Higher #virulence of #swine #H1N2 #influenza viruses containing #avian-origin #HA and 2009 #pandemic PA and NP in #pigs and mice (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: Archives of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Higher virulence of swine H1N2 influenza viruses containing avian-origin HA and 2009 pandemic PA and NP in pigs and mice

Yunyueng Jang, Taehyun Seo & Sang Heui Seo

Archives of Virology (2020)

 

Abstract

Pigs are capable of harbouring influenza A viruses of human and avian origin in their respiratory tracts and thus act as an important intermediary host to generate novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential by genetic reassortment between the two viruses. Here, we show that two distinct H1N2 swine influenza viruses contain avian-like or classical swine-like hemagglutinins with polymerase acidic (PA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses that were found to be circulating in Korean pigs in 2018. Swine H1N2 influenza virus containing an avian-like hemagglutinin gene had enhanced pathogenicity, causing severe interstitial pneumonia in infected pigs and mice. The mortality rate of mice infected with swine H1N2 influenza virus containing an avian-like hemagglutinin gene was higher by 100% when compared to that of mice infected with swine H1N2 influenza virus harbouring classical swine-like hemagglutinin. Further, chemokines attracting inflammatory cells were strongly induced in lung tissues of pigs and mice infected by swine H1N2 influenza virus containing an avian-like hemagglutinin gene. In conclusion, it is necessary for the well-being of humans and pigs to closely monitor swine influenza viruses containing avian-like hemagglutinin with PA and NP genes from 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses.

Keywords: Influenza A; Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H1N2; Reassortant strain; Pigs; Animal models.

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#Comparison of #Pathological Changes and #Pathogenic Mechanisms Caused by #H1N1 Influenza Virus, HPAI #H5N1, #SARS-CoV, #MERS-CoV and 2019-nCoV #Coronavirus (Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi, 40 (0), E006 2020 Mar 16 [Online ahead of print]

[Comparison of Pathological Changes and Pathogenic Mechanisms Caused by H1N1 Influenza Virus, Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and 2019-nCoV Coronavirus]

[Article in Chinese]

M Liu 1, R E Feng 2, Q Li 3, H K Zhang 1, Y G Wang 1

Affiliations: 1 Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100010, China. 2 Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. 3 Shunyi Hospital of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 101300, China.

PMID: 32174094 DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112151-20200301-00155

 

Abstract

The rapid development of the new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic in Wuhan, China, has caused severe impact on the country, but so far, little is known about the pathological changes and pathogenesis of the new coronavirus pneumonia. This article summarizes the pathological changes of severe influenza virus H1N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV coronavirus that cause major outbreaks of viral infectious diseases. The autopsy lung tissues are diffuse. Alveolar damage (DAD), but pathological manifestations caused by different viruses are different. Severe influenza virus 2009 H1N1 virus binds to receptors α-2,6-SA and α-2,3-SA, except for DAD lesions It is often accompanied by inflammatory lesions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, and is more likely to be complicated by bacterial infection. The highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 mainly binds α-2,3-SA receptors, mainly involving alveolar epithelium and bronchioles. Rarely, upper respiratory tract and trachea and bronchial lesions are often associated with focal pulmonary hemorrhage and lung tissue necrosis. Mechanization and fibrosis are rare. SARS-CoV enters cells by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the lesions are related to the course of disease. The DAD exudation period is generally seen in patients who die within 10 to 14 days. Patients with a disease course of more than 10 days showed mechanized DAD, often accompanied by occlusive bronchiolitis with organic pneumonia-like changes and significant multinucleated giant cells in the alveolar cavity. In patients with SARS-CoV and H5N1 infection, lymphocyte depletion in the spleen and lymph nodes, acute tubular necrosis, and hemophagocytic cells in the bone marrow were seen in the extrapulmonary organs.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV; H1N1pdm09; H5N1.

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#Human #infection with a novel #reassortant #Eurasian-avian lineage #swine #H1N1 virus in northern #China (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):1535-1545. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1679611.

Human infection with a novel reassortant Eurasian-avian lineage swine H1N1 virus in northern China.

Li X1, Guo L1, Liu C2, Cheng Y3, Kong M1, Yang L3, Zhuang Z1, Liu J3, Zou M1, Dong X1, Su X1, Gu Q1.

Author information: 1 Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. 2 Jizhou District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Center, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Influenza A virus infections occur in different species, causing mild to severe respiratory symptoms that lead to a heavy disease burden. Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) viruses (EAS-H1N1) are predominant in pigs and occasionally infect humans. An influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy who was suffering from fever and headache and designated as A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1N1). Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1N1) is a novel reassortant EAS-H1N1 containing gene segments from EAS-H1N1 (HA and NA), classical swine H1N1(NS) and A(H1N1)pdm09(PB2, PB2, PA, NP and M) viruses. The isolation and analysis of A/Tianjin-baodi/1606/2018(H1) provide further evidence that EAS-H1N1 poses a threat to human health and greater attention should be paid to surveillance of influenza virus infection in pigs and humans.

KEYWORDS: EAS-H1N1; Influenza A virus; Phylogenetic analysis; molecular characteristics; triple-reassortant

PMID: 31661383 PMCID: PMC6830285 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1679611 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; Reassortant strain; Human; China.

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#Serological evidence of #swine exposure to #H1N1pdm09 #influenza A virus in #Burkina Faso (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2020 Feb;241:108572. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108572. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Serological evidence of swine exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in Burkina Faso.

Tialla D1, Sausy A2, Cissé A3, Sagna T4, Ilboudo AK5, Ouédraogo GA6, Hübschen JM7, Tarnagda Z8, Snoeck CJ9.

Author information: 1 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; Ecole Nationale de l’Elevage et de la Santé Animale (ENESA), Secteur 28, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: tialladfaso@yahoo.fr. 2 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: aurelie.sausy@lih.lu. 3 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: assanacisse@yahoo.fr. 4 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: stanilinda@gmail.com. 5 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: ilboudokader@yahoo.fr. 6 Laboratoire de Recherche et d’Enseignement en Santé et Biotechnologies Animales (LARESBA), Université Nazi Boni, 01 BP 109, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: ogeorgesanicet@yahoo.fr. 7 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: judith.huebschen@lih.lu. 8 Unité des Maladies à potentiel Epidémique, Maladies Emergentes et Zoonoses (UMEMEZ), Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS), 399, Avenue de la Liberté 01, BP 545, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Electronic address: zekiba@hotmail.com. 9 Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), 29 rue Henri Koch, L-4354, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Electronic address: chantal.snoeck@lih.lu.

 

Abstract

Despite improvement of human and avian influenza surveillance, swine influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce and pandemic preparedness is still deemed inadequate, including in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study therefore aimed to investigate the (past) exposure of pigs to influenza A viruses. Practices of people with occupational contacts with pigs and their knowledge on influenza A were investigated in order to formulate future prevention guidelines. In 2016-2017, pig nasopharyngeal swabs and sera were collected and screened for the presence of influenza virus by RT-PCR or of anti-influenza antibodies by competitive ELISA. Seropositive samples were further characterized in virus microneutralization assays against human and swine H1N1 virus strains. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from people with occupational contact with pigs and screened similarly. Demographic data as well as practices related to their profession were recorded. No influenza A virus was detected in nasopharyngeal swabs in humans (n = 358) or in pigs (n = 600). Seroprevalence in pigs reached 6.8 % (41/600) and seropositive animals were found in 50.0 % of extensive settings (10/20) and 19.0 % of (semi-)intensive farms (4/21). All positive sera reacted against the pandemic H1N1/2009 strain, while seropositivity against two Eurasian avian-like and one American swine H1N1 strains and individual titers were lower. These results suggested exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 virus and cross-reactivity to other H1N1 strains. Farmers with higher frequency of contact to pigs, absence of protective equipment and lack of knowledge on zoonoses are likely key players in driving human-to-swine virus transmission.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Burkina Faso; Epidemiology; Influenza A virus; Pandemic H1N1/2009; Pigs; Public health; Reverse zoonosis

PMID: 31928706 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108572

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Burkina Faso.

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Comparative #Pathogenicity and #Transmissibility of #H1N1pdm09, #Avian #H5N1, and #Human #H7N9 #Influenza Viruses in Tree #Shrews (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Dec 20;10:2955. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02955. eCollection 2019.

Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of Pandemic H1N1, Avian H5N1, and Human H7N9 Influenza Viruses in Tree Shrews.

Xu S1, Li X1, Yang J1, Wang Z1, Jia Y1, Han L1, Wang L1, Zhu Q1.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

 

Abstract

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continuously challenge the poultry industry and human health. Studies of IAVs are still hampered by the availability of suitable animal models. Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) are closely related to primates physiologically and genetically, which make them a potential animal model for human diseases. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated infectivity and transmissibility in Chinese tree shrews by using pandemic H1N1 (A/Sichuan/1/2009, pdmH1N1), avian-origin H5N1 (A/Chicken/Gansu/2/2012, H5N1) and early human-origin H7N9 (A/Suzhou/SZ19/2014, H7N9) IAVs. We found that these viruses replicated efficiently in primary tree shrew cells and tree shrews without prior adaption. Pathological lesions in the lungs of the infected tree shrews were severe on day 3 post-inoculation, although clinic symptoms were self-limiting. The pdmH1N1 and H7N9 viruses, but not the H5N1 virus, transmitted among tree shrews by direct contact. Interestingly, we also observed that unadapted H7N9 virus could transmit from tree shrews to naïve guinea pigs. Virus-inoculated tree shrews generated a strong humoral immune response and were protected from challenge with homologous virus. Taken together, our findings suggest the Chinese tree shrew would be a useful mammalian model to study the pathogenesis and transmission of IAVs.

Copyright © 2019 Xu, Li, Yang, Wang, Jia, Han, Wang and Zhu.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; H5N1; H7N9; infectivity; transmissibility; tree shrew

PMID: 31921093 PMCID: PMC6933948 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02955

Keywords: Influenza A; H7N9; H5N1; H1N1pdm09; Animal models.

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#Interspecies #Transmission of #Reassortant #Swine #Influenza A Virus Containing #Genes from Swine Influenza A #H1N1pdm09 and A(#H1N2) Viruses (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 2—February 2020 / Research

Interspecies Transmission of Reassortant Swine Influenza A Virus Containing Genes from Swine Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H1N2) Viruses

Helen E. Everett  , Bethany Nash, Brandon Z. Londt1, Michael D. Kelly, Vivien Coward, Alejandro Nunez, Pauline M. van Diemen, Ian H. Brown, and Sharon M. Brookes

Author affiliations: Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK

 

Abstract

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated. This reassortant virus has a novel gene constellation, incorporating the internal gene cassette of pH1N1-origin viruses and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of swine IAV H1N2 origin. We investigated the pathogenesis and infection dynamics of the H1N2r isolate in pigs (the natural host) and in ferrets, which represent a human model of infection. Clinical and virologic parameters were mild in both species and both intraspecies and interspecies transmission was observed when initiated from either infected pigs or infected ferrets. This novel reassortant virus has zoonotic and reverse zoonotic potential, but no apparent increased virulence or transmissibility, in comparison to pH1N1.

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Influenza A; Reassortant strain; H1N1pdm09; H1N2; Pigs; UK.

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Emergence of an #Eurasian #avian-like #swine #influenza A (#H1N1) virus from #mink in #China (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2020 Jan;240:108509. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108509. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Emergence of an Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) virus from mink in China.

Liu J1, Li Z1, Cui Y1, Yang H1, Shan H1, Zhang C2.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China. 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address: zhangchuanmei100@163.com.

 

Abstract

We evaluated the phenotype and genotype of a fatal influenza/canine distemper virus coinfection found in farmed mink in China. We identified a novel subtype H1N1 influenza virus strain from the lungs of infected mink designated A/Mink/Shandong/1121/2017 (H1N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis of 8 gene fragments of the H1N1 strain showed the virus was a swine origin triple-reassortant H1N1 influenza virus: with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, NP and M), Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine segments (HA and NA) and classical swine (NS) lineages. The EID50/0.2 mL of this strain was 10-6.2 and pathogenicity tests were 100 % lethal in a mouse model of infection. We found that while not lethal and lacking any overt signs of infection in mink, the virus could proliferate in the upper respiratory tracts and the animals were converted to seropositive for the HA protein.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Eurasian avian-like swine influenza virus; H1N1; Mink influenza virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Reassortment

PMID: 31902506 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108509

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H1N1; Reassortant strain; Wildlife; China.

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