Comparison of the effects of #peramivir and #oseltamivir on the rise in #platelet count in patients with or without proven #influenza (Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018 Dec 11. doi: 10.5414/CP203366. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison of the effects of peramivir and oseltamivir on the rise in platelet count in patients with or without proven influenza.

Kim YG, Ko SY, Lee SW.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Neuraminidase (sialidase) inhibitors are considered to delay platelet clearance through the inhibition of platelet desialylation. A novel neuraminidase inhibitor, peramivir, was recently approved for intravenous administration by the US FDA. We aimed to compare the effects of peramivir and oseltamivir on patient platelet count.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Consecutive patients who were treated with peramivir or tested positive for influenza between January 2015 and December 2017 were analyzed. The analysis included 461 patients with platelet counts available; the patients were divided into three groups: patients with proven influenza treated with peramivir (n = 305); those treated with peramivir without proven influenza (n = 83), and those with proven influenza treated with oseltamivir (n = 73).

RESULTS:

Patients treated with peramivir did not show an increase in platelet count from the baseline count, regardless of proven influenza (from 263.4 × 109/L to 267.4 × 109/L; 9 = 0.410) or not (from 257.1 × 109/L to 255.4 × 109/L; p = 0.873); wheeras for patients treated with oseltamivir, a significant increase above the baseline was found (from 223.3 × 109/L to 249.9 × 109/L; p = 0.016), although it was transient.

CONCLUSION:

Peramivir and oseltamivir appear to have different effects on patient platelet count when administered at the recommended doses

PMID: 30526812 DOI: 10.5414/CP203366

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Antivirals; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir.

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Comparative #immunogenicity of enhanced seasonal #influenza #vaccines in older #adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comparative immunogenicity of enhanced seasonal influenza vaccines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Tiffany W Y Ng, Benjamin J Cowling, Hui Zhi Gao, Mark G Thompson

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy720, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy720

Published: 14 December 2018

 

Abstract

Introduction

A number of enhanced influenza vaccines have been developed for use in older adults, including the high-dose, MF59-adjuvanted, and intradermal vaccines.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review examining the improvements in antibody responses measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay associated with these enhanced vaccines, compared to each other, and compared to standard-dose vaccine using random effects models.

Results

Thirty-nine trials were included. Compared to adults aged 60 years receiving standard-dose vaccines, those receiving enhanced vaccines had significantly higher post-vaccination titers (for all vaccine strains) and higher proportions with elevated titers ≥40 (for most vaccine strains). High-dose vaccine elicited 82% higher post-vaccination titer to A(H3N2) compared to standard-dose vaccine; this was significantly higher than 52% estimated for MF59-adjuvanted versus standard-dose vaccines (p=0.04), which was higher than 32% estimated for intradermal versus standard-dose vaccines (p<0.01).

Conclusions

Overall, by summarizing current evidence, we found enhanced vaccines had greater antibody responses than standard-dose vaccine. Indications of differences among enhanced vaccines highlight that further research is needed in order to compare new vaccine options; this is especially needed during seasons with mismatched circulating strains and for immune outcomes other than HAI titers as well as vaccine efficacy.

immunogenicity, influenza, vaccine

Issue Section: Review

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines.

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The efficacy, #effectiveness, and immunogenicity of #influenza #vaccines in #Africa: a systematic review (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in Africa: a systematic review

Benjamin B Lindsey, MBBS, Edwin P Armitage, BMBS, Prof Beate Kampmann, PhD, Thushan I de Silva, PhD

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30490-0

 

Summary

The burden of influenza in Africa is substantial and underappreciated. Although surveillance has increased, the medical community’s understanding of seasonal influenza vaccine performance remains limited. We did a systematic review, using PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42017058107), on the efficacy, effectiveness, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations within Africa with the aim of identifying key data gaps to help direct future research. We searched Embase, MEDLINE, Global Health database, and Web of Science for published studies from database inception to May 9, 2018. Unpublished studies were identified by searching ClinicalTrials.gov and the Pan-African Clinical Trial Registry, and by contacting experts within the field. Human studies that reported influenza vaccine immunogenicity, effectiveness, and efficacy were included. 1746 articles were assessed and 23 articles were included. Only three of the 23 studies were of high quality and many studies were underpowered. All 23 studies came from only six African countries (16 from South Africa), highlighting the need for data from a broader range of African populations. The majority of studies focused on effectiveness or efficacy against laboratory supported influenza with limited data for severe outcomes. Several factors known to interfere with influenza immunisation, such as malaria, HIV, and malnutrition were under-represented in this Review and require further study. Substantial gaps exist in our understanding of influenza vaccine performance across all WHO high-risk groups in Africa. Filling these knowledge gaps is vital to guide future influenza vaccine policies.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines; Africa.

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#Mortality, #morbidity, and hospitalisations due to #influenza #LRTI, 2017: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (Lancet Resp Med., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Mortality, morbidity, and hospitalisations due to influenza lower respiratory tract infections, 2017: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

GBD 2017 Influenza Collaborators †

Open Access / Published: December 12, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30496-X

 

Summary

Background

Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza.

Methods

We modelled the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality attributable to influenza for every country and selected subnational locations by age and year from 1990 to 2017 as part of GBD 2017. We used a counterfactual approach that first estimated the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality and then attributed a fraction of those outcomes to influenza.

Findings

Influenza LRTI was responsible for an estimated 145 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99 000–200 000) deaths among all ages in 2017. The influenza LRTI mortality rate was highest among adults older than 70 years (16·4 deaths per 100 000 [95% UI 11·6–21·9]), and the highest rate among all ages was in eastern Europe (5·2 per 100 000 population [95% UI 3·5–7·2]). We estimated that influenza LRTIs accounted for 9 459 000 (95% UI 3 709 000–22 935 000) hospitalisations due to LRTIs and 81 536 000 hospital days (24 330 000–259 851 000). We estimated that 11·5% (95% UI 10·0–12·9) of LRTI episodes were attributable to influenza, corresponding to 54 481 000 (38 465 000–73 864 000) episodes and 8 172 000 severe episodes (5 000 000–13 296 000).

Interpretation

This comprehensive assessment of the burden of influenza LRTIs shows the substantial annual effect of influenza on global health. Although preparedness planning will be important for potential pandemics, health loss due to seasonal influenza LRTIs should not be overlooked, and vaccine use should be considered. Efforts to improve influenza prevention measures are needed.

Funding

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pneumonia; Worldwide.

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Intravenous #zanamivir for #influenza #myocarditis and enteral malabsorption (Crit Care, abstract)

[Source: Critical Care, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Intravenous zanamivir for influenza myocarditis and enteral malabsorption

Fritz-Patrick Jahns, Nawfel Ben-Hamouda, Matthias Kirsch, Aurélien Roumy and Lucas Liaudet

Critical Care, 201822:332 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2263-y

©  The Author(s). 2018

Received: 26 October 2018 – Accepted: 15 November 2018 – Published: 4 December 2018

___

Acute myocarditis is an uncommon complication of influenza with a high mortality [1]. Early therapy with neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) is recommended in patients hospitalized for influenza, notably those with myocarditis. Oral oseltamivir is generally used as the first line NI therapy, whereas parenteral zanamivir and peramivir represent alternatives in selected patients who might not respond to oseltamivir, as may occur in conditions of gut failure and defective enteral drug absorption [2, 3]. We present two patients with influenza myocarditis complicated by enteral drug malabsorption, who received early intravenous zanamivir therapy with excellent clinical outcomes.

(…)

Acknowledgements

None.

Funding

None.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors’ contributions

FPJ, data collection and analysis and writing the manuscript. NBH, data collection and analysis, writing the manuscript, and submission. MK, data collection and analysis and writing the manuscript. AR, data collection and analysis and writing the manuscript. LL, data collection and analysis and writing the manuscript and final revision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Retrospective collection of data. Standard of care.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Myocarditis; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Antivirals.

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#Vitamin A #Supplementation during #Pregnancy Enhances #H1N1pdm09 #Vaccine Response in #Mothers, but Enhancement of Transplacental #Antibody Transfer May Depend on When Mothers Are Vaccinated during Pregnancy (J Nutr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Nutr. 2018 Dec 1;148(12):1968-1975. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy228.

Vitamin A Supplementation during Pregnancy Enhances Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Response in Mothers, but Enhancement of Transplacental Antibody Transfer May Depend on When Mothers Are Vaccinated during Pregnancy.

Ahmad SM1, Alam MJ1, Khanam A1, Rashid M1, Islam S1, Kabir Y2, Raqib R1, Steinhoff MC3.

Author information: 1 Infectious Diseases Division, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 3 Global Health Center, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the growing embryo, the vitamin A requirement is tightly regulated. Maternal vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy may alter maternal immune function to accommodate the fetus.

OBJECTIVE:

Our primary objective was to determine the effect of oral vitamin A supplementation (VAS) during pregnancy and until 6 mo postpartum on pandemic H1N1-vaccine responses in mothers and their infants at 6 mo of age.

METHODS:

In this randomized controlled clinical trial, pregnant women (n = 112) during the second trimester (mean ± SD: 14 ± 1 wk) were assigned to receive either an oral dose of 10,000 IU vitamin A or placebo weekly until 6 mo postpartum. During the third trimester, mothers received a single dose of inactivated pandemic H1N1-influenza vaccine. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titer was measured in cord, infant, and maternal blood samples. Multivariate regressions with adjustments were used for data analysis.

RESULTS:

Seventy-six percent of women had low plasma retinol concentrations (<1.05 μmol/L) in their second trimester. VAS of mothers increased vitamin A concentrations in cord blood by 21.4% and in colostrum by 40.7%. At 6 mo postpartum, women in the vitamin A group had 38.7% higher HAI titers and a higher proportion of HAI titer of ≥1:40 of the cutoff compared with the placebo group. A total of 54.5% of infants had an HAI titer ≥1:40 at 6 mo of age, but there was no difference in HAI titer in infants between groups. Overall, HAI in cord blood did not differ between groups, but in the placebo group, cord blood HAI was negatively associated with maternal “vaccination-to-delivery intervals” (rs = -0.401; P = 0.5), and maternal VAS increased cord blood HAI 6-fold if antenatal immunization was administered ≥10 wk before delivery.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a community with low vitamin A status, weekly maternal VAS during pregnancy and postpartum increases the breast-milk vitamin A concentration and enhances prenatal H1N1-vaccine responses in mothers, but the benefits of maternal VAS in transplacental antibody transfer may depend on the time of gestation when mothers were vaccinated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00817661.

PMID: 30517724 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy228

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Vitamin A; Vaccines; Pregnancy.

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Diminished B-cell response after repeat #influenza #vaccination (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Diminished B-cell response after repeat influenza vaccination

Mrinmoy Sanyal, Tyson H Holmes, Holden Maecker, Randy A Albrecht, Cornelia L Dekker, Xiao-Song He, Harry B Greenberg

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy685, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy685

Published: 28 November 2018

 

Abstract

Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody responses in volunteers vaccinated yearly with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) from 2010 or 2011 to 2014. Statistical analyses were designed to help correct for possible bias due to reduced sample size in the later years of the study. We show that after the second annual vaccination the frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the binding reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAb) are reduced and do not increase in subsequent years. Similar trends are observed with the serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody response after each annual vaccination, as well as the binding reactivity of PPAb for the hemagglutinin of influenza A vaccine components, even with changes in the seasonal vaccine components during the study. Our findings indicate a diminished B-cell response to annually repeated TIV vaccination. These results emphasize the need of developing improved strategies to enhance the immunogenicity and efficacy of annual influenza vaccination.

Influenza infection, influenza vaccine, repeated vaccination, plasmablast, B-cell response, antibody

Issue Section: Major Article

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Vaccines.

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