FR1, Medeiros T2, de Oliveira Vianna RA3, Douglass-Jaimes G4, Guerra Nunes PC5, Salgado Quintans MD6, Fernandes C7, Baêta Cavalcanti SM8, Dos Santos FB9, de Oliveira SA10, Araújo Cardoso CA11, Silva AA12.

Author information: 1 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: fabianarc@id.uff.br. 2 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: thaliamedeiros@id.uff.br. 3 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: renatavianna03@gmail.com. 4 Environmental Analysis Program, Pomona College, Claremont, CA, USA. Electronic address: guillermo.douglass-jaimes@pomona.edu. 5 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: pricgn@ioc.fiocruz.br. 6 Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: mdsquintans@id.uff.br. 7 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: cinttiafs@yahoo.com.br. 8 Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: silviacavalcanti67@gmail.com. 9 Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address: flaviab@ioc.fiocruz.br. 10 Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: sartimos@id.uff.br. 11 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: claudetecardoso@id.uff.br. 12 Laboratório Multiusuário de Apoio à Pesquisa em Nefrologia e Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: aasilva@id.uff.br.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Arboviruses (Zika, dengue and chikungunya) represent a major risk for pregnant women, especially because their vertical transmission can lead to neurological damage in newborns. Early diagnosis can be difficult due to similar clinical presentation with other congenital infections that are associated with congenital abnormalities.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the circulation of arboviruses and other pathogens responsible for congenital infections, reporting clinical aspects and geographic distribution of maternal rash in a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

METHODS:

Cross-sectional study with pregnant women presenting rash attended at the Exanthematic Diseases Unit (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro) from 2015 to 2018. Diagnosis of arboviruses was performed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and laboratorial screening for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and HIV was assessed. Demographic data was used for georeferencing analysis.

FINDINGS:

We included 121 pregnant women, of whom Zika virus was detected in 45 cases (37.2%), chikungunya in 33 (27.3%) and dengue in one (0.8%). Five patients presented syphilis, and we observed one case each of listeria, cytomegalovirus, and a syphilis-toxoplasmosis case. Similarity of clinical symptoms was observed in all groups; however, 84.8% of patients with chikungunya presented arthralgia. Following the decline of Zika cases, chikungunya infection was mostly observed during 2017-2018. Considering pregnant women infected with arboviruses and other infections, 41% resided in urban slums, mostly in Niterói.

MAIN CONCLUSIONS:

Simultaneous circulation of arboviruses and other agents responsible for congenital infections were observed; however, we did not identify co-infections between arboviruses. In this scenario, we emphasize the importance of adequate prenatal care to provide an accurate diagnosis of maternal rash.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; pregnancy; vertical transmission of infectious disease

PMID: 30685232 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.020

Keywords: Arbovirus; Zika Virus; Chikungunya Fever; Dengue fever; Pregnancy; Brazil.

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#Arbovirus #coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected #publichealth concern? (PLoS Biol., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Biology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / UNSOLVED MYSTERY

Arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected public health concern?

Chantal B. F. Vogels , Claudia Rückert , Sean M. Cavany , T. Alex Perkins, Gregory D. Ebel, Nathan D. Grubaugh

Published: January 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Epidemiological synergy between outbreaks of viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses, has resulted in coinfection of humans with multiple viruses. Despite the potential impact on public health, we know only little about the occurrence and consequences of such coinfections. Here, we review the impact of coinfection on clinical disease in humans, discuss the possibility for co-transmission from mosquito to human, and describe a role for modeling transmission dynamics at various levels of co-transmission. Solving the mystery of virus coinfections will reveal whether they should be viewed as a serious concern for public health.

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Citation: Vogels CBF, Rückert C, Cavany SM, Perkins TA, Ebel GD, Grubaugh ND (2019) Arbovirus coinfection and co-transmission: A neglected public health concern? PLoS Biol 17(1): e3000130. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000130

Published: January 22, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Vogels et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: CBFV is supported by NWO Rubicon 019.181EN.004, CR and GDE are supported by NIH NIAID AI067380, SMC and TAP are supported by NIH NIAID 1P01AI098670, and TAP is supported by DARPA D16AP00114. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: CHIKV, chikungunya virus; DENV, dengue virus; NS1, nonstructural protein 1; STAT1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1; STAT2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 2; XRN1, 5′-3′ exoribonuclease 1; ZIKV, Zika virus

Keywords: Arbovirus; Zika Virus; Chikungunya fever; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti.

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#Risk #factors for hospitalization of patients with #chikungunya virus #infection at sentinel hospitals in #PuertoRico (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Risk factors for hospitalization of patients with chikungunya virus infection at sentinel hospitals in Puerto Rico

Christopher H. Hsu , Fabiola Cruz-Lopez , Danulka Vargas Torres, Janice Perez-Padilla, Olga D. Lorenzi, Aidsa Rivera, J. Erin Staples, Esteban Lugo, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Marc Fischer, Carlos Garcia Gubern, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Luisa Alvarado, Tyler M. Sharp

Published: January 14, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007084 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Hospitalization of patients during outbreaks of chikungunya virus has been reported to be uncommon (0.5–8.7%), but more frequent among infants and the elderly. CHIKV was first detected in Puerto Rico in May 2014. We enrolled patients with acute febrile illness (AFI) presenting to two hospital emergency departments in Puerto Rico and tested them for CHIKV infection to describe the frequency of detection of CHIKV-infected patients, identify risk factors for hospitalization, and describe patients with severe manifestations.

Methodology/Principal findings

Serum specimens were collected from patients with AFI and tested by rRT-PCR. During May–December 2014, a total of 3,035 patients were enrolled, and 1,469 (48.4%) had CHIKV infection. A total of 157 (10.7%) CHIKV-infected patients were hospitalized, six (0.4%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and two died (0.1%). Common symptoms among all CHIKV-infected patients were arthralgia (82.6%), lethargy (80.6%), and myalgia (80.5%). Compared to patients aged 1–69 years (7.3%), infant (67.2%) and elderly (17.3%) patients were nine and two times more likely to be hospitalized, respectively (relative risk [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.16 [7.05–11.90] and 2.36 [1.54–3.62]). Multiple symptoms of AFI were associated with decreased risk of hospitalization, including arthralgia (RR = 0.31 [0.23–0.41]) and myalgia (RR = 0.29 [0.22–0.39]). Respiratory symptoms were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, including rhinorrhea (RR = 1.68 [1.24–2.27) and cough (RR = 1.77 [1.31–2.39]). Manifestations present among <5% of patients but associated with patient hospitalization included cyanosis (RR = 2.20 [1.17–4.12) and seizures (RR = 3.23 [1.80–5.81).

Discussion

Among this cohort of CHIKV-infected patients, hospitalization was uncommon, admission to the ICU was infrequent, and death was rare. Risk of hospitalization was higher in patients with symptoms of respiratory illness and other manifestations that may not have been the result of CHIKV infection.

 

Author summary

Chikungunya is an emerging infectious disease caused by a virus (chikungunya virus, CHIKV) transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitos; typical symptoms are fever and joint pain. After CHIKV was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2014, an epidemic quickly spread across the island. Because previous reports identified varying frequencies of hospitalization of CHIKV-infected patients, we used an existing hospital-based disease detection system to better understand the frequency and reasons for hospitalization of CHIKV-infected patients in Puerto Rico. Among 1,469 patients with laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection, 11% were hospitalized, most of whom were infants or elderly. Six CHIKV-infected patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, and two died. Although several illness characteristics were associated with hospitalization, most of these were not typical of chikungunya and instead suggested underlying or concomitant respiratory disease. By enrolling patients when they presented to the emergency department and testing them for evidence of CHIKV infection, we determined that hospitalization in this population occurred in roughly one-in-ten CHIKV-infected patients, one-in-two hundred were admitted to the intensive care unit, and one-in-one thousand died. These findings provide information on the spectrum of disease caused by CHIKV, and identified underlying or concomitant respiratory illness as a risk factor associated with hospitalization.

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Citation: Hsu CH, Cruz-Lopez F, Vargas Torres D, Perez-Padilla J, Lorenzi OD, Rivera A, et al. (2019) Risk factors for hospitalization of patients with chikungunya virus infection at sentinel hospitals in Puerto Rico. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(1): e0007084. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007084

Editor: Patricia V. Aguilar, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: July 31, 2018; Accepted: December 17, 2018; Published: January 14, 2019

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Puerto Rico.

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East/Central/South #African #Genotype in a #Chikungunya #Outbreak, Dhaka, #Bangladesh, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Research Letter

East/Central/South African Genotype in a Chikungunya Outbreak, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2017

Mizanur Rahman  , Junya Yamagishi, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, and Abu Sobhan

Author affiliations: Apollo Hospitals Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh (M. Rahman, R. Rahim, A. Hasan, A. Sobhan); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (J. Yamagishi)

 

Abstract

In 2017, an unprecedented increase in febrile illness was observed in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Real-time reverse transcription PCR confirmed that 603 (40.2%) of 1,500 cases were chikungunya fever. Phylogenetic analysis revealed circulation of the non-A226V East/Central/South African genotype of chikungunya virus in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Bangladesh.

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