#Phylogeography of #H5N1 #avian #influenza virus in #Indonesia (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Oct;65(5):1339-1347. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12883. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Phylogeography of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia.

Njoto EN1, Scotch M1,2,3, Bui CM1, Adam DC1, Chughtai AA1, MacIntyre CR1,3,4.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 2 Center for Environmental Health Engineering, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 3 College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona. 4 College of Public Service and Community Solution, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona.



Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described. The spread is consistent with wild bird flyways and poultry trading routes. H5N1 migration was associated with the regions of high chicken densities and low human development indices. These results can be used to inform more targeted planning of H5N1 control and prevention activities in Indonesia.

KEYWORDS: H5N1 Subtype; Indonesia; Influenza A Virus; One Health; Phylogeography

PMID: 29691995 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12883 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Indonesia; Wild Birds; Poultry; Human.



#Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of an #H5N8 #vaccine candidate (IDCDC-RG43A) in mouse and ferret models for #pandemic preparedness (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2018 Nov 27. pii: S0264-410X(18)31589-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.064. [Epub ahead of print]

Preclinical evaluation of the efficacy of an H5N8 vaccine candidate (IDCDC-RG43A) in mouse and ferret models for pandemic preparedness.

Jeong JH1, Kim EH1, Lloren KKS1, Kwon JJ1, Kwon HI1, Ahn SJ1, Kim YI1, Choi WS1, Si YJ1, Lee OJ1, Han HJ2, Baek YH1, Song MS3, Choi YK4, Kim CJ5.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea; Research & Development Center, Green Cross Corporation, Yongin, Republic of Korea; Research & Development Center, Green Cross Wellbeing Corporation, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. 3 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Cheongju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choiki55@chungbuk.ac.kr. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: cjkim@cnu.ac.kr.



Because H5N1 influenza viruses continuously threaten the public health, the WHO has prepared various clades of H5N1 mock-up vaccines as one of the measures for pandemic preparedness. The recent worldwide outbreak of H5Nx virus which belongs to clade and of which H5N6 subtype belongs and already caused human infection also increases the need of pandemic vaccine for such novel emerging viruses. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an egg-based and inactivated whole-virus H5N8 (IDCDC-RG43A) developed by CDC containing HA and NA gene of the parent virus A/gyrfalcon/Washington/41088-6/2014. Mice vaccinated two times elicited low to moderate antibody titer in varying amount of antigen doses against the homologous H5N8 vaccine virus and heterologous intra-clade H5N6 (A/Sichuan/26221/2014) virus. Mice immunized with at least 3.0 µg/dose of IDCDC-RG43A with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant were completely protected from lethal challenge with the mouse-adapted H5N8 (A/Environment/Korea/ma468/2015, maH5N8) as well as cleared the viral replication in tissues including lung, brain, spleen, and kidney. Vaccinated ferrets induced high antibody titers against clade H5N8/H5N6 viruses and the antibody showed high cross-reactivity to clade 2.2 H5N1 but not to clade 1 and 2.3.4 viruses as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition and serum neutralization assays. Furthermore, administration of the vaccine in ferrets resulted in attenuation of clinical disease signs and virus spread to peripheral organs including lung, spleen, and kidney from high dose challenge with maH5N8 virus. The protective and immunogenic characteristic of the candidate vaccine are essential attributes to be considered for further clinical trials as a pre-pandemic vaccine for a potential pandemic virus.

KEYWORDS: H5N8 pre-pandemic vaccine; Immunogenicity; Preclinical evaluation; Protective efficacy

PMID: 30502069 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.064

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Vaccines; H5N1; H5N6; H5N8.


#Genetic #compatibility of #reassortants between #avian #H5N1 and #H9N2 #influenza viruses with higher pathogenicity in #mammals (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetic compatibility of reassortants between avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses with higher pathogenicity in mammals

Yasuha Arai, Madiha S. Ibrahim, Emad M. Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Takao Ono, Yasuo Suzuki, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yohei Watanabe

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01969-18



The co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in birds in Egypt provides reassortment opportunities between these two viruses. However, little is known about the emergence potential of reassortants derived from Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and about the biological properties of such reassortants. To evaluate the potential public health risk of reassortants of these viruses, we used reverse genetics to generate the 63 possible reassortants derived from contemporary Egyptian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses, containing the H5N1 surface gene segments and combinations of the H5N1 and H9N2 internal gene segments, and analyzed their genetic compatibility, replication ability and virulence in mice. Genes in the reassortants showed remarkably high compatibility. Replication of most reassortants was higher than the parental H5N1 virus in human cells. Six reassortants were thought to emerge in birds under neutral or positive selective pressure, and four of them had higher pathogenicity in vivo than the parental H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. Our results indicated that H5N1-H9N2 reassortants could be transmitted efficiently to mammals with significant public health risk if they emerge in Egypt, although the viruses might not emerge frequently in birds.



Close interaction between avian influenza (AI) viruses and humans in Egypt appears to have resulted in many of the worldwide cases of human infections by both H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses. Egypt is regarded as a hot spot of AI virus evolution. Although no natural reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2 AI viruses has been reported so far, their co-circulation in Egypt may allow emergence of reassortants that may present a significant public health risk. Using reverse genetics, we report here the first comprehensive data showing that H5N1-N9N2 reassortants have fairly high genetic compatibility and possibly higher pathogenicity in mammals, including humans, than the parental viruses. Our results provide insight into the emergence potential of avian H5N1-H9N2 reassortants that may pose a high public health risk.

Copyright © 2018 Arai et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Reassortant strains.


Unravelling the Role of O- #glycans in #Influenza A Virus #Infection (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | Open | Published: 06 November 2018

Unravelling the Role of O-glycans in Influenza A Virus Infection

Juliane Mayr, Kam Lau, Jimmy C. C. Lai, Ivan A. Gagarinov, Yun Shi, Sarah McAtamney, Renee W. Y. Chan, John Nicholls, Mark von Itzstein & Thomas Haselhorst

Scientific Reports, volume 8, Article number: 16382 (2018)



The initial stage of host cell infection by influenza A viruses (IAV) is mediated through interaction of the viral haemagglutinin (HA) with cell surface glycans. The binding requirement of IAVs for Galβ(1,4)Glc/ GlcNAc (lactose/lactosamine) glycans with a terminal α(2,6)-linked (human receptors) or α(2,3)-linked (avian receptors) N-acetylneuraminic residue commonly found on N-glycans, is well-established. However the role and significance of sialylated Galβ(1,3)GalNAc (core 1) epitopes that are typical O-glycoforms in influenza virus pathogenesis remains poorly detailed. Here we report a multidisciplinary study using NMR spectroscopy, virus neutralization assays and molecular modelling, into the potential for IAV to engage sialyl-Galβ(1,3)GalNAc O-glycoforms for cell attachment. H5 containing virus like particles (VLPs) derived from an H5N1 avian IAV strain show a significant involvement of the O-glycan-specific GalNAc residue, coordinated by a EQTKLY motif conserved in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains. Notably, human pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses shift the preference from ‘human-like’ α(2,6)-linkages in sialylated Galβ(1,4)Glc/GlcNAc fragments to ‘avian-like’ α(2,3)-linkages in sialylated Galβ(1,3)GalNAc without involvement of the GalNAc residue. Overall, our study suggests that sialylated Galβ(1,3)GalNAc as O-glycan core 1 glycoforms are involved in the influenza A virus life cycle and play a particularly crucial role during infection of HPAI strains.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H1N1; Viral Pathogenesis.


#Satellite #telemetry tracks #flyways of Asian Openbill #storks in relation to #H5N1 #avian #influenza spread and ecological change (BMC Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Vet Res. 2018 Nov 16;14(1):349. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1683-x.

Satellite telemetry tracks flyways of Asian Openbill storks in relation to H5N1 avian influenza spread and ecological change.

Ratanakorn P1,2, Suwanpakdee S1,2, Wiriyarat W2,3, Eiamampai K4, Chaichoune K2,3, Wiratsudakul A1,2, Sariya L2, Puthavathana P5,6.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Science and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 2 The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 3 Department of Preclinic and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 4 Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. 5 Center for Research and Innovation, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. pilaipan.put@mahidol.edu. 6 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand. pilaipan.put@mahidol.edu.




Asian Openbills, Anastomus oscitans, have long been known to migrate from South to Southeast Asia for breeding and nesting. In Thailand, the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in the Openbills coincided with the outbreak in the poultry. Therefore, the flyways of Asian Openbills was determined to study their role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI virus to poultry and wild birds, and also within their flocks.


Flyways of 5 Openbills from 3 colonies were monitored using Argos satellite transmitters with positioning by Google Earth Programme between 2007 and 2013. None of the Openbills tagged with satellite telemeters moved outside of Thailand. Their home ranges or movement areas varied from 1.6 to 23,608 km2 per month (95% utility distribution). There was no positive result of the viral infection from oral and cloacal swabs of the Openbills and wild birds living in the vicinity by viral isolation and genome detection during 2007 to 2010 whereas the specific antibody was not detected on both Openbills and wild birds by using microneutralization assay after 2008. The movement of these Openbills did not correlate with H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in domestic poultry but correlated with rice crop rotation and populations of the apple snails which are their preferred food. Viral spread within the flocks of Openbills was not detected.


This study showed that Openbills played no role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI virus, which was probably due to the very low prevalence of the virus during the monitoring period. This study revealed the ecological factors that control the life cycle of Asian Openbills.

KEYWORDS: Anastomus oscitans; Asian Openbill; Flyway; H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI); Satellite telemetry

PMID: 30445946 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-018-1683-x

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Wild Birds; Thailand.


#Human #infections with #avian #influenza viruses in mainland #China: A particular #risk for southeastern China (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Human infections with avian influenza viruses in mainland China: A particular risk for southeastern China

Bin Xiang, Wenxian Zhu, Renrong You, Libin Chen, Yaling Li, Qiuyan Lin, Ming Liao, Tao Ren

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2017.05.002

Published online: May 11, 2017 – Accepted:May 4, 2017



As reported recently in this Journal, human infections with different subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) including H5N1, H5N6, H7N9, H10N8 and H9N2 have been identified in mainland China from 2005 to 2017.1–4Since the first H5N1 human case was confirmed in Hunan province in December 2005, a total of 46 human cases were reported in mainland China, of which 29 cases were fatal; while human infections with H5N6 virus was firstly documented in Sichuan province on March 3, 2014, 11 of 16 patients have been fatal (Table S1).

© 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; China; Human; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9; H10N8; H9N2.


Full #sequence analysis of #hemagglutinin and #neuraminidase genes and proteins of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1 virus detected in #Iran, 2015 (Trop Anim Health Prod., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018 Oct 27. doi: 10.1007/s11250-018-1731-3. [Epub ahead of print]

Full sequence analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes and proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus detected in Iran, 2015.

Yegani S1, Shoushtari AH2, Eshratabadi F1, Molouki A1.

Author information: 1 Department of Avian Disease Research and Diagnostic, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Alborz, 3197619751, Iran. 2 Department of Avian Disease Research and Diagnostic, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Alborz, 3197619751, Iran. a.shoushtari@rvsri.ac.ir.



Over the last two decades, the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has gained a lot of attention due to its zoonotic and mutative nature. Iran is among the countries significantly affected by the virus as it hosts migratory birds during seasonal migration. In this study, the molecular characterizations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes and proteins of H5N1 strain A/chicken/Iran/8/2015 detected in backyard poultry, Mazandaran province, were investigated. Phylogenetic analysis classified this virus as a member of subclade, with the cleavage site motif of “PQRERRRK-R/GLF”. HA carried a few mutations altering affinity to mammalian cells; however, the virus was categorized as avian. NA protein had the 20-amino acid deletion at aa position 49-69 similar to those isolated since 2000. Mutations of H253Y and H274Y contributing to antiviral resistance were present in NA. From this analysis, it can be concluded that the wild migratory birds flying from Western Asia to Eastern Africa are probably the main carriers of seasonal H5N1 in the country.

KEYWORDS: Hemagglutinin; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Neuraminidase; Phylogenetic tree

PMID: 30368763 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1731-3

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Wild Birds; Iran; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir.