Complete #genome analysis of a #SARS-like #bat #coronavirus identified in the Republic of #Korea (Virus Genes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2019 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Complete genome analysis of a SARS-like bat coronavirus identified in the Republic of Korea.

Kim Y1,2, Son K1, Kim YS2, Lee SY2, Jheong W1, Oem JK3.

Author information: 1 Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. 3 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. jku0623@jbnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). In the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a SARS-like bat CoV (16BO133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% G+C content. Phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the ORF 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16BO133 was grouped with the Beta-CoV lineage B and was closely related to the JTMC15 strain isolated from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in China. However, 16BO133 was distinctly located in the phylogenetic topology of the human SARS CoV strain (Tor2). Interestingly, 16BO133 showed complete elimination of ORF8 regions induced by a frame shift of the stop codon in ORF7b. The lowest amino acid identity of 16BO133 was identified at the spike region among various ORFs. The spike region of 16BO133 showed 84.7% and 75.2% amino acid identity with Rf1 (SARS-like bat CoV) and Tor2 (human SARS CoV), respectively. In addition, the S gene of 16BO133 was found to contain the amino acid substitution of two critical residues (N479S and T487 V) associated with human infection. In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviruses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation.

KEYWORDS: Bat; Frame shift; SARS-like coronavirus; Whole genome; Zoonotic disease

PMID: 31076983 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w

Keywords: Coronavirus; SARS; Bats; S. Korea.

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Comparative analysis of #serologic cross-reactivity using #convalescent sera from #filovirus-experimentally infected fruit #bats (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 30;9(1):6707. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43156-z.

Comparative analysis of serologic cross-reactivity using convalescent sera from filovirus-experimentally infected fruit bats.

Schuh AJ1,2, Amman BR1, Sealy TS1, Flietstra TD1, Guito JC1, Nichol ST1, Towner JS3,4.

Author information: 1 Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. 2 Commissioned Corps, United States Public Health Service, Rockville, MD, 20852, USA. 3 Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. jit8@cdc.gov. 4 Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. jit8@cdc.gov.

 

Abstract

With the exception of Reston and Bombali viruses, the marburgviruses and ebolaviruses (family Filoviridae) cause outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a natural reservoir host for the marburgviruses and evidence suggests that bats are also natural reservoirs for the ebolaviruses. Although the search for the natural reservoirs of the ebolaviruses has largely involved serosurveillance of the bat population, there are no validated serological assays to screen bat sera for ebolavirus-specific IgG antibodies. Here, we generate filovirus-specific antisera by prime-boost immunization of groups of captive ERBs with all seven known culturable filoviruses. After validating a system of filovirus-specific indirect ELISAs utilizing infectious-based virus antigens for detection of virus-specific IgG antibodies from bat sera, we assess the level of serological cross-reactivity between the virus-specific antisera and heterologous filovirus antigens. This data is then used to generate a filovirus antibody fingerprint that can predict which of the filovirus species in the system is most antigenically similar to the species responsible for past infection. Our filovirus IgG indirect ELISA system will be a critical tool for identifying bat species with high ebolavirus seroprevalence rates to target for longitudinal studies aimed at establishing natural reservoir host-ebolavirus relationships.

PMID: 31040343 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43156-z

Keywords: Serology; Ebola; Marburg; Filovirus; Bats.

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#Assessment of the #function and intergenus-compatibility of #Ebola and #Lloviu virus #proteins (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2019 Apr 24. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261. [Epub ahead of print]

Assessment of the function and intergenus-compatibility of Ebola and Lloviu virus proteins.

Kämper L1, Zierke L1, Schmidt ML1, Müller A1, Wendt L1, Brandt J1, Hartmann E1, Braun S1, Holzerland J2, Groseth A2, Hoenen T1.

Author information: 1 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany. 2 Junior Research Group Arenavirus Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald – Insel Riems, Germany.

 

Abstract

Sequences for Lloviu virus (LLOV), a putative novel filovirus, were first identified in Miniopterus schreibersii bats in Spain following a massive bat die-off in 2002, and also recently found in bats in Hungary. However, until now it is unclear if these sequences correspond to a fully functional, infectious virus, and whether it will show a pathogenic phenotype like African filoviruses, such as ebola- and marburgviruses, or be apathogenic for humans, like the Asian filovirus Reston virus. Since no infectious virus has been recovered, the only opportunity to study infectious LLOV is to use a reverse genetics-based full-length clone system to de novo generate LLOV. As a first step in this process, and to investigate whether the identified sequences indeed correspond to functional viral proteins, we have developed life cycle modelling systems for LLOV, which allow us to study genome replication and transcription as well as entry of this virus. We show that all LLOV proteins fulfill their canonical role in the virus life cycle as expected based on the well-studied related filovirus Ebola virus. Further, we have analysed the intergenus-compatibility of proteins that have to act in concert to facilitate the virus life cycle. We show that some but not all proteins from LLOV and Ebola virus are compatible with each other, emphasizing the close relationship of these viruses, and informing future studies of filovirus biology with respect to the generation of genus-chimeric proteins in order to probe virus protein-protein interactions on a functional level.

PMID: 31017565 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001261

Keywords: Filovirus; Bats; Lloviu virus; Spain; Hungary; Ebola.

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#Discovery and Characterization of Novel #Bat #Coronavirus Lineages from #Kazakhstan (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Apr 17;11(4). pii: E356. doi: 10.3390/v11040356.

Discovery and Characterization of Novel Bat Coronavirus Lineages from Kazakhstan.

Mendenhall IH1, Kerimbayev AA2, Strochkov VM3, Sultankulova KT4, Kopeyev SK5, Su YCF6, Smith GJD7,8,9, Orynbayev MB10.

Author information: 1 Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore. ian.mendenhall@duke-nus.edu.sg. 2 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, 080409 Gvardeiskiy, Kordaiskiy rayon, Zhambylskaya oblast, Kazakhstan. aslan_kerim@mail.ru. 3 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, 080409 Gvardeiskiy, Kordaiskiy rayon, Zhambylskaya oblast, Kazakhstan. vstrochkov@gmail.com. 4 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, 080409 Gvardeiskiy, Kordaiskiy rayon, Zhambylskaya oblast, Kazakhstan. sultankul70@mail.ru. 5 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, 080409 Gvardeiskiy, Kordaiskiy rayon, Zhambylskaya oblast, Kazakhstan. kopeyev85@mail.ru. 6 Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore. yvonne.su@duke-nus.edu.sg. 7 Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore. gavin.smith@duke-nus.edu.sg. 8 SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute, SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore 168753, Singapore. gavin.smith@duke-nus.edu.sg. 9 Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA. gavin.smith@duke-nus.edu.sg. 10 Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, 080409 Gvardeiskiy, Kordaiskiy rayon, Zhambylskaya oblast, Kazakhstan. omb65@mail.ru.

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect a variety of hosts, resulting in a range of symptoms from gastrointestinal illness to respiratory distress. Bats are reservoirs for a high diversity of coronaviruses, and focused surveillance detected several strains genetically similar to MERS-coronavirus, SARS-coronavirus, and the human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. The bat fauna of central Asia, which link China to eastern Europe, are relatively less studied than other regions of the world. Kazakhstan is the world’s ninth largest country; however, little is understood about the prevalence and diversity of bat-borne viruses. In this study, bat guano was collected from bat caves in three different sites of southern Kazakhstan that tested positive for coronaviruses. Our phylogenetic reconstruction indicates these are novel bat coronaviruses that belong to the genus Alphacoronavirus. In addition, two distinct lineages of Kazakhstan bat coronaviruses were detected. Both lineages are closely related to bat coronaviruses from China, France, Spain, and South Africa, suggesting that co-circulation of coronaviruses is common in multiple bat species with overlapping geographical distributions. Our study highlights the need for collaborative efforts in understudied countries to increase integrated surveillance capabilities toward better monitoring and detection of infectious diseases.

KEYWORDS: Hypsugo savii; Kazakhstan; Myotis blythii; coronavirus; phylogeny; virus discovery

PMID: 30999711 DOI: 10.3390/v11040356

Keywords: Coronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Bats; Kazakhstan.

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#Henipaviruses at the #Interface Between #Bats, #Livestock and #Human Population in #Africa: A Review (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Henipaviruses at the Interface Between Bats, Livestock and Human Population in Africa: A Review

Cyrille Mbanwi Mbu’u, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Pierre Gontao, Sylvain Leroy Sado Kamdem, Alexandre Michel Njan Nlôga, Martin H. Groschup, Abel Wade, Kerstin Fischer, and Anne Balkema-Buschmann

Published Online: 13 Apr 2019 /DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2365

 

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are closely related members within the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, for which fruit bats serve as the reservoir. The initial emergence of NiV infections in pigs and humans in Malaysia, and HeV infections in horses and humans in Australia, posed severe impacts on human and animal health, and continues threatening lives of humans and livestock within Southeast Asia and Australia. Recently, henipavirus-specific antibodies have also been detected in fruit bats in a number of sub-Saharan African countries and in Brazil, thereby considerably increasing the known geographic distribution of henipaviruses. Africa is progressively being recognized as a new high prevalence zone for henipaviruses, as deduced from serological and molecular evidence of past infections in Madagascar, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Gulf of Guinea, Zambia, Tanzania, Cameroon, and Nigeria lately. Serological data suggest henipavirus spillover from bats to livestock and human populations in Africa without reported clinical disease in any of these species. All virus isolation attempts have been abortive, highlighting the need for further investigations. The genome of the Ghanaian bat henipavirus designated Ghana virus (GhV), which was detected in a pteropid Eidolon helvum bat, is the only African henipavirus that has been completely sequenced limiting our current knowledge on the genetic diversity and pathogenesis of African henipaviruses. In this review, we summarize the available data on the circulation of henipaviruses in Africa, discuss potential sources for virus spillover, and highlight existing research gaps.

Keywords: Paramyxovirus; Henipavirus; Nipah virus; Hendra virus; Bats; Africa region.

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#Genomic Characterization of the First #Parechovirus in #Bats (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic Characterization of the First Parechovirus in Bats

Authors: Chang Zhang, Jinliang Sheng, Zihan Zhao, Chao Yan, Changchun Tu, Biao He

Letter / First Online: 05 April 2019

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Dear Editor, Parechoviruses (PeVs) are non-enveloped, spherical viruses of genus Parechovirus and family Picornaviridae. Within the capsid is a naked monopartite, linear, single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of 7.3 kb, comprising a single long open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein containing regions P1, P2, and P3. The P1 region encodes three structural proteins (VP0, VP3, and VP1); P2 and P3, non-structural proteins (P2 encoding proteins 2A, 2B, and 2C, and P3 encoding proteins 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D) (ICTV 2018). PeVs are classified into four species: Parechovirus A, is composed of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) identified worldwide, causing gastrointestinal or respiratory diseases and being implicated in myocarditis and encephalitis (Harvala and Simmonds 2009); Parechovirus B and C have been reported in rodents, including Ljungan viruses (LVs) in bank voles and Sebokele virus (SEBV) in African wood mice (Niklasson et al.1999; Joffret et al.2013); Parechovirus Dcomprises a…

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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-019-00108-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Chang Zhang and Jinliang Sheng have contributed equally to this work.

 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the NSFC-Xinjiang joint fund (U1503283).

 

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

The sampling of bats was approved by the Administrative Committee on Animal Welfare of the Military Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, China (Laboratory Animal Care and Use Committee Authorization, Permit No. JSY-DW-2015-01).

Keywords: Picornavirus; Parechovirus; Bats.

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#Bombali #Ebola Virus in Mops condylurus #Bat, #Kenya (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Dispatch

Bombali Ebola Virus in Mops condylurus Bat, Kenya

Kristian M. Forbes1  , Paul W. Webala, Anne J. Jääskeläinen, Samir Abdurahman, Joseph Ogola, Moses M. Masika, Ilkka Kivistö, Hussein Alburkat, Ilya Plyusnin, Lev Levanov, Essi M. Korhonen, Eili Huhtamo, Dufton Mwaengo, Teemu Smura, Ali Mirazimi, Omu Anzala, Olli Vapalahti, and Tarja Sironen

Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (K.M. Forbes, A.J. Jääskeläinen, I. Kivistö, H. Alburkat, I. Pljusnin, L. Levanov, E.M. Korhonen, E. Huhtamo, T. Smura, O. Vapalahti, T. Sironen); Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya (P.W. Webala); Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (A.J. Jääskeläinen, O. Vapalahti); Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden (S. Abdurahman, A. Mirazimi); University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya (J. Ogola, M.M. Masika, D. Mwaengo, O. Anzala); Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (A. Mirazimi); National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden (A. Mirazimi)

 

Abstract

Putatively named Bombali Ebola virus was identified in organs and excreta of an Angolan free-tailed bat (Mops condylurus) in Kenya. Complete genome analysis revealed 98% nucleotide sequence similarity to the prototype virus from Sierra Leone. No Ebola virus–specific RNA or antibodies were detected from febrile humans in the area who reported contact with bats.

Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Bombali Virus; Bats; Kenya.

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