Spatiotemporal #Heterogeneity in the #Distribution of #Chikungunya and #Zika Virus Case Incidences during their 2014 to 2016 #Epidemics in Barranquilla, #Colombia (Int J Environ Res Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 18;16(10). pii: E1759. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16101759.

Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity in the Distribution of Chikungunya and Zika Virus Case Incidences during their 2014 to 2016 Epidemics in Barranquilla, Colombia.

McHale TC1, Romero-Vivas CM2, Fronterre C3, Arango-Padilla P4, Waterlow NR5, Nix CD6, Falconar AK7, Cano J8.

Author information: 1 Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London WCIE 7HT, UK. tc.mchale@gmail.com. 2 Departamento de Medicina, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia. clromero@uninorte.edu.co. 3 Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London WCIE 7HT, UK. claudio.fronterre@lshtm.ac.uk. 4 Programa de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades Trasmitidas por Vectores, Secretaria de Salud Distrital, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia. arangopedrojose@gmail.com. 5 Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London WCIE 7HT, UK. naomi.walker1@lshtm.ac.uk. 6 Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London WCIE 7HT, UK. chadamson91@gmail.com. 7 Departamento de Medicina, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia. afalconar@uninorte.edu.co. 8 Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London WCIE 7HT, UK. jorge.cano@lshtm.ac.uk.

 

Abstract

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have recently emerged as globally important infections. This study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the occurrence of CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks throughout the major international seaport city of Barranquilla, Colombia in 2014 and 2016 and the potential for clustering. Incidence data were fitted using multiple Bayesian Poisson models based on multiple explanatory variables as potential risk factors identified from other studies and options for random effects. A best fit model was used to analyse their case incidence risks and identify any risk factors during their epidemics. Neighbourhoods in the northern region were hotspots for both CHIKV and ZIKV outbreaks. Additional hotspots occurred in the southwestern and some eastern/southeastern areas during their outbreaks containing part of, or immediately adjacent to, the major circular city road with its import/export cargo warehouses and harbour area. Multivariate conditional autoregressive models strongly identified higher socioeconomic strata and living in a neighbourhood near a major road as risk factors for ZIKV case incidences. These findings will help to appropriately focus vector control efforts but also challenge the belief that these infections are driven by social vulnerability and merit further study both in Barranquilla and throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical regions.

KEYWORDS: Bayesian Poisson models; Chikungunya virus; Zika virus; conditional autoregressive models; environmental risk factors; socioeconomic risk factors; spatial clustering

PMID: 31109024 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16101759

Keywords: Zika Virus; Chikungunya fever; Colombia; Mathematical models.

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#ENSO, overseas arrivals and imported #chikungunya cases in #Australia: A time series analysis (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

El Niño southern Oscillation, overseas arrivals and imported chikungunya cases in Australia: A time series analysis

Xiaodong Huang, Wenbiao Hu, Laith Yakob, Gregor J. Devine, Elizabeth A. McGraw, Cassie C. Jansen, Helen M. Faddy, Francesca D. Frentiu

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007376 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen circulating in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Although autochthonous transmission has not been reported in Australia, there is a potential risk of local CHIKV outbreaks due to the presence of suitable vectors, global trade, frequent international travel and human adaptation to changes in climate.

Methodology/Principal findings

A time series seasonal decomposition method was used to investigate the seasonality and trend of monthly imported CHIKV cases. This pattern was compared with the seasonality and trend of monthly overseas arrivals. A wavelet coherence analysis was applied to examine the transient relationships between monthly imported CHIKV cases and southern oscillation index (SOI) in time-frequency space. We found that the number and geographical distribution of countries of acquisition for CHIKV in travellers to Australia has increased in recent years. The number of monthly imported CHIKV cases displayed an unstable increased trend compared with a stable linear increased trend in monthly overseas arrivals. Both imported CHIKV cases and overseas arrivals showed substantial seasonality, with the strongest seasonal effects in each January, followed by each October and July. The wavelet coherence analysis identified four significant transient relationships between monthly imported CHIKV cases and 6-month lagged moving average SOI, in the years 2009–2010, 2012, 2014 and 2015–2016.

Conclusion/Significance

High seasonal peaks of imported CHIKV cases were consistent with the high seasonal peaks of overseas arrivals into Australia. Our analysis also indicates that El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variation may impact CHIKV epidemics in endemic regions, in turn influencing the pattern of imported cases.

 

Author summary

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is mosquito-borne virus circulating in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe. Infected travellers from CHIKV-affected areas can initiate outbreaks and epidemics in countries where vector mosquitoes are present. Greater understanding of the pattern of imported cases is required to facilitate risk assessment of CHIKV outbreaks. We investigated the temporal pattern of imported CHIKV cases relative to the pattern of overseas arrivals. We also tested whether variability in El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) can predict the import of CHIKV cases in Australia. We found that the number of monthly imported CHIKV cases displayed an unstable increased trend versus the stable linear increased trend observed in monthly overseas arrivals. Both the numbers of imported CHIKV cases and overseas arrivals showed substantial seasonality. High seasonal peaks of imported CHIKV cases were consistent with the high seasonal peaks of overseas arrivals into Australia. We also identified four significant transient relationships between ENSO variability and CHIKV importation. Our results suggest ENSO may impact the occurrence of CHIKV epidemics in endemic regions, in turn influencing the pattern of imported cases.

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Citation: Huang X, Hu W, Yakob L, Devine GJ, McGraw EA, Jansen CC, et al. (2019) El Niño southern Oscillation, overseas arrivals and imported chikungunya cases in Australia: A time series analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007376. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007376

Editor: Mary Hayden, National Center for Atmospheric Research, UNITED STATES

Received: January 6, 2019; Accepted: April 9, 2019; Published: May 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1125317). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Climate Change; ENSO; Chikungunya fever; Australia.

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Infectious #Chikungunya Virus with a Complete Capsid Deletion: a New Approach for CHIKV #Vaccine (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infectious Chikungunya Virus with a Complete Capsid Deletion: a New Approach for CHIKV Vaccine

Ya-Nan Zhang, Cheng-Lin Deng, Jia-Qi Li, Na Li, Qiu-Yan Zhang, Han-Qing Ye, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Bo Zhang

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00504-19

 

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes epidemics of debilitating disease worldwide. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or antivirals available against CHIKV infection. In this study, we generated a novel live attenuated vaccine (LAV) candidate of CHIKV with a complete deficiency of capsid (ΔC-CHIKV). It could propagate in BHK-21 cells, and had similar antigenic properties as native CHIKV. Vaccination of either immunocompromised IFNAR-/- mice or immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice with a single dose of ΔC-CHIKV conferred complete protection upon challenge with wild type (WT) CHIKV. Taken together, this vaccine candidate appeared to be safe and efficacious, representing a novel strategy for CHIKV vaccine design.

 

IMPORTANT

Currently, there is no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. An ideal CHIKV vaccine should generate an optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Live attenuated vaccine that can elicit strong immune responses often involve a trade-off of reduced safety. Here, a novel live attenuated vaccine candidate of CHIKV lacking the entire capsid gene, ΔC-CHIKV, was developed. It was demonstrated to be genetically stable, highly attenuated, immunogenic and able to confer complete protection against lethal CHIKV challenge after a single dose of immunization. Such infectious vaccine candidate devoid of capsid provided a novel strategy for the development of live attenuated CHIKV vaccine.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Alphavirus; Chikungunya fever; Vaccines.

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#Neurological manifestations of #pediatric #arboviral #infections in the #Americas (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 8 May 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript

Neurological manifestations of pediatric arboviral infections in the Americas

Aline Almeida Bentes a,c,d, Erna Geessien Kroon b,d, Roberta Maiade Castro Romanelli a,d

{a} Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena, 190- Santa Efigênia, CEP 30130-100, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; {b} Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais, Brazil; {c} Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, FHEMIG, Minas Gerais, Brazil; {d} Faculty of Medicine of José do Rosário Vellano Univesity, Brazil

Received 8 February 2019, Revised 21 April 2019, Accepted 23 April 2019, Available online 8 May 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.04.006

 

Highlights

  • The neurological complications caused by DENV are based on three possible neuropathogenic mechanisms: invasion of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems; metabolic and vascular disorders and immune-mediated with different manifestations and sequelae.
  • Neurological manifestations of Zika acquired in children were remarkable and included hemiparesis, myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, cortical infarction and behavioral changes.
  • The most common neurological manifestations found in children with Chikungunya infection were seizures, encephalitis, meningism and behavioral changes. Of these children, 5.6% died and 8.5% developed neuronal sequelae.

 

Abstract

Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses are arboviruses transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These viruses exhibit marked neurotropism but have rarely been studied. Here, we conduct an integrative review of the neurological manifestations caused by these arboviruses in the pediatric population. Data on patients under 18 years of age were extracted from literature databases. The most frequently reported neurological manifestations were encephalitis, meningitis, seizures, hypotonia, paresis, and behavioral changes. This review highlights the importance of accurately diagnosing these arboviral infections in children and adolescents with neurological manifestations.

Keywords: neurological manifestations – Dengue virus – Zika virus – Chikungunya virus – Yellow fever virus

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Neurology; Zika virus; Chikungunya fever; Dengue Fever; Pediatrics; Encephalitis; Meningitis.

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Immunogenicity and #Efficacy of a #Measles Virus-vectored #Chikungunya Vaccine in #NHP (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates

Shannan L Rossi, Jason E Comer, Eryu Wang, Sasha R Azar, William S Lawrence, Jessica A Plante, Katrin Ramsauer, Sabrina Schrauf, Scott C Weaver

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz202, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz202

Published: 03 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can result in chikungunya fever (CHIKF), a self-limited acute febrile illness that can progress to chronic arthralgic sequalae in a large percentage of patients. A new Measles virus-vectored vaccine was developed to prevent CHIKF and we tested it for immunogenicity and efficacy in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model.

Methods

Nine cynomolgus macaques were immunized and boosted with the Measles virus-vectored chikungunya vaccine or sham-vaccinated. Sera were taken at multiple times during the vaccination phase to assess antibody responses against CHIKV. Macaques were challenged with a dose of CHIKV previously shown to cause fever and viremia, and core body temperature, viremia and blood cell and chemistry panels were monitored.

Results

The vaccine was well tolerated in all macaques, and all seroconverted (high neutralizing antibody [PRNT80 titers 40-640] and ELISA titers) after the boost. Furthermore, the vaccinated primates were protected against viremia, fever, elevated WBC counts and CHIKF-associated cytokine changes following challenge with the virulent La Reunion CHIKV strain.

Conclusions

These results further document the immunogenicity and efficacy of a Measles-vectored chikungunya vaccine that shows promise in Phase I-II clinical trials. These findings are critical to human health because no vaccine to combat CHIF is yet licensed.

Measles virus, chikungunya virus, vaccine, non-human primate

Topic: fever – macaca  – primates – vaccination – vaccines – viremia – measles – viruses – chikungunya virus vaccine – immunogenicity

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; Measles; Vaccines; Animal models.

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Rare #variant of #GBS after #chikungunya viral fever (BMJ Case Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Apr 23;12(4). pii: e228845. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-228845.

Rare variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome after chikungunya viral fever.

Hameed S1, Khan S1.

Author information: 1 Neurology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

 

Abstract

Chikungunya (CHIK) viral fever is a self-limiting illness that presents with severe debilitating arthralgia, myalgia, fever and rash. Neurological complications are rare. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with acute onset progressive difficulty swallowing and left arm weakness. She was diagnosed with CHIK viral fever 4 weeks prior to admission. After investigations, she was diagnosed with a pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. In hospital, she required ventilator support. Her condition improved after five sessions of intravenous immunoglobulin with almost complete resolution within 6 months of symptom onset. With frequent CHIK outbreaks, the neurological complications are increasingly seen in the emergency department. The knowledge of these associations will result in early diagnosis and treatment.

© BMJ Publishing Group Limited 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

KEYWORDS: clinical neurophysiology; neurology; peripheral nerve disease

PMID: 31015248 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-228845

Keywords: Chikungunya fever; GBS.

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#Epidemiological #trend of #chikungunya #outbreak in #Pakistan: 2016–2018 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., summary)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / VIEWPOINTS

Epidemiological trend of chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: 2016–2018

Nazish Badar, Muhammad Salman, Jamil Ansari, Aamer Ikram, Javaria Qazi, Muhammad Masroor Alam

Published: April 18, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007118

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Citation: Badar N, Salman M, Ansari J, Ikram A, Qazi J, Alam MM (2019) Epidemiological trend of chikungunya outbreak in Pakistan: 2016–2018. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007118. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007118

Editor: Maya Williams, Naval Medical Research Center, UNITED STATES

Published: April 18, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Badar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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An unprecedented expansion of vector-borne diseases, especially those caused by viruses transmitted through mosquitoes, has posed a serious public health challenge worldwide. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which mainly invades tropical and subtropical regions, is one of the recently emerging pathogens associated with severe morbidity in humans. Although Pakistan is known to be endemic for arboviral infections, only Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and dengue have been officially recognized over the last three decades, despite a recent trend of increasingly frequent chikungunya cases, first detected in December 2016.

(…)

Keywords: Arbovirus; Chikungunya Fever; Pakistan.

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