#Bombali Virus in Mops condylurus #Bats, #Guinea (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019 / Research Letter

Bombali Virus in Mops condylurus Bats, Guinea

Lyudmila S. Karan, Marat T. Makenov, Mikhail G. Korneev, Noumany Sacko, Sanaba Boumbaly, Sergey A. Yakovlev, Kerfalla Kourouma, Roman B. Bayandin, Anastasiya V. Gladysheva, Andrey V. Shipovalov, Irina A. Yurganova, Yana E. Grigorieva, Marina V. Fedorova, Svetlana A. Scherbakova, Vladimir V. Kutyrev, Alexander P. Agafonov, Renat A. Maksyutov, German A. Shipulin, Viktor V. Maleev, Mamadou Boiro, Vasiliy G. Akimkin, and Anna Y. Popova

Author affiliations: Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia (L.S. Karan, M.T. Makenov, Y.A. Grigorieva, M.V. Fedorova, V.V. Maleev, V.G. Akimkin); Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute, Saratov, Russia (M.G. Korneev, S.A. Yakovlev, S.A. Scherbakova, V.V. Kutyrev); International Center for Research of Tropical Infections in Guinea, N’Zerekore, Guinea (N. Sacko, S. Boumbaly); Research Institute of Applied Biology of Guinea, Kindia, Guinea (N. Sacko, S. Boumbaly, K. Kourouma, M. Boiro); State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Kol’tsovo, Russia (R.B. Bayandin, A.V. Gladysheva, A.V. Shipovalov, I.A. Yurganova, A.P. Agafonov, R.A. Maksyutov); Center of Strategical Planning and Biomedical Health Risks Management, Moscow (G.A. Shipulin); Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, Moscow (A.Y. Popova)

 

Abstract

In 2018, a previously unknown Ebola virus, Bombali virus, was discovered in Sierra Leone. We describe detection of Bombali virus in Guinea. We found viral RNA in internal organs of 3 Angolan free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus) trapped in the city of N’Zerekore and in a nearby village.

Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Bombali; Bats; Guinea.

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#Đakrông virus, a novel #mobatvirus (#Hantaviridae) harbored by the Stoliczka’s Asian trident #bat (Aselliscus stoliczkanus) in #Vietnam (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 15 July 2019

Đakrông virus, a novel mobatvirus (Hantaviridae) harbored by the Stoliczka’s Asian trident bat (Aselliscus stoliczkanus) in Vietnam

Satoru Arai, Keita Aoki, Nguyễn Trường Sơn, Vương Tân Tú, Fuka Kikuchi, Gohta Kinoshita, Dai Fukui, Hoàng Trung Thành, Se Hun Gu, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Keiko Tanaka-Taya, Shigeru Morikawa, Richard Yanagihara & Kazunori Oishi

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 10239 (2019)

 

Abstract

The recent discovery of genetically distinct shrew- and mole-borne viruses belonging to the newly defined family Hantaviridae (order Bunyavirales) has spurred an extended search for hantaviruses in RNAlater®-preserved lung tissues from 215 bats (order Chiroptera) representing five families (Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, Pteropodidae, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae), collected in Vietnam during 2012 to 2014. A newly identified hantavirus, designated Đakrông virus (DKGV), was detected in one of two Stoliczka’s Asian trident bats (Aselliscus stoliczkanus), from Đakrông Nature Reserve in Quảng Trị Province. Using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, phylogenetic trees based on the full-length S, M and L segments showed that DKGV occupied a basal position with other mobatviruses, suggesting that primordial hantaviruses may have been hosted by ancestral bats.

Keywords: Mobatvirus; Hantavirus; Bats; Bunyavirus; Dakrong virus; Vietnam.

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#Paramyxo- and #Coronaviruses in #Rwandan #Bats (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 2;4(3). pii: E99. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099.

Paramyxo- and Coronaviruses in Rwandan Bats.

Markotter W1, Geldenhuys M2, Jansen van Vuren P2,3, Kemp A3, Mortlock M2, Mudakikwa A4, Nel L5, Nziza J6, Paweska J2,3, Weyer J2,3.

Author information: 1 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. wanda.markotter@up.ac.za. 2 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 3 Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health laboratory Services, Sandringham, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa. 4 Rwanda Development Board, Department of tourism and Conservation, P.O Box 6239, Kigali, Rwanda. 5 Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng 0001, South Africa. 6 Mountain Gorilla Veterinary Project, P.O Box 115, Musanze, Rwanda.

 

Abstract

A high diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses have been detected in different bat species at study sites worldwide, including Africa, however no biosurveillance studies from Rwanda have been reported. In this study, samples from bats collected from caves in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, were tested for the presence of corona- and paramyxoviral RNA using reverse transcription PCR assays. Positive results were further characterized by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In addition to morphological identification of bat species, we also did molecular confirmation of species identities, contributing to the known genetic database available for African bat species. We detected a novel Betacoronavirus in two Geoffroy’s horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus clivosus) bats. We also detected several different paramyxoviral species from various insectivorous bats. One of these viral species was found to be homologous to the genomes of viruses belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus. Additionally, a Henipavirus-related sequence was detected in an Egyptian rousette fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). These results expand on the known diversity of corona- and paramyxoviruses and their geographical distribution in Africa.

KEYWORDS: Rwanda; barcoding; bat; caves; coronavirus; henipavirus; jeilongvirus; paramyxovirus; surveillance

PMID: 31269631 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4030099

Keywords: Coronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Paramyxovirus; Henipavirus; Bats; Rwanda.

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Prioritizing #surveillance of #Nipah virus in #India (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India

Raina K. Plowright  , Daniel J. Becker, Daniel E. Crowley, Alex D. Washburne, Tao Huang, P. O. Nameer, Emily S. Gurley, Barbara A. Han

Published: June 27, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007393

 

Abstract

The 2018 outbreak of Nipah virus in Kerala, India, highlights the need for global surveillance of henipaviruses in bats, which are the reservoir hosts for this and other viruses. Nipah virus, an emerging paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, causes severe disease and stuttering chains of transmission in humans and is considered a potential pandemic threat. In May 2018, an outbreak of Nipah virus began in Kerala, > 1800 km from the sites of previous outbreaks in eastern India in 2001 and 2007. Twenty-three people were infected and 21 people died (16 deaths and 18 cases were laboratory confirmed). Initial surveillance focused on insectivorous bats (Megaderma spasma), whereas follow-up surveys within Kerala found evidence of Nipah virus in fruit bats (Pteropus medius). P. medius is the confirmed host in Bangladesh and is now a confirmed host in India. However, other bat species may also serve as reservoir hosts of henipaviruses. To inform surveillance of Nipah virus in bats, we reviewed and analyzed the published records of Nipah virus surveillance globally. We applied a trait-based machine learning approach to a subset of species that occur in Asia, Australia, and Oceana. In addition to seven species in Kerala that were previously identified as Nipah virus seropositive, we identified at least four bat species that, on the basis of trait similarity with known Nipah virus-seropositive species, have a relatively high likelihood of exposure to Nipah or Nipah-like viruses in India. These machine-learning approaches provide the first step in the sequence of studies required to assess the risk of Nipah virus spillover in India. Nipah virus surveillance not only within Kerala but also elsewhere in India would benefit from a research pipeline that included surveys of known and predicted reservoirs for serological evidence of past infection with Nipah virus (or cross reacting henipaviruses). Serosurveys should then be followed by longitudinal spatial and temporal studies to detect shedding and isolate virus from species with evidence of infection. Ecological studies will then be required to understand the dynamics governing prevalence and shedding in bats and the contacts that could pose a risk to public health.

 

Author summary

Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic virus that spills over from bats to humans causing severe disease and chains of transmission in humans. In May 2018, in Kerala, India, Nipah virus infected 23 people, killing 21. We reviewed and analyzed published records of Nipah virus surveillance in bats and identified eleven species that occur in India and have had evidence of henipavirus infection or exposure. However, almost all of these bat species were sampled outside of India. Using a trait-based machine learning approach, we identified at least four additional Indian bat species that are likely to have been exposed to Nipah virus or cross-reacting henipaviruses. We suggest surveillance of these species as well as studies on the ecological dynamics of Nipah virus and epidemiology of spillover transmission to humans. This work will help prioritize a research agenda for responding to the recent outbreak of Nipah virus in Kerala, India and elsewhere.

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Citation: Plowright RK, Becker DJ, Crowley DE, Washburne AD, Huang T, Nameer PO, et al. (2019) Prioritizing surveillance of Nipah virus in India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007393. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007393

Editor: Sunit Kumar Singh, Molecular Biology Unit (MBU), INDIA

Received: September 22, 2018; Accepted: April 16, 2019; Published: June 27, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Plowright et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data are available at https://caryinstitute.figshare.com/s/8f79fff6795132cabc1a.

Funding: This research was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA PREEMPT # D18AC00031 and DARPA YFA D16AP00113, https://www.darpa.mil; US National Science Foundation DEB-1716698 (RP and DB), DEB-1717282 (BAH, TH), https://www.nsf.gov, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health P20GM103474 and P30GM110732 (RP), https://www.nigms.nih.gov; and a generous donation of a Titan Xp by the NVIDIA Corporation. The content of the information does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the U.S. government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Paramyxovirus; Henipavirus; Nipah Virus; India; Bats.

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#Dengue Virus in #Bats from Córdoba and Sucre, #Colombia (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Dengue Virus in Bats from Córdoba and Sucre, Colombia

Alfonso Calderón, Camilo Guzmán, Salim Mattar, Virginia Rodriguez, Caty Martínez, Lina Violet, Jairo Martínez, and Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

Published Online: 18 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2324

 

Abstract

Natural infection of dengue virus (DENV) in bats is an unexplored field in Colombia. To detect the presence of DENV in bats, a descriptive prospective study using a nonprobabilistic sampling was carried out; 286 bats in 12 sites were caught. Sample tissues of different animals were obtained; the RNA was obtained from tissues and a nested-RT-PCR was carried out and detected amplicons of 143 fragment of the NS5 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. In nonhematophagous bats Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor captured in Ayapel and San Carlos (Córdoba), respectively, an amplicon corresponding to NS5 was detected. The amplicons showed a high similarity with serotype-2 dengue virus (DENV-2). This is the first evidence of the DENV-2 genome in bats in from the Colombian Caribbean.

Keywords: Dengue fever; Bats; Colombia.

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#Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit #Bats, #Zambia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Dispatch

Marburgvirus in Egyptian Fruit Bats, Zambia

Masahiro Kajihara, Bernard M. Hang’ombe, Katendi Changula, Hayato Harima, Mao Isono, Kosuke Okuya, Reiko Yoshida, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Yasuko Orba, Hirohito Ogawa, Yongjin Qiu, Hirofumi Sawa, Edgar Simulundu, Daniel Mwizabi, Musso Munyeme, David Squarre, Victor Mukonka, Aaron Mweene, and Ayato Takada

Author affiliations: Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (M. Kajihara, H. Harima, M. Isono, K. Okuya, R. Yoshida, A. Mori-Kajihara, Y. Eto, Y. Orba, Y. Qiu, H. Sawa, A. Takada); University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia (B.M. Hang’ombe, K. Changula, H. Sawa, E. Simulundu, M. Munyeme, A. Mweene, A. Takada); Okayama University, Okayama, Japan (H. Ogawa); Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Lusaka (D. Mwizabi, D. Squarre); Zambia National Public Health Institute, Lusaka (V. Mukonka)

 

Abstract

We detected Marburg virus genome in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) captured in Zambia in September 2018. The virus was closely related phylogenetically to the viruses that previously caused Marburg outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This finding demonstrates that Zambia is at risk for Marburg virus disease.

Keywords: Marburg virus; Bats; Zambia.

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Complete #genome analysis of a #SARS-like #bat #coronavirus identified in the Republic of #Korea (Virus Genes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2019 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Complete genome analysis of a SARS-like bat coronavirus identified in the Republic of Korea.

Kim Y1,2, Son K1, Kim YS2, Lee SY2, Jheong W1, Oem JK3.

Author information: 1 Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. 3 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. jku0623@jbnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). In the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a SARS-like bat CoV (16BO133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% G+C content. Phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the ORF 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16BO133 was grouped with the Beta-CoV lineage B and was closely related to the JTMC15 strain isolated from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in China. However, 16BO133 was distinctly located in the phylogenetic topology of the human SARS CoV strain (Tor2). Interestingly, 16BO133 showed complete elimination of ORF8 regions induced by a frame shift of the stop codon in ORF7b. The lowest amino acid identity of 16BO133 was identified at the spike region among various ORFs. The spike region of 16BO133 showed 84.7% and 75.2% amino acid identity with Rf1 (SARS-like bat CoV) and Tor2 (human SARS CoV), respectively. In addition, the S gene of 16BO133 was found to contain the amino acid substitution of two critical residues (N479S and T487 V) associated with human infection. In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviruses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation.

KEYWORDS: Bat; Frame shift; SARS-like coronavirus; Whole genome; Zoonotic disease

PMID: 31076983 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w

Keywords: Coronavirus; SARS; Bats; S. Korea.

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