Correlation of the basic reproduction number (#R0) and #eco-environmental #variables in #Colombian municipalities with #chikungunya #outbreaks during 2014-2016 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Correlation of the basic reproduction number (R0) and eco-environmental variables in Colombian municipalities with chikungunya outbreaks during 2014-2016

Víctor Hugo Peña-García , Rebecca C. Christofferson

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Published: November 7, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007878 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Colombia in 2014 into a population presumed fully susceptible. This resulted in a quick and intense spread across Colombia, resulting in an epidemic that affected an estimated 450,000 people. The reported Colombian cases accounted for over 49% of all the cases reported to the PAHO. Eco-environmental factors are known to be associated with the spread of arboviruses such as CHIKV, and likely contribute to the differences in transmission profiles that were observed across several municipalities. To determine the association of eco-environmental factors and CHIKV, the basic reproduction number (R0) in 85 municipalities, which accounted for 65.6% of reported CHIKV cases in Colombia, was estimated. Estimates of R0 ranged from 1 to 9, where over 76% of municipalities had R0 values between 1 and 2. When we looked at the distribution of R0, the cumulative proportions were 20% with R0>2, 14% with R0>3, and 9% with R0>4. Next, we determined that there were different patterns of correlation between environmental and/or ecological variables and R0 when we considered different R0 lower-thresholds. Broadly, we found that temperature-related variables are significantly and positively correlated to R0 regardless of the lower threshold, while other variables like duration of outbreak and size of the urban area are inversely related to R0. Specifically, we conclude that high values of temperature-related variables where R0 > 1 will result in a fast growth of cases in a shorter time period (with faster cessation of outbreak transmission) but will result overall in a fewer total cases compared to outbreak areas (R0 > 1, but classified as lower). Thus, in the absence of vector control, a less explosive outbreak may be more advantageous for the virus in terms of transmission.

 

Author summary

Chikungunya virus emerged in Colombia in 2014 into a presumed fully susceptible population and rapidly spread in the country. Numerous municipalities were differently affected by this virus across the country. The main purpose of this work was understanding why those differences were produced and, in turn, what are the variables addressing such differences. For this purpose, we estimated for 85 municipalities the basic reproduction number (R0), a crucial parameter to understand epidemics that is expressed as the number of secondary cases produced by a primary case. Such parameter was correlated with numerous variables resulting evident a crucial role of temperature in the increase of R0. Interestingly, other variables like size of the urban area and cases showed to be negatively correlated with R0. Results shows that high temperatures produce high R0, but those municipalities that showed high R0 showed an explosive epidemic with faster increase of cases that ceased equally fast, so the duration of epidemic is short producing small amount of cases. In this way, more cases are expected with municipalities with lower values of R0, which is suitably explained by the tortoise-hare model, where the less explosive outbreak results to be more advantageous for the virus.

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Citation: Peña-García VH, Christofferson RC (2019) Correlation of the basic reproduction number (R0) and eco-environmental variables in Colombian municipalities with chikungunya outbreaks during 2014-2016. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(11): e0007878. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007878

Editor: Nathan D. Grubaugh, Yale School of Public Health, UNITED STATES

Received: July 25, 2019; Accepted: October 25, 2019; Published: November 7, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Peña-García, Christofferson. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All data are available, and where to get it and how are in the methods. Maps were created in ArcGIS 10.4.1 from publicly available dataset described.

Funding: This work was supported by NIH/NIGMS grant R01GM12207 (PI: RCC) (https://www.nigms.nih.gov). And by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grant number 80NSSC18k0517. The funders played no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Colombia.

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#Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong Viruses in #Uganda: Implications for Diagnostics (Open Forum Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 3;6(3):ofz001. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz001. eCollection 2019 Mar.

Chikungunya and O’nyong-nyong Viruses in Uganda: Implications for Diagnostics.

Clements TL1, Rossi CA1, Irish AK2, Kibuuka H3, Eller LA3, Robb ML4, Kataaha P5, Michael NL6, Hensley LE7, Schoepp RJ1.

Author information: 1 US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. 2 College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. 3 Makerere University Walter Reed Project, Kampala, Uganda. 4 Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland. 5 Nakasero Blood Bank, Kampala, Uganda. 6 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Rockville, Maryland. 7 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-Integrated Research Facility, Frederick, Maryland.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A serosurvey of healthy blood donors provided evidence of hemorrhagic fever and arthropod-borne virus infections in Uganda.

METHODS:

Antibody prevalence to arthropod-borne and hemorrhagic fever viruses in human sera was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).

RESULTS:

The greatest antibody prevalence determined by ELISA was to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) followed in descending order by West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Ebola virus (EBOV), dengue virus (DEN), yellow fever virus (YFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Marburg virus (MARV), and Lassa virus (LASV). Further investigation of CHIKV-positive sera demonstrated that the majority of antibody responses may likely be the result of exposure to the closely related alphavirus o’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV).

CONCLUSIONS:

As the use of highly specific and sensitive polymerase chain reaction-based assays becomes the diagnostic standard without the corresponding use of the less sensitive but more broadly reactive immunological-based assays, emerging and re-emerging outbreaks will be initially missed, illustrating the need for an orthogonal system for the detection and identification of viruses causing disease.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019.

KEYWORDS: CHIKV; ONNV; Uganda; chikungunya; diagnostics; o’nyong-nyong; serosurvey

PMID: 31660384 PMCID: PMC6411207 [Available on 2020-01-03] DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz001

Keywords: Alphavirus; Chikungunya fever; O’nyong-nyong virus; Serosurvey; Uganda.

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#Genetic and #Phylogenetic Characterization of a #Chikungunya Virus Imported into #Shenzhen, #China (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Chikungunya Virus Imported into Shenzhen, China

Authors: Yang Yang, Zhixiang Xu, Haixia Zheng, Jingdong Song, Ying Wu, Zhou Tong, Jing Yuan, Gary Wong, William J. Liu, Yuhai Bi, Yingxia Liu, George F. Gao

LETTER / First Online: 21 October 2019

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Dear Editor,

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, and was first isolated in Tanzania in the 1950s (Silva and Dermody 2017; Weaver and Lecuit 2015). Human infections with CHIKV typically result in a rapid-onset febrile disease, with symptoms that include fever, headache, rash, severe joint and muscle pain, as well as prolonged periods of disability in some patients (Weaver and Lecuit 2015; Silva and Dermody 2017). Unlike other arboviral diseases such as dengue and Zika fever, the majority of CHIKV infections in humans results in clinical symptoms, with ~15% of human infections who are asymptomatic with seroconversion (Schwartz and Albert 2010; Weaver and Lecuit 2015). CHIKV has been reported in more than 110 countries and territories in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas (CDC 2019), and has evolved into three main lineages, including West African, Asian, and East Central South African (ECSA) (Silva and Dermody 2017…

(…)

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Yang Yang, Zhixiang Xu and Haixia Zheng contributed equally to this study.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00166-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the grants from the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) of China (81802004), the Shenzhen Science and Technology Research and Development Project (JCYJ20160427153238750), the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10711001, 2017ZX10103011), Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (XDB29010102), the Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen (SZSM201412003). Y.B. is supported by the NSFC Outstanding Young Scholars (31822055).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Animal and Human Rights Statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the guidelines approved by the Ethics Committees from Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital (SZTHEC2016001) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from the participant enrolled in the study.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; China.

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Space–time #dynamics of a triple #epidemic: #dengue, #chikungunya and #Zika #clusters in the city of #Rio de Janeiro (Proc Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Space–time dynamics of a triple epidemic: dengue, chikungunya and Zika clusters in the city of Rio de Janeiro

Laís Picinini Freitas, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rachel Lowe and Marilia Sá Carvalho

Published: 09 October 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.1867

 

Abstract

Dengue, an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has been endemic in Brazil for decades. However, vector-control strategies have not led to a significant reduction in the disease burden and have not been sufficient to prevent chikungunya and Zika entry and establishment in the country. In Rio de Janeiro city, the first Zika and chikungunya epidemics were detected between 2015 and 2016, coinciding with a dengue epidemic. Understanding the behaviour of these diseases in a triple epidemic scenario is a necessary step for devising better interventions for prevention and outbreak response. We applied scan statistics analysis to detect spatio-temporal clustering for each disease separately and for all three simultaneously. In general, clusters were not detected in the same locations and time periods, possibly owing to competition between viruses for host resources, depletion of susceptible population, different introduction times and change in behaviour of the human population (e.g. intensified vector-control activities in response to increasing cases of a particular arbovirus). Simultaneous clusters of the three diseases usually included neighbourhoods with high population density and low socioeconomic status, particularly in the North region of the city. The use of space–time cluster detection can guide intensive interventions to high-risk locations in a timely manner, to improve clinical diagnosis and management, and pinpoint vector-control measures.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Chikungunya fever; Brazil.

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Secondary #Autochthonous #Outbreak of #Chikungunya, Southern #Italy, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 / Dispatch

Secondary Autochthonous Outbreak of Chikungunya, Southern Italy, 2017

Flavia Riccardo1  , Giulietta Venturi1, Marco Di Luca1, Martina Del Manso, Francesco Severini, Xanthi Andrianou, Claudia Fortuna, Maria Elena Remoli, Eleonora Benedetti, Maria Grazia Caporali, Francesca Fratto, Anna Domenica Mignuoli, Liliana Rizzo, Giuseppe De Vito, Vincenzo De Giorgio, Lorenzo Surace, Francesco Vairo, Paola Angelini, Maria Carla Re, Antonello Amendola, Cristiano Fiorentini, Giulia Marsili, Luciano Toma, Daniela Boccolini, Roberto Romi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Giovanni Rezza, and Caterina Rizzo

Author affiliations: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy (F. Riccardo, G. Venturi, M. Di Luca, M. Del Manso, F. Severini, X. Andrianou, C. Fortuna, M.E. Remoli, E. Benedetti, M.G. Caporali, A. Amendola, C. Fiorentini, G. Marsili, L. Toma, D. Boccolini, R. Romi, P. Pezzotti, G. Rezza); European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden (X. Andrianou); Regione Calabria, Calabria, Italy (F. Fratto, A.D. Mignuoli, L. Rizzo); ASP di Catanzaro, Calabria (G. De Vito, V. De Giorgio, L. Surace); National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome (F. Vairo); Emilia-Romagna Region, Bologna, Italy (P. Angelini); University of Bologna, Bologna (M.C. Re); Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome (C. Rizzo)

 

Abstract

In 2017, a chikungunya outbreak in central Italy later evolved into a secondary cluster in southern Italy, providing evidence of disease emergence in new areas. Officials have taken action to raise awareness among clinicians and the general population, increase timely case detection, reduce mosquito breeding sites, and promote mosquito bite prevention.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Italy.

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#Geographical #trends of #chikungunya and #Zika in the #Colombian #Amazonian #gateway department, Caqueta, 2015-2018 – Implications for #publichealth and #travel medicine (Travel Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 12:101481. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.101481. [Epub ahead of print]

Geographical trends of chikungunya and Zika in the Colombian Amazonian gateway department, Caqueta, 2015-2018 – Implications for public health and travel medicine.

Bonilla-Aldana DK1, Bonilla-Aldana JL2, García-Bustos JJ3, Lozada CO4, Rodríguez-Morales AJ5.

Author information: 1 School of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, Sede Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Semillero de Zoonosis, Grupo de Investigación BIOECOS, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas, Sede Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Committee on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine, Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), Bogotá, Colombia. 2 Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales Macagual, Universidad de La Amazonia, Florencia, Caquetá, 180002, Colombia. 3 Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales Macagual, Universidad de La Amazonia, Florencia, Caquetá, 180002, Colombia; Grupo de Investigación en Patología e Inmunología – Doctorado en Medicina Tropical, Universidad del Magdalena, Santa Marta, Magdalena, 470004, Colombia. 4 Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Regional Information System, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. 5 Public Health and Infection Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Committee on Tropical Medicine, Zoonoses and Travel Medicine, Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), Bogotá, Colombia; Medical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, UniFranz, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Electronic address: arodriguezm@utp.edu.co.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) significantly affected Latin America in the period 2015-2017. Most studies were reported from urban areas of Brazil and Colombia. In this paper we estimate Incidence rates for CHIKV and ZIKV in Caqueta, the Amazonian gateway area of Colombia, from 2015 to 2018.

METHODS:

Using surveillance data of CHIKV and ZIKV in Caqueta, Colombia, incidence rates were estimated (cases/100,000 population). Sixteen geographical information systems (GIS)-based municipal maps were developed. GIS software used was Kosmo 3.0®.

RESULTS:

From 1st of January 2015 to the 24th of November 2018, 825 cases of CHIK and 1079 of ZIKV were reported, yielding cumulated incidence rates of 169.42 and 221.59 cases/100,000 population respectively. In 2016, 48.7% of the CHIKV cases (402) and 96.6% of the ZIKV cases (1042) were reported. The highest number of both arboviral diseases occurred at Florencia (capital department city), 225 cases for CHIKV (127.17 cases/100,000 pop.) and 611 for ZIKV (345.34 cases/100,000 pop.).

DISCUSSION:

The temporo-spatial distribution of CHIKV and ZIKV infections in Caquetá reflected the pattern of concurrent epidemics, especially in 2016. Studies using GIS-linked maps are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological analyses for public health decisions. That is also useful for an epidemiologically based assessment of traveler risks when visiting specific areas in destination countries.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Arboviruses; Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); Geographical information systems (GIS); Infectious diseases epidemiology; Travelers; Zika virus (ZIKV)

PMID: 31521805 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2019.101481

Keywords: Zika Virus; Chikungunya fever; Colombia.

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#Chikungunya-attributable #deaths: A neglected #outcome of a neglected disease (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., summary)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / VIEWPOINTS

Chikungunya-attributable deaths: A neglected outcome of a neglected disease

Antonio S. Lima Neto, Geziel S. Sousa, Osmar J. Nascimento, Marcia C. Castro

Published: September 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007575

Citation: Lima Neto AS, Sousa GS, Nascimento OJ, Castro MC (2019) Chikungunya-attributable deaths: A neglected outcome of a neglected disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(9): e0007575. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007575

Editor: Brett M. Forshey, DoD – AFHSB, UNITED STATES

Published: September 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lima Neto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: ASLN was sponsored by the CAPES Foundation, Brazil (Coordenação do Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), PVEX – 88881.172879/2018-01. MCC was supported by Harvard University Lemann Brazil Research Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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Chikungunya is caused by an arbovirus RNA of the genus alphavirus (CHIKV) of Togaviridae family [1]. Symptomatic acute CHIKV infection is mainly characterized by high fever and severe joint pain (arthralgia) that can compromise daily life activities [2].

Acute symptoms (such as fever, myalgia, and exanthema) usually resolve or decrease in intensity (arthralgias) in 1 or 2 weeks, although the acute phase may last up to 21 days [1, 3]. Clinical features of post-acute phase, which begins after 3 weeks of onset of symptoms and may extend for 90 days, include polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, exacerbation of comorbidities, chronic fatigue, and worsening of preexisting degenerative or traumatic arthropathies [1, 3].

The persistence of arthralgia for more than 3 months indicates the transition to the chronic stage of chikungunya. In addition to joint pain, exacerbation of comorbidities, tenosynovitis, tendinitis, and neuritis have been reported in patients in the chronic phase of the disease [2–4].

Before the epidemic in the Indian Ocean islands (the Comoros, Mauritius, the Seychelles, Madagascar, Mayotte, and Reunion) and in India between 2005 and 2006, there were no consistent reports of severe cases or chikungunya-related deaths [5, 6].

Particularly, the chikungunya outbreak in Reunion Island revealed unknown characteristics of the disease, such as arthralgia persisting for more than 15 months (with critical implications in quality of life) and high lethality among elderly patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes [5, 7]. Corroborating these findings, more than 4,500 excess deaths were estimated to have occurred in Ahmedabad, India [8], and Mauritius [9] during the 2005–2006 chikungunya epidemics.

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Keywords: Chikungunya fever.

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