#Seroprevalence of #SFTS #Phlebovirus in Domesticated #Deer in South #Korea (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Seroprevalence of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Phlebovirus in Domesticated Deer in South Korea

Authors: Min-Ah Yu, Kwang-Min Yu, Su-Jin Park, Young-Il Kim, Norbert John Robles, Young-Jae Si, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Hye Won Jeong, Min-Suk Song, Seok-Yong Kim, Young Ki Choi

Research Article / First Online: 25 June 2019

 

Abstract

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) has a wide host range. Not only has it been found in humans, but also in many wild and domesticated animals. The infection of breeding deer on farms is a particularly worrisome public health concern due to the large amount of human contact and the diverse use of deer products, including raw blood. To investigate the prevalence of breeding domesticated deer, we examined the SFTSV infection rate on deer farms in South Korea from 2015 to 2017. Of the 215 collected blood samples, 0.9% (2/215) were found to be positive for viral RNA by PCR, and sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the KADGH human isolate. Both SFTSV-specific recombinant N and Gn protein-based ELISAs revealed that 14.0% (30/215) and 7.9% (17/215) of collected blood specimens were positive for SFTSV antibody. These results demonstrate that the breeding farm deer are exposed to SFTSV and could be a potential infection source for humans through direct contact or consumption of byproducts.

Keywords: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) – Breeding deer – Seroprevalence – South Korea

 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank all involved staffs in the diagnosis of SFTS during this study. We thank veterinarians at Sejeong Farms for collecting the samples. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health & Welfare (government—wide R&D fund project for infectious disease research (HG18C0029).

Author Contributions

M-AY and YKC conceptualized the study. M-AY, KMY, S-JP, Y-IK, NJR, Y-JS, E-HK, and H-IK, conducted the investigation. HWJ, M-SS, S-YK and YKC wrote the paper.

 

Compliance with Ethical Stanadards

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any competing interests to declare.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

This work was supported by the Ministry of Health & Welfare (government – wide R&D fund project for infectious disease research (HG18C0029). Deer serum samples for the study were collected with the deer owner’s approval, and the experiments were conducted under the guidelines of the Chungbuk National University.

Keywords: SFTS; Phlebovirus; Livestock; Deers; S. Korea.

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#Etiology, characteristics, and #outcomes of community-onset #necrotizing #fasciitis in #Korea: A multicenter study (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Etiology, characteristics, and outcomes of community-onset necrotizing fasciitis in Korea: A multicenter study

Tark Kim, Seong Yeon Park, Yee Gyung Kwak, Jiwon Jung, Min-Chul Kim, Seong-Ho Choi, Shi Nae Yu, Hyo-Lim Hong, Yong Kyun Kim, Se Yoon Park, Eun Hee Song, Ki-Ho Park, Oh Hyun Cho, Sang-Ho Choi , the Korean SSTI Study Group

Published: June 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218668

 

Abstract

Background

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a serious skin and soft tissue infection causing high mortality. Investigating region specific epidemiologic factors associated with NF is important for establishing appropriate treatment strategies. This multicenter study was done to provide an update of the microbial etiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of NF in Korea.

Materials and methods

A retrospective cohort of adult patients with NF was established using patient data from 13 general hospitals between January 2012 and December 2015 in Korea. We evaluated microbial etiology and clinical characteristics to identify risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality; analyses were performed using binary logistic regression models.

Results

A total of 161 patients with NF were included. The most common underlying disease was diabetes mellitus (66 cases, 41.0%). A total of 148 organisms were isolated from 119 (73.9%) patients. Enteric Gram-negative organisms (36 patients) were the most common pathogen, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (30 patients) and streptococci (28 patients). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified in 6.2% (10/161) of patients. Of 37 enteric Gram-negative isolates tested, 26 (70.3%) isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. The in-hospital mortality rate was 22.4%. Intensive care unit admission, septic shock, and Gram-negative organism infections were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality, and surgery was not a favorable prognostic factor.

Conclusions

As initial empirical antibiotics, glycopeptides against MRSA and broad-spectrum antibiotics against third-generation cephalosporin-resistant organisms should be considered for patients with community-onset NF in Korea.

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Citation: Kim T, Park SY, Kwak YG, Jung J, Kim M-C, Choi S-H, et al. (2019) Etiology, characteristics, and outcomes of community-onset necrotizing fasciitis in Korea: A multicenter study. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218668. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218668

Editor: Marc O. Siegel, George Washington University, UNITED STATES

Received: December 30, 2018; Accepted: June 6, 2019; Published: June 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: TK received the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Necrotizing fasciitis; Staphylococcus aureus; Antibiotics; MRSA; S. Korea.

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Effective #control #measures considering spatial heterogeneity to mitigate the 2016–2017 #avian #influenza epidemic in the Republic of #Korea (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Effective control measures considering spatial heterogeneity to mitigate the 2016–2017 avian influenza epidemic in the Republic of Korea

Jonggul Lee, Youngsuk Ko, Eunok Jung

Published: June 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218202

 

Abstract

During the winter of 2016-2017, an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) led to high mortality in poultry and put a serious burden on the poultry industry of the Republic of Korea. Effective control measures considering spatial heterogeneity to mitigate the HPAI epidemic is still a challenging issue. Here we develop a spatial-temporal compartmental model that incorporates the culling rate as a function of the reported farms and farm density in each town. The epidemiological and geographical data of two species, chickens and ducks, from the farms in the sixteen towns in Eumseong-gun and Jincheon-gun are used to find the best-fitted parameters of the metapopulation model. The best culling radius to maximize the final size of the susceptible farms and minimize the total number of culled farms is calculated from the model. The local reproductive number using the next generation method is calculated as an indicator of virus transmission in a given area. Simulation results indicate that this parameter is strongly influenced not only by epidemiological factors such as transmissibility and/or susceptibility of poultry species but also by geographical and demographical factors such as the distribution of poultry farms (or density) and connectivity (or distance) between farms. Based on this result, we suggest the best culling radius with respect to the local reproductive number in a targeted area.

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Citation: Lee J, Ko Y, Jung E (2019) Effective control measures considering spatial heterogeneity to mitigate the 2016–2017 avian influenza epidemic in the Republic of Korea. PLoS ONE 14(6): e0218202. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218202

Editor: Daniel Becker, Montana State University, UNITED STATES

Received: February 13, 2019; Accepted: May 28, 2019; Published: June 13, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The data that support the findings of this study are publicly available online at www.mafra.go.kr, www.data.go.kr and www.kosis.kr. The authors confirm that the data set used to reach the conclusions drawn in the manuscript are available in the manuscript and Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work is resulted from the Konkuk University research support program. This paper is supported by the Korea National Research Foundation (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (NRF-2017R1A2B2004651). This paper is also supported by National Institute for Mathematical Sciences (NIMS) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. B19610000).

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; S. Korea.

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Complete #genome analysis of a #SARS-like #bat #coronavirus identified in the Republic of #Korea (Virus Genes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Genes. 2019 May 10. doi: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Complete genome analysis of a SARS-like bat coronavirus identified in the Republic of Korea.

Kim Y1,2, Son K1, Kim YS2, Lee SY2, Jheong W1, Oem JK3.

Author information: 1 Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. 3 Department of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea. jku0623@jbnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Bats have been widely known as natural reservoir hosts of zoonotic diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by coronaviruses (CoVs). In the present study, we investigated the whole genomic sequence of a SARS-like bat CoV (16BO133) and found it to be 29,075 nt in length with a 40.9% G+C content. Phylogenetic analysis using amino acid sequences of the ORF 1ab and the spike gene showed that the bat coronavirus strain 16BO133 was grouped with the Beta-CoV lineage B and was closely related to the JTMC15 strain isolated from Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in China. However, 16BO133 was distinctly located in the phylogenetic topology of the human SARS CoV strain (Tor2). Interestingly, 16BO133 showed complete elimination of ORF8 regions induced by a frame shift of the stop codon in ORF7b. The lowest amino acid identity of 16BO133 was identified at the spike region among various ORFs. The spike region of 16BO133 showed 84.7% and 75.2% amino acid identity with Rf1 (SARS-like bat CoV) and Tor2 (human SARS CoV), respectively. In addition, the S gene of 16BO133 was found to contain the amino acid substitution of two critical residues (N479S and T487 V) associated with human infection. In conclusion, we firstly carried out whole genome characterization of the SARS-like bat coronavirus discovered in the Republic of Korea; however, it presumably has no human infectivity. However, continuous surveillance and genomic characterization of coronaviruses from bats are necessary due to potential risks of human infection induced by genetic mutation.

KEYWORDS: Bat; Frame shift; SARS-like coronavirus; Whole genome; Zoonotic disease

PMID: 31076983 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w

Keywords: Coronavirus; SARS; Bats; S. Korea.

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Low #risk of #avian #influenza A (#H5N6) #transmission to depopulation #workers in #Korea (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 May;12(3):412-415. doi: 10.1111/irv.12530. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Low risk of avian influenza A (H5N6) transmission to depopulation workers in Korea.

Ryu S1,2, Lim JS3, Cowling BJ4, Chun BC2,5.

Author information: 1 Division of Infectious Disease Control, Gyeonggi Provincial Government, Suwon, Korea. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Graduate School of Public Health, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. 3 Disease Diagnostic Team, Gyeonggi Province Veterinary Service, Suwon, Korea. 4 WHO Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control, School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. 5 Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

 

Abstract

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus occurred between November 20, 2016, and March 1, 2017 in poultry farms, in the Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. To identify the risk of transmission of H5N6 to depopulation workers, active and passive surveillance was conducted. Virological testing of respiratory swabs with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for workers who reported respiratory symptoms. Among 4633 depopulation workers, 22 reported respiratory symptoms, but all tested negative for H5N6. Personal protective equipment in addition to antiviral prophylaxis was adequate to limit transmission of H5N6 from poultry to humans.

© 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: avian influenza; personal protective equipment; prevention; transmission

PMID: 29236360 PMCID: PMC5907809 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12530 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Human; PPE; South Korea.

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Inevitable #isolation and the change of #stress markers in #hemodialysis patients during the 2015 #MERS-CoV #outbreak in #Korea (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 Apr 5;9(1):5676. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-41964-x.

Inevitable isolation and the change of stress markers in hemodialysis patients during the 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea.

Kim YG1, Moon H1, Kim SY1, Lee YH1, Jeong DW1, Kim K1, Moon JY1, Lee YK2, Cho A2, Lee HS3, Park HC4, Lee SH5.

Author information: 1 Division of Nephrology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. 2 Hallym University College of Medicine, Internal Medicine, Seoul, Korea. 3 Hallym University College of Medicine, Psychiatry, Seoul, Korea. 4 Department of Internal Medicine, Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. 5 Division of Nephrology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. lshkidney@khu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

During the outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS-CoV) in 2015, one hemodialysis patient was infected with MERS-CoV, and the remaining hemodialysis(HD) patients (n = 83) and medical staff (n = 12) had to undergo dialysis treatment in an isolated environment. This study was performed to investigate the effects of stress caused by dialysis treatment under isolation. Plasma samples from the HD patients and medical staff were collected at the time of isolation(M0), the following month(M1), and three months after isolation(M3). Parameters for stress included circulating cell-free genomic DNA(ccf-gDNA), circulating cell-free mitochondria DNA(ccf-mtDNA), and pentraxin-3(PTX-3). Decreased values of Hct, kt/v and ca x p were recovered after the end of two weeks of isolation. The levels of ccf-gDNA and ccf-mtDNA were the highest at M0 and decreased gradually in both HD patients and the medical staff. The normalization of ccf-gDNA and ccf-mtDNA was significantly delayed in HD patients compared with the response in the medical staff. PTX-3 increased only in HD patients and was highest at M0, and it then gradually decreased. Medical isolation and subnormal quality of care during the MERS outbreak caused extreme stress in HD patients. Plasma cell-free DNA and PTX-3 seems to be good indicators of stress and quality of care in HD patients.

PMID: 30952879 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41964-x

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Nosocomial Outbreaks; S. Korea.

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Identification of #Influenza C Virus in Young South #Korean #Children, from October 2013 to September 2016 (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 27 March 2019 / In Press, Accepted Manuscript / Short communication

Identification of Influenza C Virus in Young South Korean Children, from October 2013 to September 2016

Han Sol Lee a,1, Sooyeon Lim a,b,1, Ji Yun Noh a, Joon Young Song a, Hee Jin Cheong a,c, Jung Hwa Lee d, Sung Il Woo e, Woo Joo Kim a,c

{a} Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; {b} Division of Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea; {c} Asia Pacific Influenza Institute, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; {d} Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; {e} Department of Pediatrics, Chungbuk National University Hospital and College of Medicine, Cheongju, South Korea

Received 7 January 2019, Revised 8 March 2019, Accepted 26 March 2019, Available online 27 March 2019.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2019.03.016

 

Highlights

  • Five (1.22%) influenza C viruses were detected in 409 RV16 test negative samples during the influenza season.
  • Young children are infected with influenza C virus and are at risk for acute respiratory illness.
  • C/Sao Paulo/387/82-like lineage viruses circulated in South Korea.
  • Re-assortment event was observed in the C/Seoul/APD462/2015 strain.

 

Abstract

Background

Influenza C virus has been largely neglected, compared to influenza A orB viruses, and is not routinely tested in clinical practices. However, several studies have indicated that influenza C virus causes severe acute respiratory illness and pneumonia in all ages.

Objective

We conducted a study to identify influenza C virus among young children in South Korea.Study design. From October 2013 to September 2016, 973 young children with influenzalike illness (ILI) were enrolled at three university hospitals. We tested nasopharyngeal samples for 16 types of respiratory viruses. Among the tested samples, 564 were positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Except for the samples where 16 types of respiratory viruses were found, 409 negative samples were examined for the presence of influenza C virus, using a matrix gene specific primer set.

Results

Among 409 nasopharyngeal samples, five influenza C viruses were detected. The manifestation of influenza C virus infection in young children was observed acute respiratory illness, such as fever, rhinorrhea, and cough, but no pneumonia or severe respiratory illness. Nucleotide sequencing was conducted and a phylogenetic tree was generated. We found that C/Sao Paulo/387/82-like lineage viruses circulated in South Korea, and the fully sequenced virus (C/Seoul/APD462/2015) was closely related to C/Victoria/2/2012 and C/Tokyo/4/2014 strains.

Conclusions

This study was the first report of influenza C virus detection in South Korea. Although severe illness was not observed in this study, we suggest the necessity for influenza C virus testing in pediatric patients with ILI, considering other reports of severe illnesses caused by influenza C virus infections.

Keywords: Influenza C virus – South Korea – Phylogenetic analysis

1 These authors contributed equally to this work.

© 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza C; South Korea.

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