#Genetic and #biological characteristics of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H1N8 in #environments related to live #poultry #markets in #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 22;19(1):458. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z.

Genetic and biological characteristics of avian influenza virus subtype H1N8 in environments related to live poultry markets in China.

Zhang Y1, Dong J1, Bo H1, Dong L1, Zou S1, Li X1, Shu Y1,2, Wang D3.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. 2 Present Address: Public Health School (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. dayanwang@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, slaughterhouses, and poultry farms. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza virus have been identified based on environmental surveillance, and an H1N8 virus was isolated from the drinking water of a live poultry market.

METHODS:

Virus isolation was performed by inoculating influenza A-positive specimens into embryonated chicken eggs. Next-generation sequencing was used for whole-genome sequencing. A solid-phase binding assay was performed to test the virus receptor binding specificity. Trypsin dependence plaque formation assays and intravenous pathogenicity index tests were used to evaluate virus pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Different cell lines were chosen for comparison of virus replication capacity.

RESULTS:

According to the phylogenetic trees, the whole gene segments of the virus named A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) were of Eurasian lineage. The HA, NA, PB1, and M genes showed the highest homology with those of H1N8 or H1N2 subtype viruses isolated from local domestic ducks, while the PB2, PA, NP and NS genes showed high similarity with the genes of H7N9 viruses detected in 2017 and 2018 in the same province. This virus presented an avian receptor binding preference. The plaque formation assay showed that it was a trypsin-dependent virus. The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chickens was 0.02. The growth kinetics of the A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) virus in different cell lines were similar to those of a human-origin virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), but lower than those of the control avian-origin and swine-origin viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H1N8 virus was identified in avian influenza-related environments in China for the first time and may have served as a gene carrier involved in the evolution of the H7N9 virus in poultry. This work further emphasizes the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance, especially in live poultry markets (LPMs). Active surveillance of avian influenza in LPMs is a major pillar supporting avian influenza control and response.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H1N8 subtype; Live poultry market

PMID: 31117981 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China; Reassortant strain; H1N1; H1N2; H7N9.

——

Advertisements

A possible #European #origin of the #Spanish #influenza and the first attempts to reduce #mortality to combat superinfecting #bacteria: an opinion from a virologist and a military historian (Hum Vaccin Immunother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 May 23:1-4. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1607711. [Epub ahead of print]

A possible European origin of the Spanish influenza and the first attempts to reduce mortality to combat superinfecting bacteria: an opinion from a virologist and a military historian.

Oxford JS1, Gill D1.

Author information: 1a Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University London , Whitechapel, London.

 

Abstract

When we reconsider the virology and history of the Spanish Influenza Pandemic, the science of 2018 provides us with tools which did not exist at the time. Two such tools come to mind. The first lies in the field of ‘gain of function’ experiments. A potential pandemic virus, such as influenza A (H5N1), can be deliberately mutated in the laboratory in order to change its virulence and spreadability. Key mutations can then be identified. A second tool lies in phylogenetics, combined with molecular clock analysis. It shows that the 1918 pandemic virus first emerged in the years 1915-1916. We have revisited the literature published in Europe and the United States, and the notes left by physicians who lived at the time. In this, we have followed the words of the late Alfred Crosby: who wrote that “contemporary documentary evidence from qualified physicians” is the key to understanding where and how the first outbreaks occurred. In our view, the scientists working in Europe fulfill Crosby’s requirement for contemporary evidence of origin. Elsewhere, Crosby also suggested that “the physicians of 1918 were participants in the greatest failure of medical science in the twentieth century”. Ours is a different approach. We point to individual pathologists in the United States and in France, who strove to construct the first universal vaccines against influenza. Their efforts were not misdirected, because the ultimate cause of death in nearly all cases flowed from superinfections with respiratory bacteria.

KEYWORDS: Etaples Administrative District; Hospital Beds in the Great War; Hygiene in the Great War; Influenza Epidemics in 1917; New Vaccines; Spanish Influenza Origin

PMID: 31121112 DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1607711

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; H1N1; Spanish flu; History.

——

A Site of #Vulnerability on the #Influenza Virus #Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface (Cell, abstract)

[Source: Cell, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cell. 2019 May 16;177(5):1136-1152.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011.

A Site of Vulnerability on the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface.

Bangaru S1, Lang S2, Schotsaert M3, Vanderven HA4, Zhu X2, Kose N5, Bombardi R5, Finn JA1, Kent SJ4, Gilchuk P5, Gilchuk I5, Turner HL2, García-Sastre A6, Li S7, Ward AB2, Wilson IA8, Crowe JE Jr9.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 2 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. 3 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 5 The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 6 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 7 Department of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. 8 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: wilson@scripps.edu. 9 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address: james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu.

 

Abstract

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab’s extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: B-lymphocytes; antibodies; antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity; antigen-antibody reactions; hemagglutinin glycoproteins; influenza A virus; influenza virus; monoclonal; viral

PMID: 31100268 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1; H3N2; H5N1; H7N9; Monoclonal antibodies; Animal models.

——-

The #PA #Subunit of the #Influenza Virus #Polymerase Complex Affects #Replication and #Airborne #Transmission of the #H9N2 Subtype #Avian Influenza Virus (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jan 9;11(1). pii: E40. doi: 10.3390/v11010040.

The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus.

Hao M1,2, Han S3,4, Meng D5,6, Li R7, Lin J8, Wang M9, Zhou T10, Chai T11.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 2 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763896230@163.com. 4 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. 18763896230@163.com. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. iamli_z@126.com. 6 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. iamli_z@126.com. 7 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. lirong19900129@163.com. 8 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763806701@163.com. 9 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18854937499@163.com. 10 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 13864453175@163.com. 11 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. chaitj117@163.com.

 

Abstract

The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA gene. However, rSD01-PA could infect guinea pigs through direct contact, while the parental strain SD01 could not, even though the infection of rSD01-PA could not be achieved through aerosol. In summary, our results indicate that the protein encoded by the PA gene plays a key role in replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV.

KEYWORDS: H9N2 AIV; airborne transmission; pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus; reassortment; replication

PMID: 30634394 PMCID: PMC6356911 DOI: 10.3390/v11010040 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H9N2; Reassortant strain.

——

A brief #history of #birdflu (Philos Transact Roy Soc B., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 Jun 24;374(1775):20180257. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0257.

A brief history of bird flu.

Lycett SJ1, Duchatel F1, Digard P1.

Author information: 1 The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh , UK.

 

Abstract

In 1918, a strain of influenza A virus caused a human pandemic resulting in the deaths of 50 million people. A century later, with the advent of sequencing technology and corresponding phylogenetic methods, we know much more about the origins, evolution and epidemiology of influenza epidemics. Here we review the history of avian influenza viruses through the lens of their genetic makeup: from their relationship to human pandemic viruses, starting with the 1918 H1N1 strain, through to the highly pathogenic epidemics in birds and zoonoses up to 2018. We describe the genesis of novel influenza A virus strains by reassortment and evolution in wild and domestic bird populations, as well as the role of wild bird migration in their long-range spread. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and the zoonotic incursions of avian H5 and H7 viruses into humans over the last couple of decades are also described. The threat of a new avian influenza virus causing a human pandemic is still present today, although control in domestic avian populations can minimize the risk to human health. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Modelling infectious disease outbreaks in humans, animals and plants: approaches and important themes’. This issue is linked with the subsequent theme issue ‘Modelling infectious disease outbreaks in humans, animals and plants: epidemic forecasting and control’.

KEYWORDS: avian influenza virus; epidemiology; pandemic; phylogenetics; zoonotic

PMID: 31056053 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0257

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Avian Influenza; Spanish Flu; H1N1; Human; Poultry; Wild Birds.

——

#Birth #Cohort Effects in #Influenza #Surveillance #Data: Evidence that First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Birth Cohort Effects in Influenza Surveillance Data: Evidence that First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness

Alicia P Budd, Lauren Beacham, Catherine B Smith, Rebecca J Garten, Carrie Reed, Krista Kniss, Desiree Mustaquim, Farida B Ahmad, Charisse N Cummings, Shikha Garg, Min Z Levine, Alicia M Fry, Lynnette Brammer

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz201, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz201

Published: 03 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

The evolution of influenza A viruses results in birth cohorts that have different initial influenza virus exposures. Historically, A/H3 predominant seasons have been associated with more severe influenza-associated disease; however, since the 2009 pandemic there are suggestions that some birth cohorts experience more severe illness in A/H1 predominant seasons.

Methods

U.S. influenza virologic, hospitalization and mortality surveillance data during 2000-2017 were analyzed for cohorts born between 1918 and 1989 that likely had different initial influenza virus exposures based on viruses circulating during early childhood. Relative risk/rate during H3 compared to H1 predominant seasons during pre-pandemic versus pandemic and later periods were calculated for each cohort.

Results

During the pre-pandemic period, all cohorts had more influenza-associated disease during H3 predominant seasons than H1 predominant seasons. During the pandemic and later period, four cohorts had higher hospitalization and mortality rates during H1 predominant seasons than H3 predominant seasons.

Discussion

Birth cohort differences in risk of influenza-associated disease by influenza A virus subtype can be seen in U.S. influenza surveillance data and differ between pre-pandemic and pandemic and later periods. As the population ages, the amount of influenza-associated disease may be greater in future H1 predominant seasons than H3 predominant seasons.

influenza, birth cohort, influenza hospitalization, influenza morality, influenza surveillance

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; USA.

——

The #Spanish #Influenza #Pandemic: a #lesson from #history 100 years after 1918 (J Prev Med Hyg., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Prev Med Hyg. 2019 Mar 29;60(1):E64-E67. doi: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.1.1205. eCollection 2019 Mar.

The Spanish Influenza Pandemic: a lesson from history 100 years after 1918.

Martini M1,2, Gazzaniga V3, Bragazzi NL4, Barberis I4.

Author information: 1 Department of Health Sciences, Section of Medical History and Ethics, University of Genoa, Italy. 2 UNESCO CHAIR Anthropology of Health, Biosphere and Healing System, University of Genoa, Italy. 3 Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. 4 Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.

 

Abstract

In Europe in 1918, influenza spread through Spain, France, Great Britain and Italy, causing havoc with military operations during the First World War. The influenza pandemic of 1918 killed more than 50 million people worldwide. In addition, its socioeconomic consequences were huge. “Spanish flu”, as the infection was dubbed, hit different age-groups, displaying a so-called “W-trend”, typically with two spikes in children and the elderly. However, healthy young adults were also affected. In order to avoid alarming the public, several local health authorities refused to reveal the numbers of people affected and deaths. Consequently, it was very difficult to assess the impact of the disease at the time. Although official communications issued by health authorities worldwide expressed certainty about the etiology of the infection, in laboratories it was not always possible to isolate the famous Pfeiffer’s bacillus, which was, at that time, deemed to be the cause of influenza. The first official preventive actions were implemented in August 1918; these included the obligatory notification of suspected cases and the surveillance of communities such as day-schools, boarding schools and barracks. Identifying suspected cases through surveillance, and voluntary and/or mandatory quarantine or isolation, enabled the spread of Spanish flu to be curbed. At that time, these public health measures were the only effective weapons against the disease, as no vaccines or antivirals were available. Virological and bacteriological analysis of preserved samples from infected soldiers and other young people who died during the pandemic period is a major step toward a better understanding of this pandemic and of how to prepare for future pandemics.

KEYWORDS: Flu; History of Pandemic; Mortality rate; Public Health

PMID: 31041413 PMCID: PMC6477554 DOI: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.1.1205

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; H1N1; Spanish Flu; European Region; History.

——