#Replication of #MERS and #SARS #coronaviruses in #bat cells offers insights to their ancestral origins (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Dec 10;7(1):209. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0208-9.

Replication of MERS and SARS coronaviruses in bat cells offers insights to their ancestral origins.

Lau SKP1,2,3,4, Fan RYY5, Luk HKH5, Zhu L5, Fung J5, Li KSM5, Wong EYM5, Ahmed SS5, Chan JFW6,5,7,8, Kok RKH6,5,7,8, Chan KH6,5,7,8, Wernery U9, Yuen KY6,5,7,8, Woo PCY10,11,12,13.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. skplau@hku.hk. 2 Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. skplau@hku.hk. 3 Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. skplau@hku.hk. 4 Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. skplau@hku.hk. 5 Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 6 State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 7 Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 8 Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 9 Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 10 State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. pcywoo@hku.hk. 11 Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. pcywoo@hku.hk. 12 Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. pcywoo@hku.hk. 13 Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. pcywoo@hku.hk.

 

Abstract

Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Five cell lines, including P. abramus and R. sinicus but not T. pachypus cells, were susceptible to human MERS-CoV EMC/2012. However, three tested camel MERS-CoV strains showed different infectivities, with only two strains capable of infecting three and one cell lines respectively. SARS-CoV can only replicate in R. sinicus cells, while HCoV-229E cannot replicate in any bat cells. Bat dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) sequences were closely related to those of human and non-human primates but distinct from dromedary DPP4 sequence. Critical residues for binding to MERS-CoV spike protein were mostly conserved in bat DPP4. DPP4 was expressed in the five bat cells susceptible to MERS-CoV, with significantly higher mRNA expression levels than those in non-susceptible cells (P = 0.0174), supporting that DPP4 expression is critical for MERS-CoV infection in bats. However, overexpression of T. pachypus DPP4 failed to confer MERS-CoV susceptibility in T. pachypus cells, suggesting other cellular factors in determining viral replication. The broad cellular tropism of MERS-CoV should prompt further exploration of host diversity of related viruses to identify its ancestral origin.

PMID: 30531999 DOI: 10.1038/s41426-018-0208-9

Keywords: Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; SARS; Bats.

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Full #genome characterization of two novel Alpha- #coronavirus species from #Italian #bats (Virus Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Res. 2018 Nov 14. pii: S0168-1702(18)30585-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2018.11.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Full genome characterization of two novel Alpha-coronavirus species from Italian bats.

Luca S1, Lelli D2, Faccin F2, Canziani S2, Di Bartolo I3, Vaccari G4, Moreno A2.

Author information: 1 Dept. of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, 00146 Rome, Italy; Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy. 2 Department of Virology, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Antonio Bianchi 9, 25124, Brescia, Italy. 3 Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy. 4 Department of Food Safety, Nutrition and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: gabriele.vaccari@iss.it.

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been detected worldwide in several bat species, which are considered the main reservoir. The attention to the high diversity of CoVs hosted by bats has increased during the last decade due to the high number of human infections caused by two zoonotic Beta-CoVs, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, that cause several respiratory diseases. Among coronaviruses, two Alpha-CoV strains (HuCoV-229E and HuCoV-NL63) cause mild respiratory disease that can change to severe disease in children, elderly and individuals affected by illnesses. Phylogenetic analysis conducted on bat Alpha-CoV strains revealed their evolutive correlation to human strains, suggesting their origin in bats. The genome of CoVs is characterized by a high frequency of mutations and recombination events, increasing their ability to switch hosts and their zoonotic potential. In this study, three strains of Alpha-CoV genera detected in Italian bats (Pipistrellus kuhlii) were fully sequenced by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and characterized. The complete genome analysis showed the correlation of the Italians strains with a Chinese strain detected in 2013 and, based on CoV molecular species demarcation, two new Alpha-CoV species were established. The analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) showed the correlation of the Italian strains with CoVs was only detected in the bat Pipistrellus genera (Pipistrellus kuhlii and Pipistrellus Pipistrellus) in European countries.

KEYWORDS: Alpha-CoV viruses; Bats; Full genome sequencing; Italy

PMID: 30447246 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2018.11.007

Keywords: Coronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Italy; Bats.

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Molecular #identification of #Betacoronavirus in #bats from #Sardinia (#Italy): first detection and phylogeny (Virus Genes., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2018 Nov 13. doi: 10.1007/s11262-018-1614-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Molecular identification of Betacoronavirus in bats from Sardinia (Italy): first detection and phylogeny.

Lecis R1,2, Mucedda M3, Pidinchedda E3, Pittau M4,5, Alberti A4,5.

Author information: 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari, Italy. rlecis@uniss.it. 2 Mediterranean Centre for Disease Control, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari, Italy. rlecis@uniss.it. 3 Centro Pipistrelli Sardegna, Via G. Leopardi 1, 07100, Sassari, Italy. 4 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari, Italy. 5 Mediterranean Centre for Disease Control, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100, Sassari, Italy.

 

Abstract

Bats may be natural reservoirs for a large variety of emerging viruses, including mammalian coronaviruses (CoV). The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans, with evidence that these viruses may have their ancestry in bats, highlights the importance of virus surveillance in bat populations. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a bat β-Coronavirus, detected during a viral survey carried out on different bat species in the island of Sardinia (Italy). Cutaneous, oral swabs, and faecal samples were collected from 46 bats, belonging to 15 different species, and tested for viral presence. Coronavirus RNA was detected in faecal samples from three different species: the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), the brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), and the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis). Phylogenetic analyses based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences assigned the detected CoV to clade 2b within betacoronaviruses, clustering with SARS-like bat CoVs previously reported. These findings point to the need for continued surveillance of bat CoV circulating in Sardinian bats, and extend the current knowledge on CoV ecology with novel sequences detected in bat species not previously described as β-Coronavirus hosts.

KEYWORDS: Bats; Coronavirus; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Sardinia

PMID: 30426315 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-018-1614-8

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; SARS; Bats; Italy.

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Isolation and Full- #Genome Characterization of #Nipah Viruses from #Bats, #Bangladesh (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 1—January 2019 / Dispatch

Isolation and Full-Genome Characterization of Nipah Viruses from Bats, Bangladesh

Danielle E. Anderson1, Ariful Islam1, Gary Crameri1, Shawn Todd, Ausraful Islam, Salah U. Khan, Adam Foord, Mohammed Z. Rahman, Ian H. Mendenhall, Stephen P. Luby, Emily S. Gurley, Peter Daszak, Jonathan H. Epstein1  , and Lin-Fa Wang1

Author affiliations: Duke–National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore (D.E. Anderson. I.H. Mendenhall, L.-F. Wang); EcoHealth Alliance, New York, New York, USA (Ariful Islam, P. Daszak, J.H. Epstein); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (G. Crameri, S. Todd, A. Foord); icddrb, Dhaka, Bangladesh (Ausraful Islam, M.Z. Rahman, E.S. Gurley); University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (S.U. Khan); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (S.P. Luby); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (E.S. Gurley)

 

Abstract

Despite molecular and serologic evidence of Nipah virus in bats from various locations, attempts to isolate live virus have been largely unsuccessful. We report isolation and full-genome characterization of 9 Nipah virus isolates from Pteropus medius bats sampled in Bangladesh during 2013 and 2014.

Keywords: Nipah Virus; Bats; Bangladesh.

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#Tetherin inhibits #Nipah virus but not #Ebola virus replication in fruit #bat cells (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Tetherin inhibits Nipah virus but not Ebola virus replication in fruit bat cells

Markus Hoffmann, Inga Nehlmeier, Constantin Brinkmann, Verena Krähling, Laura Behner, Anna-Sophie Moldenhauer, Nadine Krüger, Julia Nehls, Michael Schindler, Thomas Hoenen,Andrea Maisner, Stephan Becker, Stefan Pöhlmann

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01821-18

 

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus (EBOV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of humans can cause fatal disease and constitutes a public health threat. In contrast, EBOV and NiV infection of fruit bats, the putative (EBOV) or proven (NiV) natural reservoir, is not associated with disease and it is currently unknown how these animals control the virus. The human interferon (IFN)-stimulated antiviral effector protein tetherin (CD317, BST-2) blocks release of EBOV- and NiV-like particles from cells and is counteracted by the EBOV glycoprotein (GP). In contrast, it is unknown whether fruit bat tetherin restricts virus infection and is susceptible to GP-driven antagonism. Here, we report the sequence of fruit bat tetherin and show that its expression is IFN-stimulated and associated with strong antiviral activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that EBOV-GP antagonizes tetherin orthologues of diverse species but fails to efficiently counteract fruit bat tetherin in virus-like particle (VLP) release assays. However, unexpectedly, tetherin was dispensable for robust IFN-mediated inhibition of EBOV spread in fruit bat cells. Thus, the VLP-based model system mimicking tetherin-mediated inhibition of EBOV release and its counteraction by GP seems not to adequately reflect all aspects of EBOV release from IFN-stimulated fruit bat cells, potentially due to differences in tetherin expression levels that could not be resolved by the present study. In contrast, tetherin expression was essential for IFN-dependent inhibition of NiV infection, demonstrating that IFN-induced fruit bat tetherin exerts antiviral activity and may critically contribute to control of NiV and potentially other highly virulent viruses in infected animals.

 

IMPORTANCE

Ebola virus and Nipah virus (EBOV, NiV) can cause fatal disease in humans. In contrast, infected fruit bats do not develop symptoms but can transmit the virus to humans. Why fruit bats but not humans control infection is largely unknown. Tetherin is an antiviral host cell protein and is counteracted by the EBOV glycoprotein in human cells. Here, employing model systems, we show that tetherin of fruit bats displays higher antiviral activity than human tetherin and is largely resistant against counteraction by the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Moreover, we demonstrate that induction of tetherin expression is critical for interferon-mediated inhibition of NiV but, for at present unknown reasons, not EBOV spread in fruit bat cells. Collectively, our findings identify tetherin as an antiviral effector of innate immune responses in fruit bats, which might allow these animals to control infection with NiV and potentially other viruses that cause severe disease in humans.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Ebola; Nipah; Viral pathogenesis; Bats.

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Lack of #serological and molecular evidence of #arbovirus #infections in #bats from #Brazil (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Lack of serological and molecular evidence of arbovirus infections in bats from Brazil

Cíntia Bittar , Rafael R. G. Machado  , Manuela T. Comelis, Larissa M. Bueno, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Matheus R. Beguelini, Renato P. de Souza, Maurício L. Nogueira, Paula Rahal

Published: November 7, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207010

 

Abstract

Viruses are important agents of emerging zoonoses and are a substantial public health issue. Among emerging viruses, an important group are arboviruses, which are characterized by being maintained in nature in cycles involving hematophagous arthropod vectors and a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Recently, bats have received increasing attention as an important source for the emergence of zoonoses and as possible viral reservoirs. Among the arboviruses, there are many representatives of the genera Flavivirus and Alphavirus, which are responsible for important epidemics such as Dengue virus, Zika virus and Chikungunya virus. Due to the importance of analyzing potential viral reservoirs for zoonosis control and expanding our knowledge of bat viruses, this study aimed to investigate the presence of viruses of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera in bats. We analyzed serum, liver, lungs and intestine from 103 bats sampled in northeast and southern Brazil via Nested-PCR and the hemagglutination inhibition test. All samples tested in this study were negative for arboviruses, suggesting that no active or past infection was present in the captured bats. These data indicate that the bats examined herein probably do not constitute a reservoir for these viruses in the studied areas. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of bats as reservoirs and sources of infection of these viral zoonoses.

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Citation: Bittar C, Machado RRG, Comelis MT, Bueno LM, Morielle-Versute E, Beguelini MR, et al. (2018) Lack of serological and molecular evidence of arbovirus infections in bats from Brazil. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0207010. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207010

Editor: Naomi Forrester, Keele University Faculty of Natural Sciences, UNITED KINGDOM

Received: May 16, 2018; Accepted: October 23, 2018; Published: November 7, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Bittar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was financially supported by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation – http://www.fapesp.br/) grant number 2015/09704-6, received by RRGM and by CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development – http://cnpq.br/) grant number 165802/2015-4, received by CB.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Alphavirus; Bats; Brazil; Seroprevalence.

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#Isolation and characterization of a distinct #influenza A virus from #Egyptian #bats (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Isolation and characterization of a distinct influenza A virus from Egyptian bats

Ahmed Kandeil, Mokhtar R. Gomaa, Mahmoud M. Shehata, Ahmed N. El Taweel, Sara H. Mahmoud, Ola Bagato, Yassmin Moatasim, Omnia Kutkat, Ahmed S. Kayed, Patrick Dawson,Xueting Qiu, Justin Bahl, Richard J. Webby, William B. Karesh, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A. Ali

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01059-18

 

ABSTRACT

Recently, two genetically distinct influenza viruses were detected in bats in Guatemala and Peru. We conducted influenza A surveillance among four bat species in Egypt. Out of 1202 swabs, 105 were positive by RT-PCR. A virus was successfully isolated in eggs and propagated in MDCK cells in the presence of TPCK-treated trypsin. Genomic analysis revealed that the virus was phylogenetically distinct from all other influenza A viruses. Analysis of the HA gene suggested common ancestry with other H9 viruses and the virus showed low-level of cross-reactivity with sera raised against H9N2 viruses. Bats were seropositive for the isolated viruses. The virus replicated in the lungs of experimentally infected mice. While genetically distinct, this virus shares several avian influenza virus characteristics suggesting a more recent avian host origin.

 

IMPORTANCE

Through surveillance, we isolated and characterized an influenza A virus from Egyptian fruit bats. This virus had affinity to avian-like receptors but was also able to infect mice. Our findings indicate that bats may harbor a diversity of influenza A viruses. Such viruses may have the potential to cross the species barrier to infect other species including domestic birds and mammals and possibly humans.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Influenza A; H9N2; Bats; Egypt.

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