#Review analysis and impact of co-circulating #H5N1 and #H9N2 #avian #influenza viruses in #Bangladesh (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jul;146(10):1259-1266. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818001292. Epub 2018 May 21.

Review analysis and impact of co-circulating H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

Parvin R1, Begum JA1, Nooruzzaman M1, Chowdhury EH1, Islam MR1, Vahlenkamp TW2.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology,Faculty of Veterinary Science,Bangladesh Agricultural University,Mymensingh 2202,Bangladesh. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Center of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig,An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103 Leipzig,Germany.

 

Abstract

Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007. By reviewing the available scientific literature, the overall situation of AIVs in Bangladesh is discussed. All Bangladeshi (BD) H5N1 and H9N2 AIV sequences available at GenBank were downloaded along with other representative sequences to analyse the genetic diversity among the circulating AIVs in Bangladesh and to compare with the global situation. Three different H5N1 clades, 2.2.2, 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4.2, have been detected in Bangladesh. Only 2.3.2.1a is still present. The BD LP H9N2 viruses mostly belonged to the H9 G1 lineage but segregated into many branches, and some of these shared internal genes with HP viruses of subtypes H7N3 and H5N1. However, these reassortment events might have taken place before introduction to Bangladesh. Currently, H9N2 viruses continue to evolve their HA cleavage, receptor binding and glycosylation sites. Multiple mutations in the HA gene associated with adaptation to mammalian hosts were also observed. Strict biosecurity at farms and gradual phasing out of live-bird markets could be the key measures to better control AIVs, whereas stamping out is not a practicable option in Bangladesh. Vaccination also could be an additional tool, which however, requires careful planning. Continuous monitoring of AIVs through systematic surveillance and genetic characterisation of the viruses remains a hallmark of AI control.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Bangladesh; H5N1; H9N2; co-circulation; genetic evolution

PMID: 29781424 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268818001292 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H7N3; H9N2; Poultry; Wild Birds; Bangladesh.

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#Influenza #Infection in #Humans Induces Broadly Cross-Reactive and Protective #Neuraminidase-Reactive #Antibodies (Cell, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cell. 2018 Apr 5;173(2):417-429.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.030.

Influenza Infection in Humans Induces Broadly Cross-Reactive and Protective Neuraminidase-Reactive Antibodies.

Chen YQ1, Wohlbold TJ2, Zheng NY1, Huang M1, Huang Y1, Neu KE3, Lee J4, Wan H5, Rojas KT1, Kirkpatrick E2, Henry C1, Palm AE1, Stamper CT3, Lan LY3, Topham DJ6, Treanor J7, Wrammert J8, Ahmed R8, Eichelberger MC5, Georgiou G4, Krammer F9, Wilson PC10.

Author information: 1 Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, the Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. 2 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 3 The Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78731, USA. 5 Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. 6 Center for Vaccine Biology & Immunology, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. 7 Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. 8 Emory Vaccine Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. 9 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: florian.krammer@mssm.edu. 10 Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, the Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: wilsonp@uchicago.edu.

 

Abstract

Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes. The antibodies robustly inhibit the enzymatic activity of NA, including oseltamivir-resistant variants, and provide robust prophylactic protection, including against avian H5N1 viruses, in vivo. When used therapeutically, NA-reactive antibodies protected mice from lethal influenza virus challenge even 48 hr post infection. These findings strongly suggest that influenza vaccines should be optimized to improve targeting of NA for durable and broad protection against divergent influenza strains.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: B cell; human immunology; humoral immune response; influenza; monoclonal antibody; neuraminidase; therapeutics; vaccine; virus infection

PMID: 29625056 PMCID: PMC5890936 [Available on 2019-04-05] DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.030 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Avian Influenza; Immunology; Animal models.

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Spatial #clustering of #pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of #avian #influenza #H5N1 in #poultry in #Nigeria in 2006-2007 (Vet Ital., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Ital. 2018 Mar 31;54(1):13-20. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.870.4301.3.

Spatial clustering of pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria in 2006-2007.

Ekong PS1, Cardona CJ, Bryssinckx W, Ikechukwu-Eneh C, Lombin LH, Carpenter TE.

Author information: 1 Epidemiology Section, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 1, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 spread throughout Nigeria between 2006 and 2007. Bird samples collected across the country were submitted through the free-of-charge (FOC) program to the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (NVRI-Vom) laboratory. The present article describes the spatial distributions and evaluated clustering of the FOC submissions from poultry farms at the global, local, and focal levels between 2006 and 2007 epidemic in Nigeria. Spatial statistics evaluating clustering of the FOC submissions were implemented using the Moran’s I test, the purely spatial cluster analysis with the SaTScan Poisson model, and the Bithell’s linear score test. A significant global clustering of the FOC submissions was observed. Significant local clusters of submissions were observed in the North-East, North-Central, and South-West zones. There was significant decline in FOC submissions with increasing distance from NVRI-Vom. These results indicated that the geographic area of influence of the FOC submission program in Nigeria was limited to regions closer to the diagnostic laboratory. This work provides a detailed insight into the surveillance activities during the HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria, and should assist policy-makers and field veterinarians to improve the effectiveness of national eradication plans in the face of any outbreak of animal diseases.

PMID: 29631310 DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.870.4301.3 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Nigeria.

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#Economic factors influencing #zoonotic disease #dynamics: demand for #poultry meat and seasonal #transmission of #avian #influenza in #Vietnam (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 19;7(1):5905. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06244-6.

Economic factors influencing zoonotic disease dynamics: demand for poultry meat and seasonal transmission of avian influenza in Vietnam.

Delabouglise A1,2, Choisy M3,4, Phan TD5, Antoine-Moussiaux N6, Peyre M7, Vu TD5, Pfeiffer DU8,9, Fournié G8.

Author information: 1 Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL97TA, United Kingdom. alexis.delabouglise@gmail.com. 2 AGIRs-Animal and Integrated Risk Management Research Unit, CIRAD-Agricultural Research Center for International Development, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, Montpellier, France. alexis.delabouglise@gmail.com. 3 Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 78 Giai Phong, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam. 4 MIVEGEC, University of Montpellier, CNRS 5290, IRD 224, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 64501, Montpellier cedex 5, 34394, France. 5 Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Rural Development, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Ngo Xuan Quang Street, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi, Vietnam. 6 FARAH-Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health, University of Liège, Avenue de Cureghem 7A-7D, Liège, 4000, Belgium. 7 AGIRs-Animal and Integrated Risk Management Research Unit, CIRAD-Agricultural Research Center for International Development, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, Montpellier, France. 8 Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL97TA, United Kingdom. 9 School of Veterinary Medicine, City University of Hong Kong, 31 To Yuen Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

 

Abstract

While climate is often presented as a key factor influencing the seasonality of diseases, the importance of anthropogenic factors is less commonly evaluated. Using a combination of methods – wavelet analysis, economic analysis, statistical and disease transmission modelling – we aimed to explore the influence of climatic and economic factors on the seasonality of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the domestic poultry population of Vietnam. We found that while climatic variables are associated with seasonal variation in the incidence of avian influenza outbreaks in the North of the country, this is not the case in the Centre and the South. In contrast, temporal patterns of H5N1 incidence are similar across these 3 regions: periods of high H5N1 incidence coincide with Lunar New Year festival, occurring in January-February, in the 3 climatic regions for 5 out of the 8 study years. Yet, daily poultry meat consumption drastically increases during Lunar New Year festival throughout the country. To meet this rise in demand, poultry production and trade are expected to peak around the festival period, promoting viral spread, which we demonstrated using a stochastic disease transmission model. This study illustrates the way in which economic factors may influence the dynamics of livestock pathogens.

PMID: 28724978 PMCID: PMC5517570 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06244-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Society; Vietnam.

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#Goose toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated IFN-γ and IL-6 in anti- #H5N1 #avian #influenza virus response (Vet Immunol Immunopathol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018 Mar;197:31-38. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.01.010.

Goose toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated IFN-γ and IL-6 in anti-H5N1 avian influenza virus response.

Yong YH1, Liu SF2, Hua GH3, Jia RM4, Gooneratne R5, Zhao YT6, Liao M7, Ju XH8.

Author information: 1 Center of Modern Biochemistry, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address: yongyanhong-007@163.com. 2 Department of Animal Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address: rintor@163.com. 3 Department of Animal Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address: 811548259@qq.com. 4 Department of Animal Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address: zjoujrm@163.com. 5 Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University, Christchurch 7647, New Zealand. Electronic address: Ravi.Gooneratne@lincoln.ac.nz. 6 MOA Key Laboratory for Animal Vaccine Development, Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Control and Prevention of Guangdong, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address: 121801365@qq.com.  7 MOA Key Laboratory for Animal Vaccine Development, Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Control and Prevention of Guangdong, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address: mliao@scau.edu.cn. 8 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China; MOA Key Laboratory for Animal Vaccine Development, Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Control and Prevention of Guangdong, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address: juxh77@163.com.

 

Abstract

Induction of the innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-viral defense. How geese recognize viral molecules and activate these pathways is not well understood. In mammals, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes double-stranded RNA. Activation of TLR3 induces the activation of NF-кB and the production of type-I interferon. In this study, the goose TLR3 gene was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Goose TLR3 encoded an 896-amino-acid protein, containing a signal secretion peptide, 14 extracellular leucine-rich repeat domains, a transmembrane domain, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor signaling domain, and shared 46.7-84.4% homology with other species. Tissue expression of goose TLR3 varied markedly and was highest in the pancreas and lowest in the skin. Human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with goose TLR3 and NF-κB-luciferase-containing plasmids responded significantly to poly i:c. The expression of TLR3, IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA, but not IL-1 mRNA, was significantly upregulated after poly i:c or high pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) stimulation in goose peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in vitro. Furthermore, geese infected with H5N1 showed significant upregulation of TLR3, especially in the lung and brain. We conclude that goose TLR3 is a functional TLR3 homologue of the protein in other species and plays an important role in virus recognition.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; Goose; Infection; NF-кB; TLR3

PMID: 29475504 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2018.01.010 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Animal models; Immunopathology.

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#Surveillance for #avian #influenza viruses in #wildbirds at live #bird #markets, #Egypt, 2014-2016 (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Feb 3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12634. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds at live bird markets, Egypt, 2014-2016.

Kayed AS1, Kandeil A1, Gomaa MR1, El-Shesheny R1,2, Mahmoud S1, Hegazi N3, Fayez M3, Sheta B4, McKenzie PP2, Webby RJ2, Kayali G5,6, Ali MA1.

Author information: 1 Environmental Research Division, Water Pollution Research Department, Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza, Egypt. 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. 3 Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Microbiology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 4 Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Damietta University, New Damietta, Egypt. 5 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, Texas. 6 Human Link, Baabda, Lebanon.

 

Abstract

AIM:

Egypt is the habitat for a large number of bird species and serves as a vital stopover for millions of migratory birds during their annual migration between the Palearctic and Afrotropical ecozones. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is critical to assessing risks for potential spreading of these viruses among domestic poultry. Surveillance for AIV among hunted and captured wild birds in Egypt was conducted in order to understand the characteristics of circulating viruses.

METHODS:

Sampling of wild bird species occurred in two locations along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt in the period from 2014 to 2016. A total of 1316 samples (cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs) were collected from 20 different species of hunted or captured resident and migratory birds sold at live bird markets. Viruses were propagated then sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and receptor binding affinities were studied.

RESULTS:

Eighteen AIVs (1.37%) were isolated from migratory Anseriformes at live bird markets. Further characterization of the viral isolates identified five hemagglutinin (H3, H5, H7, H9, and H10) and five neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N6, and N9) subtypes, which were related to isolates reported in the Eurasian region. Two of the 18 isolates were highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses related to clade 2.2.1, while three isolates were G1-like H9N2 viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data show significant diversity of AIVs in Anserifromes sold at live bird markets in Egypt. This allows for genetic exchanges between imported and enzootic viruses and put the exposed humans at a higher risk of infection.

© 2019 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PMID: 30714323 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12634

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Wild Birds; Poultry; Live Birds Markets; Egypt.

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Predicting #risk of #avian #influenza a(#H5N1) in #Egypt: the creation of a community level metric (BMC Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2018 Mar 21;18(1):388. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5288-x.

Predicting risk of avian influenza a(H5N1) in Egypt: the creation of a community level metric.

Geerlings ECL1,2, Heffernan C3,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Agriculture, University of Reading, Reading, UK. ellengeerlings@hotmail.com. 2 Research & International Development Consultancy Services (EGRID), Deventer, The Netherlands. ellengeerlings@hotmail.com. 3 School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. 4 London International Development Centre (LIDC), London, UK.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Efficient A(H5N1) control is unlikely to be based on epidemiological data alone. Such control depends on a thorough understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of epidemiological, social, and economic factors that contribute to A(H5N1) vulnerability. To date, the control of A(H5N1) in Egypt has been challenging. The disease has been endemic for more than 10 years with a dramatic increase in human cases between December 2014 and March 2015. Part of the problem has been a lack of understanding of the inter-play of drivers, conditions and motives that influence preventive behaviours at the household level.

METHODS:

To address this issue, the authors developed a Composite Risk Index (CRI) to inform decision-makers of critical epidemiological, livelihood, food security and risk perception factors that were found to contribute to A(H5N1) vulnerability at the community level. The CRI consists of seven constructs that were individually scored for each community. The seven constructs included poultry sales, previous flock exposure to A(H5N1), human risk probability, sense of control over the disease, preventative actions taken, level of household food insecurity and community norms toward certain handling and disposal practices. One hundred forty female poultry keepers across four governorates were interviewed in 2010 using a mix of random and purposive sampling techniques. A mixed method approach underpinned the analysis. The study used wealth ranking in order to help decision-makers in understanding the specific constraints of different wealth groups and aid better targeting of A(H5N1) control and prevention strategies.

RESULTS:

Poverty, widowhood and lack of education were among the factors associated with high risk scores. CRI scores in those villages where awareness raising had taken place were not significantly different compared to those villages where awareness raising had not taken place.

CONCLUSIONS:

The aim of the tool is to enable targeting those communities that are likely to be highly vulnerable to A(H5N1) outbreaks and where control and awareness-raising efforts are expected to be most effective. In this manner, policy makers and practitioners will be able to better allocate limited resources to those communities most vulnerable to the negative impact of A(H5N1).

KEYWORDS: Decision support techniques; Egypt; H5N1 subtype; Influenza a virus; Public health; Risk factors

PMID: 29562878 PMCID: PMC5863456 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5288-x [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Society; Egypt.

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