First #Report of #Coronaviruses in Northern #European #Bats (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

First Report of Coronaviruses in Northern European Bats

Ilkka Kivistö, Eeva-Maria Tidenberg, Thomas Lilley, Kati Suominen, Kristian M. Forbes, Olli Vapalahti, Anita Huovilainen, and Tarja Sironen

Published Online: 10 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2367

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a global public health threat, exemplified by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Using fecal samples collected from five bat species between 2014 and 2016 in Finland and RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and NGS, we identified CoVs in 10 of 79 (13%) samples, including two novel bat species–CoV relationships. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus species clustered among previously identified bat and human viruses. These results expand the known northern distribution and host species range of bat-borne CoVs.

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Alphacoronavirus; Bats; Wildlife; Finland.

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#Usutu Virus #Epizootic in #Belgium in 2017 and 2018: Evidence of Virus Endemization and Ongoing Introduction Events (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Usutu Virus Epizootic in Belgium in 2017 and 2018: Evidence of Virus Endemization and Ongoing Introduction Events

Emna Benzarti, Michaël Sarlet, Mathieu Franssen, Daniel Cadar, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Jose Felipe Rivas, Annick Linden, Daniel Desmecht, and Mutien Garigliany

Published Online: 3 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2469

 

Abstract

Wildlife surveillance allowed the monitoring of the zoonotic mosquito-borne Usutu virus (USUV) in birds and bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) in southern Belgium in 2017 and 2018. USUV-RNA was detected in 69 birds (of 253) from 15 species, among which 7 species had not previously been reported to be susceptible to the infection. Similarly, 2 bats (of 10) were detected positive by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). USUV-associated lesions were mainly found in Eurasian Blackbirds (Turdus merula), in which USUV antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the brain, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and lung. Partial nonstructural protein 5 gene-based phylogenetic analysis showed several identical or closely related strains from 2016, 2017, and 2018 clustering together within Europe 3 or Africa 3 lineages. Further, one USUV strain detected in a common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) manifested a close genetic relationship with the European 1 strains circulating in Hungary and Austria. Our data provide evidence of USUV endemization in southern Belgium in local birds and bats, extension of the host range of the virus and ongoing virus introduction from abroad, likely by migratory birds. Our results highlight the need for vigilance in the forthcoming years toward new virus-associated outbreaks in birds and possible human infections in Belgium.

Keywords: Usutu virus; Bats; Wild Birds; Belgium.

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Identification of Diverse #Bat #Alphacoronaviruses and #Betacoronaviruses in #China Provides New Insights Into the Evolution and Origin of Coronavirus-Related Diseases (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Aug 14;10:1900. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01900. eCollection 2019.

Identification of Diverse Bat Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses in China Provides New Insights Into the Evolution and Origin of Coronavirus-Related Diseases.

Han Y1, Du J1, Su H1, Zhang J2, Zhu G3, Zhang S2, Wu Z1, Jin Q1.

Author information: 1 NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. 2 Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Liaoning Province, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China. 3 EcoHealth Alliance, New York, NY, United States.

 

Abstract

Outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012 and fatal swine acute diarrhea syndrome in 2017 caused serious infectious diseases in humans and in livestock, resulting in serious public health threats and huge economic losses. All such coronaviruses (CoVs) were confirmed to originate from bats. To continuously monitor the epidemic-related CoVs in bats, virome analysis was used to classify CoVs from 831 bats of 15 species in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Sichuan Provinces between August 2016 and May 2017. We identified 11 CoV strains from 22 individual samples of four bat species. Identification of four alpha-CoVs from Scotophilus kuhlii in Guangxi, which was closely related to a previously reported bat CoV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), revealed a bat-swine lineage under the genus Alphacoronavirus. A recombinant CoV showed that the PEDV probably originated from the CoV of S. kuhlii. Another alpha-CoV, α-YN2018, from Rhinolophus affinis in Yunnan, suggested that this alpha-CoV lineage had multiple host origins, and α-YN2018 had recombined with CoVs of other bat species over time. We identified five SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) in Rhinolophus bats from Sichuan and Yunnan and confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 usable SARSr-CoVs were continuously circulating in Rhinolophus spp. in Yunnan. The other beta-CoV, strain β-GX2018, found in Cynopterus sphinx of Guangxi, represented an independently evolved lineage different from known CoVs of Rousettus and Eonycteris bats. The identification of diverse CoVs here provides new genetic data for understanding the distribution and source of pathogenic CoVs in China.

KEYWORDS: bats; coronaviruses; ecological and genetic diversity; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

PMID: 31474969 PMCID: PMC6702311 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01900

Keywords: Alphacoronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Bats; China.

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#Ecological #indicators of #mammal exposure to #Ebolavirus (Philos Trans R Soc B., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 Sep 30;374(1782):20180337. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0337. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Ecological indicators of mammal exposure to Ebolavirus.

Schmidt JP1, Maher S2, Drake JM1, Huang T3, Farrell MJ1, Han BA3.

Author information: 1 Odum School of Ecology and Center for the Ecology of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. 2 Department of Biology, Missouri State University, 901 S. National Ave, Springfield, MO 65897, USA. 3 Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA.

 

Abstract

Much of the basic ecology of Ebolavirus remains unresolved despite accumulating disease outbreaks, viral strains and evidence of animal hosts. Because human Ebolavirus epidemics have been linked to contact with wild mammals other than bats, traits shared by species that have been infected by Ebolavirus and their phylogenetic distribution could suggest ecological mechanisms contributing to human Ebolavirus spillovers. We compiled data on Ebolavirus exposure in mammals and corresponding data on life-history traits, movement, and diet, and used boosted regression trees (BRT) to identify predictors of exposure and infection for 119 species (hereafter hosts). Mapping the phylogenetic distribution of presumptive Ebolavirus hosts reveals that they are scattered across several distinct mammal clades, but concentrated among Old World fruit bats, primates and artiodactyls. While sampling effort was the most important predictor, explaining nearly as much of the variation among hosts as traits, BRT models distinguished hosts from all other species with greater than 97% accuracy, and revealed probable Ebolavirus hosts as large-bodied, frugivorous, and with slow life histories. Provisionally, results suggest that some insectivorous bat genera, Old World monkeys and forest antelopes should receive priority in Ebolavirus survey efforts. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Dynamic and integrative approaches to understanding pathogen spillover’.

KEYWORDS: Ebola; boosted regression trees; comparative analysis; frugivory; host

PMID: 31401967 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0337

Keywords: Ebolavirus; Wildlife; Bats.

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#Bombali Virus in Mops condylurus #Bats, #Guinea (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019 / Research Letter

Bombali Virus in Mops condylurus Bats, Guinea

Lyudmila S. Karan, Marat T. Makenov, Mikhail G. Korneev, Noumany Sacko, Sanaba Boumbaly, Sergey A. Yakovlev, Kerfalla Kourouma, Roman B. Bayandin, Anastasiya V. Gladysheva, Andrey V. Shipovalov, Irina A. Yurganova, Yana E. Grigorieva, Marina V. Fedorova, Svetlana A. Scherbakova, Vladimir V. Kutyrev, Alexander P. Agafonov, Renat A. Maksyutov, German A. Shipulin, Viktor V. Maleev, Mamadou Boiro, Vasiliy G. Akimkin, and Anna Y. Popova

Author affiliations: Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia (L.S. Karan, M.T. Makenov, Y.A. Grigorieva, M.V. Fedorova, V.V. Maleev, V.G. Akimkin); Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute, Saratov, Russia (M.G. Korneev, S.A. Yakovlev, S.A. Scherbakova, V.V. Kutyrev); International Center for Research of Tropical Infections in Guinea, N’Zerekore, Guinea (N. Sacko, S. Boumbaly); Research Institute of Applied Biology of Guinea, Kindia, Guinea (N. Sacko, S. Boumbaly, K. Kourouma, M. Boiro); State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Kol’tsovo, Russia (R.B. Bayandin, A.V. Gladysheva, A.V. Shipovalov, I.A. Yurganova, A.P. Agafonov, R.A. Maksyutov); Center of Strategical Planning and Biomedical Health Risks Management, Moscow (G.A. Shipulin); Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, Moscow (A.Y. Popova)

 

Abstract

In 2018, a previously unknown Ebola virus, Bombali virus, was discovered in Sierra Leone. We describe detection of Bombali virus in Guinea. We found viral RNA in internal organs of 3 Angolan free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus) trapped in the city of N’Zerekore and in a nearby village.

Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Bombali; Bats; Guinea.

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#Đakrông virus, a novel #mobatvirus (#Hantaviridae) harbored by the Stoliczka’s Asian trident #bat (Aselliscus stoliczkanus) in #Vietnam (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 15 July 2019

Đakrông virus, a novel mobatvirus (Hantaviridae) harbored by the Stoliczka’s Asian trident bat (Aselliscus stoliczkanus) in Vietnam

Satoru Arai, Keita Aoki, Nguyễn Trường Sơn, Vương Tân Tú, Fuka Kikuchi, Gohta Kinoshita, Dai Fukui, Hoàng Trung Thành, Se Hun Gu, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Shigeru Morikawa, Richard Yanagihara & Kazunori Oishi

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 10239 (2019)

 

Abstract

The recent discovery of genetically distinct shrew- and mole-borne viruses belonging to the newly defined family Hantaviridae (order Bunyavirales) has spurred an extended search for hantaviruses in RNAlater®-preserved lung tissues from 215 bats (order Chiroptera) representing five families (Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, Pteropodidae, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae), collected in Vietnam during 2012 to 2014. A newly identified hantavirus, designated Đakrông virus (DKGV), was detected in one of two Stoliczka’s Asian trident bats (Aselliscus stoliczkanus), from Đakrông Nature Reserve in Quảng Trị Province. Using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, phylogenetic trees based on the full-length S, M and L segments showed that DKGV occupied a basal position with other mobatviruses, suggesting that primordial hantaviruses may have been hosted by ancestral bats.

Keywords: Mobatvirus; Hantavirus; Bats; Bunyavirus; Dakrong virus; Vietnam.

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#Paramyxo- and #Coronaviruses in #Rwandan #Bats (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 2;4(3). pii: E99. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099.

Paramyxo- and Coronaviruses in Rwandan Bats.

Markotter W1, Geldenhuys M2, Jansen van Vuren P2,3, Kemp A3, Mortlock M2, Mudakikwa A4, Nel L5, Nziza J6, Paweska J2,3, Weyer J2,3.

Author information: 1 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. wanda.markotter@up.ac.za. 2 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 3 Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health laboratory Services, Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa. 4 Rwanda Development Board, Department of tourism and Conservation, P.O Box 6239, Kigali, Rwanda. 5 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 6 Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, P.O Box 115, Musanze, Rwanda.

 

Abstract

A high diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses have been detected in different bat species at study sites worldwide, including Africa, however no biosurveillance studies from Rwanda have been reported. In this study, samples from bats collected from caves in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, were tested for the presence of corona- and paramyxoviral RNA using reverse transcription PCR assays. Positive results were further characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In addition to morphological identification of bat species, we also did molecular confirmation of species identities, contributing to the known genetic database available for African bat species. We detected a novel Betacoronavirus in two Geoffroy’s horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus clivosus) bats. We also detected several different paramyxoviral species from various insectivorous bats. One of these viral species was found to be homologous to the genomes of viruses belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus. Additionally, a Henipavirus-related sequence was detected in an Egyptian rousette fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). These results expand on the known diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses and their geographical distribution in Africa.

KEYWORDS: Rwanda; barcoding; bat; caves; coronavirus; henipavirus; jeilongvirus; paramyxovirus; surveillance

PMID: 31269631 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Paramyxovirus; Henipavirus; Bats; Rwanda.

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