Molecular Characterization of a Novel #Avian #Influenza A #H2N9 Strain Isolated from Wild #Duck in #Korea in 2018 (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 10;11(11). pii: E1046. doi: 10.3390/v11111046.

Molecular Characterization of a Novel Avian Influenza A (H2N9) Strain Isolated from Wild Duck in Korea in 2018.

Yeo SJ1, Than DD1, Park HS2, Sung HW3, Park H1.

Author information: 1 Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea. 2 GnCBio Inc, 4F, Yegan Plaza, 36, Banseok-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34069, Korea. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

 

Abstract

A novel avian influenza virus (A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018) (H2N9) was isolated from wild birds in South Korea in 2018, and phylogenetic and molecular analyses were conducted on complete gene sequences obtained by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) virus belonged to the Eurasian countries, whereas other internal genes (polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein (M), and non-structural protein (NS)) belonged to the East Asian countries. A monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, E627 in the PB2 gene, and no deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) isolate was a typical low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI). Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (98.34%) is to that of A/duck/Mongolia/482/2015 (H2N3), and amino acid sequence of NA was closely related to that of A/duck/Bangladesh/8987/2010 (H10N9) (96.45%). In contrast, internal genes showed homology higher than 98% compared to those of other isolates derived from duck and wild birds of China or Japan in 2016-2018. The newly isolated A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) strain is the first reported avian influenza virus in Korea, and may have evolved from multiple genotypes in wild birds and ducks in Mongolia, China, and Japan.

KEYWORDS: H2N9; Korea; novel avian influenza virus isolate; wild duck

PMID: 31717636 DOI: 10.3390/v11111046

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H2N9; Reassortant strain; H2N3; H10N9; Wild Birds; S. Korea.

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A novel #reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 virus identified in South #Korea in 2018 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Nov 1:104056. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus identified in South Korea in 2018.

Baek YG1, Lee YN1, Lee DH2, Cheon SH1, Kye SJ1, Park YR1, Si YJ1, Lee MH1, Lee YJ3.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, The University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Unit-3089, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: leeyj700@korea.kr.

 

Abstract

Since 2017, clade 2.3.4.4b H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs), resulting in multiple genotypes. Here, we sequenced the full-length genome of 15 H5N6 HPAIVs collected from wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea from January to March 2018. A comparative phylogenetic analysis was then conducted. Three distinct genotypes were identified in South Korea during 2017/2018, including a novel reassortant genotype, H214. The novel reassortant H5N6 viruses isolated in this study possessed PB2, PA, and NP gene segments of Eurasian LPAIV on a genetic backbone of the H35-like genotype, which was identified in Korea and the Netherlands during 2017. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the novel reassortant viruses were generated most likely during the fall migration/wintering season of migratory waterfowl in 2017. Considering the continued emergence and spread of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV, enhanced surveillance of wild waterfowl is needed for early detection of HPAIV incursions.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: 2.3.4.4b H5N6; HPAIV; Novel genotype; Novel reassortant; Phylogenetic analysis; tMRCA

PMID: 31683010 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Korea.

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#Risk of #transmission via #medical #employees and importance of routine #infection-prevention #policy in a #nosocomial #outbreak of #MERS: a descriptive analysis from a tertiary care hospital in South #Korea (BMC Pulm Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Pulm Med. 2019 Oct 30;19(1):190. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-0940-5.

Risk of transmission via medical employees and importance of routine infection-prevention policy in a nosocomial outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a descriptive analysis from a tertiary care hospital in South Korea.

Ki HK1, Han SK2, Son JS3, Park SO4.

Author information: 1 Division of infectious diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Konkuk University Medical Centre, 120-1 Neungdong-ro (Hwayang-dong), Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 108 Pyung-Dong, Jongno-Gu, Seoul, 110-746, Republic of Korea. 3 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 892, Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea. 4 Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Konkuk University Medical Centre, 120-1 Neungdong-ro (Hwayang-dong), Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. empso@kuh.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In 2015, South Korea experienced an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and our hospital experienced a nosocomial MERS infection. We performed a comprehensive analysis to identify the MERS transmission route and the ability of our routine infection-prevention policy to control this outbreak.

METHODS:

This is a case-cohort study of retrospectively analysed data from medical charts, closed-circuit television, personal interviews and a national database. We analysed data of people at risk of MERS transmission including 228 in the emergency department (ED) and 218 in general wards (GW). Data of personnel location and movement, personal protection equipment and hand hygiene was recorded. Transmission risk was determined as the extent of exposure to the index patient: 1) high risk: staying within 2 m; 2) intermediate risk: staying in the same room at same time; and 3) low risk: only staying in the same department without contact.

RESULTS:

The index patient was an old patient admitted to our hospital. 11 transmissions from the index patient were identified; 4 were infected in our hospital. Personnel in the ED exhibited higher rates of compliance with routine infection-prevention methods as observed objectively: 93% wore a surgical mask and 95.6% washed their hands. Only 1.8% of personnel were observed to wear a surgical mask in the GW. ED had a higher percentage of high-risk individuals compared with the GW (14.5% vs. 2.8%), but the attack rate was higher in the GW (16.7%; l/6) than in the ED (3%; 1/33). There were no transmissions in the intermediate- and low-risk groups in the ED. Otherwise 2 patients were infected in the GW among the low-risk group. MERS were transmitted to them indirectly by staff who cared for the index patient.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study provide compelling evidence that routine infection-prevention policies can greatly reduce nosocomial transmission of MERS. Conventional isolation is established mainly from contact tracing of patients during a MERS outbreak. But it should be extended to all people treated by any medical employee who has contact with MERS patients.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02605109 , date of registration: 11th November 2015.

KEYWORDS: Hand hygiene; Infection control; Isolation; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; Nosocomial infection

PMID: 31666061 DOI: 10.1186/s12890-019-0940-5

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Hand hygiene; IPCs; Nosocomial Outbreaks; S. Korea.

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Improved #survival rates in patients with #H1N1 acute #respiratory #failure in #Korea between 2009 and 2016 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Improved survival rates in patients with H1N1 acute respiratory failure in Korea between 2009 and 2016

Hayoung Choi , Ui Won Ko , Hyun Lee , Sang-Bum Hong  , Chi Ryang Chung

Published: October 3, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223323

 

Abstract

There was a pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) in 2009; in Korea, there was also an H1N1 epidemic in 2016. We aim to investigate whether survival had improved in the setting of recent advances in intensive care unit (ICU) management. We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute respiratory failure patients with H1N1 influenza pneumonia in 2016 and 2009 respectively at two tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A total of 28 patients were treated in 2016, and 34 in 2009. There was no significant difference in SOFA scores on ICU admission day. In-hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients of 2016 compared to those of 2009 (18% vs. 44% P = 0.028). By multivariable analyses, the treatment year 2016 was associated with a greater likelihood of survival. Compared to the patients treated in 2009, those treated in 2016 were one seventh as likely to die after adjusting for other clinical variables (hazard ratio for mortality, 0.15; 95% confidence interval. 0.03–0.63, P = 0.010). Improved survival in patients who underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment (in-hospital mortality, 17% vs. 60%, P = 0.242) and decreased tidal volumes during mechanical ventilation (median 5.4 mL/kg vs. median 9.2 mL/kg, P = 0.018) were observed in 2016 compared to 2009. Treatment outcomes for patients with H1N1 acute respiratory failure improved from 2009 to 2016 in two tertiary referral centers in South Korea.

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Citation: Choi H, Ko UW, Lee H, Hong S-B, Chung CR (2019) Improved survival rates in patients with H1N1 acute respiratory failure in Korea between 2009 and 2016. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223323. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223323

Editor: Edward Goldstein, Harvard School of Public Health, UNITED STATES

Received: April 14, 2019; Accepted: September 18, 2019; Published: October 3, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Choi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI14C0743, CRC). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; ARDS; ECMO; S. Korea.

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#Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in three #chicken #breeds from South #Korea in 2016/2017 (J Vet Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Vet Sci. 2019 May;20(3):e27. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e27.

Pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in three chicken breeds from South Korea in 2016/2017.

Park SC1, Song BM2, Lee YN2, Lee EK2, Heo GB2, Kye SJ2, Lee KH2, Bae YC2, Lee YJ3, Kim B4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea. 2 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea. leeyj700@korea.kr. 4 Laboratory of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea. bskims@jbnu.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

In 2016, novel H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Korea. During the outbreak, the virus caused the largest culling, especially in brown chicken lines. We determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in 2 white chicken lines of the specific pathogen-free chickens, broilers and brown chicken line of Korean native chicken (KNC). A KNC had a longer virus shedding period and longer mean death time than others. Our study showed that this characteristic in the KNC might have contributed to a farm-to-farm transmission of the brown chicken farms.

© 2019 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

KEYWORDS: Chicken; H5N6; highly pathogenic avian influenza; pathogenicity

PMID: 31161745 PMCID: PMC6538517 DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e27 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6, Poultry; South Korea.

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Complete #genome #sequence of a novel #reassortant #H3N3 #avian #influenza virus (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2019 Aug 27. doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04386-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant H3N3 avian influenza virus.

Le TB1,2, Kim HK3, Le HY1,2, Jeong MC1,2, Kim IK4, Jeong DG5,6, Yoon SW7,8.

Author information: 1 Infectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea. 2 University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, South Korea. 3 Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, 28644, South Korea. 4 Korea Institute of Environment Ecology, Daejeon, 34016, South Korea. 5 Infectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea. dgjeong@kribb.re.kr. 6 University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, South Korea. dgjeong@kribb.re.kr. 7 Infectious Disease Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Daejeon, 34141, South Korea. syoon@kribb.re.kr. 8 University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, South Korea. syoon@kribb.re.kr.

 

Abstract

Aquatic birds are known to be a reservoir for the most common influenza A viruses (IAVs). In the annual surveillance program, we collected the feces of migratory birds for the detection of IAVs in South Korea in November 2016. A novel reassorted H3N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) containing genes from viruses of wild and domestic birds was identified and named A/aquatic bird/South Korea/sw006/2016(H3N3). The polymerase basic 2 (PB2) and non-structural (NS) genes of this isolate are most closely related to those of wild-bird-origin AIV, while the polymerase basic 1 (PB1), polymerase acidic (PA), hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) genes are most closely related to those of domestic-bird-origin AIV. A/aquatic bird/South Korea/sw006/2016 contains PA, NP, M, and NS genes were most closely related to those of AIV subtype H4 and PB2, PB1, and HA genes that are most closely related to those of AIV subtype H3N8, while the NA gene was most closely related to those of subtype H10, which was recently detected in humans in China. These results suggest that novel reassortment of AIV strains occurred due to interaction between wild and domestic birds. Hence, we emphasize the need for continued surveillance of avian influenza virus in bird populations.

PMID: 31456087 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-019-04386-8

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H3N3; H4; H10; H3N8; Wild Birds; S. Korea; Reassortant strain.

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#Economic #Impact of the 2015 #MERS #Outbreak on the Republic of #Korea’s #Tourism-Related #Industries (Health Secur., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Health Secur. 2019 Mar/Apr;17(2):100-108. doi: 10.1089/hs.2018.0115. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Economic Impact of the 2015 MERS Outbreak on the Republic of Korea’s Tourism-Related Industries.

Joo H1, Maskery BA2, Berro AD3, Rotz LD4, Lee YK5, Brown CM6.

Author information: 1 Heesoo Joo, PhD, is an Economist, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. 2 Brian A. Maskery, PhD, is an Economist, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. 3 Andre D. Berro, MPH, is a Public Health Advisor, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. 4 Lisa D. Rotz, MD, is a Medical Epidemiologist, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. 5 Yeon-Kyeng Lee, PhD, is Division Director, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea. 6 Clive M. Brown, MD, is Branch Chief, Quarantine and Border Health Services, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

 

Abstract

The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is an example of an infectious disease outbreak initiated by international travelers to a high-income country. This study was conducted to determine the economic impact of the MERS outbreak on the tourism and travel-related service sectors, including accommodation, food and beverage, and transportation, in the ROK. We projected monthly numbers of noncitizen arrivals and indices of services for 3 travel-related service sectors during and after the MERS outbreak (June 2015 to June 2016) using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models. Tourism losses were estimated by multiplying the monthly differences between projected and actual numbers of noncitizen arrivals by average tourism expenditure per capita. Estimated tourism losses were allocated to travel-related service sectors to understand the distribution of losses across service sectors. The MERS outbreak was correlated with a reduction of 2.1 million noncitizen visitors corresponding with US$2.6 billion in tourism loss for the ROK. Estimated losses in the accommodation, food and beverage service, and transportation sectors associated with the decrease of noncitizen visitors were US$542 million, US$359 million, and US$106 million, respectively. The losses were demonstrated by lower than expected indices of services for the accommodation and food and beverage service sectors in June and July 2015 and for the transportation sector in June 2015. The results support previous findings that public health emergencies due to traveler-associated outbreaks of infectious diseases can cause significant losses to the broader economies of affected countries.

KEYWORDS: Economic burden of disease; Economic impact; Middle East respiratory syndrome; Outbreak; Tourism; Travel industry

PMID: 30969152 PMCID: PMC6560634 [Available on 2020-04-10] DOI: 10.1089/hs.2018.0115 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: MERS-CoV; South Korea; Society.

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