#Bat-Origin #Coronaviruses Expand Their #Host Range to #Pigs (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trends Microbiol. 2018 Jun;26(6):466-470. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2018.03.001. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Bat-Origin Coronaviruses Expand Their Host Range to Pigs.

Wang L1, Su S2, Bi Y3, Wong G4, Gao GF5.

Author information: 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. 2 MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Animal Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China. 3 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Shenzhen 518112, China. 4 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Shenzhen 518112, China. 5 CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Shenzhen 518112, China; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address: gaof@im.ac.cn.

 

Abstract

Infections with bat-origin coronaviruses have caused severe illness in humans by ‘host jump’. Recently, novel bat-origin coronaviruses were found in pigs. The large number of mutations on the receptor-binding domain allowed the viruses to infect the new host, posing a potential threat to both agriculture and public health.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: SeACoV; bat-origin; host jump; public health; swine enteric alphacoronaviruses

PMID: 29680361 DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2018.03.001 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Coronavirus; Bats; Pigs; Alphacoronavirus.

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Experimental #Zika virus #infection of Jamaican fruit #bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) and possible entry of virus into #brain via activated microglial cells (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Experimental Zika virus infection of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) and possible entry of virus into brain via activated microglial cells

Ashley Malmlov, Collin Bantle, Tawfik Aboellail, Kaitlyn Wagner, Corey L. Campbell, Miles Eckley, Nunya Chotiwan, Rebecca C. Gullberg, Rushika Perera, Ronald Tjalkens, Tony Schountz

Published: February 4, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007071 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the New World has led to more than 200,000 human infections. Perinatal infection can cause severe neurological complications, including fetal and neonatal microcephaly, and in adults there is an association with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). ZIKV is transmitted to humans by Aedes sp. mosquitoes, yet little is known about its enzootic cycle in which transmission is thought to occur between arboreal Aedes sp. mosquitos and non-human primates. In the 1950s and ‘60s, several bat species were shown to be naturally and experimentally susceptible to ZIKV with acute viremia and seroconversion, and some developed neurological disease with viral antigen detected the brain. Because of ZIKV emergence in the Americas, we sought to determine susceptibility of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis), one of the most common bats in the New World. Bats were inoculated with ZIKV PRVABC59 but did not show signs of disease. Bats held to 28 days post-inoculation (PI) had detectable antibody by ELISA and viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, saliva and urine in some of the bats. Immunoreactivity using polyclonal anti-ZIKV antibody was detected in testes, brain, lung and salivary glands plus scrotal skin. Tropism for mononuclear cells, including macrophages/microglia and fibroblasts, was seen in the aforementioned organs in addition to testicular Leydig cells. The virus likely localized to the brain via infection of Iba1+macrophage/microglial cells. Jamaican fruit bats, therefore, may be a useful animal model for the study of ZIKV infection. This work also raises the possibility that bats may have a role in Zika virus ecology in endemic regions, and that ZIKV may pose a wildlife disease threat to bat populations.

 

Author summary

The rapid spread of Zika virus through a naïve population in the Americas resulted in novel and severe disease manifestations, including fetal and neonatal microcephaly, and GBS. These disease complications make understanding the pathology and ecology of ZIKV a priority. Captive Jamaican fruit bats were challenged with ZIKV to determine their susceptibility, to assess whether bats may play a role in virus ecology, and if they might serve as an animal model to better understand ZIKV pathophysiology. The bats became acutely infected and mounted an antibody response. Three terminally euthanized inoculated bats had antibody titers of 3200, 28 days PI. Evidence of virus replication and associated pathologies were found in the brain, testes, lungs and salivary glands of some of the inoculated bats. The virus showed predilection for mononuclear cells, including resident Iba1+ macrophage/microglial cells, and Leydig cells.

With no discernible disruption to the blood brain barrier nor distribution of viral antigen indicative of circumeventricular neuroinvasion, microglia cells may be a possible route of entry of ZIKV into brains of bats. Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanisms of neuroinvasion of ZIKV in bats, further determine feasibility of bats as an alternative animal-model for congenital Zika syndrome, and what role bats might play in ZIKV viral ecology.

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Citation: Malmlov A, Bantle C, Aboellail T, Wagner K, Campbell CL, Eckley M, et al. (2019) Experimental Zika virus infection of Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) and possible entry of virus into brain via activated microglial cells. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007071. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007071

Editor: Amy T. Gilbert, US Department of Agriculture, UNITED STATES

Received: August 9, 2018; Accepted: December 11, 2018; Published: February 4, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Malmlov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by startup funds from the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology and the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, and the Vice President for Research at Colorado State University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Bats; Neuroinvasion.

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Understanding #Ebola virus and other #zoonotic transmission #risks through #human- #bat contacts: Exploratory study on knowledge, attitudes and practices in Southern #Cameroon (Zoonoses Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 Jan 24. doi: 10.1111/zph.12563. [Epub ahead of print]

Understanding Ebola virus and other zoonotic transmission risks through human-bat contacts: Exploratory study on knowledge, attitudes and practices in Southern Cameroon.

Baudel H1, De Nys H1, Mpoudi Ngole E2, Peeters M1, Desclaux A1.

Author information: 1 TransVIHMI, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), University of Montpellier, INSERM, Montpellier, France. 2 Laboratoire de Virologie, CREMER, Institut de Recherches Médicales et d’Etudes des Plantes Médicinales (IMPM), Yaoundé, Cameroon.

 

Abstract

The ecology of Ebola virus (EBV) remains largely unknown, but the previous detection of viral RNA and anti-EBV antibodies in African bats suggests that they might play a role in the EBV reservoir. Moreover, African bats also carry other potentially zoonotic agents such as Henipah-like viruses, coronaviruses and lyssaviruses. Today only little information is available on interactions between humans and bats. The objective of our exploratory study was to describe the extent and modes of contacts between humans and bats in southern Cameroon, considered as an area at risk for future EBV outbreaks. The survey was conducted in 11 villages of four distinct rural areas in southern Cameroon. A total of 135 respondents were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires, between February and May 2017. The study showed that direct contacts between bats and humans are relatively common. Bat bushmeat appeared to be an occasional meat resource; 40% of respondents consume bats with a median annual consumption of three, and 28% of respondents hunt them. About 22% of the respondents reported children catching bats. Indirect contact also appeared to be common; 55% of hunters use caves as shelters and 67% of interviewees eat fruits previously chewed by bats. Bat consumption varied significantly between regions (from 0% to 87%) and between pygmies and bantus in the extreme south-east of Cameroon. The study revealed considerable diversity in practices among interviewees, most of them being subsistence cultivators and relying on self-hunted bushmeat. Geographical diversity of contacts and perceptions regarding bats in Cameroon emphasizes the need to adjust zoonotic pathogen surveillance and education campaigns to the specificities of the communities and their context of interaction with wildlife.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Cameroon; Central Africa; Ebola; bat; risk behaviour; zoonotic transmission

PMID: 30677236 DOI: 10.1111/zph.12563

Keywords: Ebola; Bats; Cameroon.

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What Have We Learned About #MERS #Coronavirus Emergence in #Humans? A Systematic Literature #Review (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

What Have We Learned About Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Emergence in Humans? A Systematic Literature Review

Patrick Dawson, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Faruque Parvez, and Stephen S. Morse

Published Online: 24 Jan 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2191

 

Abstract

Background:

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in humans in 2012. A systematic literature review was conducted to synthesize current knowledge and identify critical knowledge gaps.

Materials and Methods:

We conducted a systematic review on MERS-CoV using PRISMA guidelines. We identified 407 relevant, peer-reviewed publications and selected 208 of these based on their contributions to four key areas: virology; clinical characteristics, outcomes, therapeutic and preventive options; epidemiology and transmission; and animal interface and the search for natural hosts of MERS-CoV.

Results:

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4/CD26) was identified as the human receptor for MERS-CoV, and a variety of molecular and serological assays developed. Dromedary camels remain the only documented zoonotic source of human infection, but MERS-like CoVs have been detected in bat species globally, as well as in dromedary camels throughout the Middle East and Africa. However, despite evidence of camel-to-human MERS-CoV transmission and cases apparently related to camel contact, the source of many primary cases remains unknown. There have been sustained health care-associated human outbreaks in Saudi Arabia and South Korea, the latter originating from one traveler returning from the Middle East. Transmission mechanisms are poorly understood; for health care, this may include environmental contamination. Various potential therapeutics have been identified, but not yet evaluated in human clinical trials. At least one candidate vaccine has progressed to Phase I trials.

Conclusions:

There has been substantial MERS-CoV research since 2012, but significant knowledge gaps persist, especially in epidemiology and natural history of the infection. There have been few rigorous studies of baseline prevalence, transmission, and spectrum of disease. Terms such as “camel exposure” and the epidemiological relationships of cases should be clearly defined and standardized. We strongly recommend a shared and accessible registry or database. Coronaviruses will likely continue to emerge, arguing for a unified “One Health” approach.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Coronavirus; Human; Camels; Bats; Vaccines.

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#Seroprevalence, cross #antigenicity and circulation sphere of #bat-borne #hantaviruses revealed by serological and antigenic analyses (PLoS Pathogens, abstract)

[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Seroprevalence, cross antigenicity and circulation sphere of bat-borne hantaviruses revealed by serological and antigenic analyses

Lin Xu , Jianmin Wu , Qi Li , Yamei Wei, Zhizhou Tan, Jianqiu Cai, Huancheng Guo, Ling’en Yang, Xiaohong Huang, Jing Chen, Fuqiang Zhang , Biao He , Changchun Tu

Published: January 22, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007545 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Bats are newly identified reservoirs of hantaviruses (HVs) among which very divergent HVs have been discovered in recent years. However, their significance for public health remains unclear since their seroprevalence as well as antigenic relationship with human-infecting HVs have not been investigated. In the present study archived tissues of 1,419 bats of 22 species from 6 families collected in 5 south and southwest provinces in China were screened by pan-HV RT-PCR following viral metagenomic analysis. As a result nine HVs have been identified in two bat species in two provinces and phylogenetically classified into two species, Laibin virus (LAIV, ICTV approved species, 1 strain) and Xuan son virus (XSV, proposed species, 8 strains). Additionally, 709 serum samples of these bats were also analyzed by ELISA to investigate the seroprevalence and cross-reactivity between different HVs using expressed recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (rNPs) of LAIV, XSV and Seoul virus (SEOV). The cross-reactivity of some bat sera were further confirmed by western blot (WB) using three rNPs followed by fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test (FAVNT) against live SEOV. Results showed that the total HV seropositive rate of bat sera was 18.5% (131/709) with many cross reacting with two or all three rNPs and several able to neutralize SEOV. WB analysis using the three rNPs and their specific hyperimmune sera demonstrated cross-reactivity between XSV/SEOV and LAIV/XSV, but not LAIV/SEOV, indicating that XSV is antigenically closer to human-infecting HVs. In addition a study of the distribution of the viruses identified an area covering the region between Chinese Guangxi and North Vietnam, in which XSV and LAIV circulate within different bat colonies with a high seroprevalence. A circulation sphere of bat-borne HVs has therefore been proposed.

 

Author summary

Some HVs are life-threatening pathogens predominantly carried and transmitted by rodents. In recent years bat-borne HVs have been identified in a broad range of bat species. To understand their significance to public health the present study conducted extensive investigations on genetic diversity, seroprevalence, distribution and cross antigenicity of bat-borne HVs in south and southwest China. The results provide the first profiling of cross-reactivity between bat-borne and human-infecting HVs, demonstrating that some bat sera can neutralize SEOV in cell culture. They also revealed that divergent bat-borne HVs co-exist and are widely distributed in Chinese Guangxi/Yunnan as well as in north Vietnam, resulting in identification of an area between China and Vietnam in which natural circulation of bat-borne HVs is maintained. Given the existence of bat-borne HVs genetically and antigenically close to human-infecting HVs, the need for extensive future studies is emphasized in order to assess the potential risk of these viruses to public health.

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Citation: Xu L, Wu J, Li Q, Wei Y, Tan Z, Cai J, et al. (2019) Seroprevalence, cross antigenicity and circulation sphere of bat-borne hantaviruses revealed by serological and antigenic analyses. PLoS Pathog 15(1): e1007545. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007545

Editor: Sabra L. Klein, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, UNITED STATES

Received: September 19, 2018; Accepted: December 24, 2018; Published: January 22, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All sequences obtained in present study were submitted to GenBank under accession numbers KY662264-KY662275.

Funding: This work was supported by General Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31572529), the National key Basic Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1200100) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2015A030313566). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Bats; Wildlife; Hantavirus; China.

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#Bat #Influenza A(HL18NL11) Virus in Fruit Bats, #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 2—February 2019 / Dispatch

Bat Influenza A(HL18NL11) Virus in Fruit Bats, Brazil

Angélica Cristine Almeida Campos, Luiz Gustavo Bentim Góes, Andres Moreira-Soto, Cristiano de Carvalho, Guilherme Ambar, Anna-Lena Sander, Carlo Fischer, Adriana Ruckert da Rosa, Debora Cardoso de Oliveira, Ana Paula G. Kataoka, Wagner André Pedro, Luzia Fátima A. Martorelli, Luzia Helena Queiroz, Ariovaldo P. Cruz-Neto, Edison Luiz Durigon1, and Jan Felix Drexler1

Author affiliations: Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, A. Moreira-Soto, A.-L. Sander, C. Fischer, J.F. Drexler); Universidade de São Paulo-USP, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas-ICB, São Paulo, Brazil (A.C.A. Campos, L.G.B. Góes, E.L. Durigon); Universidade Estadual Paulista Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Araçatuba, Brazil (C. de Carvalho, W.A. Pedro, L.H. Queiroz); Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Rio Claro, Brazil (G. Ambar, A.P. Cruz-Neto); Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, São Paulo (A.R. da Rosa, D.C. de Oliveira, L.F.A. Martorelli, A.P.G. Kataoka); German Centre for Infection Research, Germany (J.F. Drexler); Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia (J.F. Drexler)

 

Abstract

Screening of 533 bats for influenza A viruses showed subtype HL18NL11 in intestines of 2 great fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus). High concentrations suggested fecal shedding. Genomic characterizations revealed conservation of viral genes across different host species, countries, and sampling years, suggesting a conserved cellular receptor and wide-ranging occurrence of bat influenza A viruses.

Keywords: Influenza A; Bat Influenza; H18N11; Bats; Brazil.

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Identification and characterization of #Coronaviridae #genomes from #Vietnamese #bats and rats based on conserved protein domains (Virus Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Evol. 2018 Dec 15;4(2):vey035. doi: 10.1093/ve/vey035. eCollection 2018 Jul.

Identification and characterization of Coronaviridae genomes from Vietnamese bats and rats based on conserved protein domains.

Phan MVT1,2, Ngo Tri T3, Hong Anh P3, Baker S3, Kellam P4,5, Cotten M1,2.

Author information: 1 Virus Genomics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. 2 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 3 Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. 4 Department of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, UK. 5 Kymab Ltd, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK.

 

Abstract

The Coronaviridae family of viruses encompasses a group of pathogens with a zoonotic potential as observed from previous outbreaks of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Accordingly, it seems important to identify and document the coronaviruses in animal reservoirs, many of which are uncharacterized and potentially missed by more standard diagnostic assays. A combination of sensitive deep sequencing technology and computational algorithms is essential for virus surveillance, especially for characterizing novel- or distantly related virus strains. Here, we explore the use of profile Hidden Markov Model-defined Pfam protein domains (Pfam domains) encoded by new sequences as a Coronaviridae sequence classification tool. The encoded domains are used first in a triage to identify potential Coronaviridae sequences and then processed using a Random Forest method to classify the sequences to the Coronaviridae genus level. The application of this algorithm on Coronaviridae genomes assembled from agnostic deep sequencing data from surveillance of bats and rats in Dong Thap province (Vietnam) identified thirty-four Alphacoronavirus and eleven Betacoronavirus genomes. This collection of bat and rat coronaviruses genomes provided essential information on the local diversity of coronaviruses and substantially expanded the number of coronavirus full genomes available from bat and rats and may facilitate further molecular studies on this group of viruses.

KEYWORDS: Pfam; machine learning; profile Hidden Markov model; protein domains; random forest; virus classification

PMID: 30568804 PMCID: PMC6295324 DOI: 10.1093/ve/vey035

Keywords: Coronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Bats; Vietnam.

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