#Failure of #hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure #prophylaxis in #COVID19 infection? A case report (J Antimicrob Chemother., summary)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Failure of hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure prophylaxis in COVID-19 infection? A case report

Juliette Kauv, Minh P Lê, Marc Veyrier, Quentin Le Hingrat, Benoit Visseaux, Laurent Massias, Marie-Paule Chauveheid, Diane Descamps, Jade Ghosn, Gilles Peytavin

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkaa213, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa213

Published: 26 May 2020

Issue Section: Research letter

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Sir, The use of hydroxychloroquine against COVID-19 is controversial following the report of a case series of COVID-19 patients with inflammatory diseases [i.e. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis or sarcoidosis] treated with hydroxychloroquine.1

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Antivirals; Chloroquine.

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Compassionate use of hzVSF‐v13 in two patients with #severe #COVID19 (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Compassionate use of hzVSF‐v13 in two patients with severe COVID‐19

Chang Kyung Kang,  Pyoeng Gyun Choe,  Sungman Park,  Taek Soo Kim,  Moon‐Woo Seong, Nam‐Joong Kim,  Myoung‐don Oh,  Wan Beom Park,  Yoon‐Won Kim

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26063

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26063

 

Abstract

We report the compassionate use of humanized Virus Suppressing Factor‐variant 13 (hzVSF‐v13) in two patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pneumonia. Both patients, including an 81‐year‐old man who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, showed clinical improvement. These results warrant placebo‐controlled trials to evaluate the hzVSF‐v13 efficacy against COVID‐19.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Antivirals.

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#Neutrophil to #Lymphocyte #Ratio as #Prognostic and Predictive #Factor in Patients with #Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cross‐sectional Study (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio as Prognostic and Predictive Factor in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cross‐sectional Study

Xisheng Yan,  Fen Li,  Xiao Wang,  Jie Yan,  Fen Zhu,  Shifan Tang,  Yingzhong Deng,  Hua Wang,  Rui Chen,  Zhili Yu,  Yaping Li,  Jingzhou Shang,  Lingjun Zeng,  Jie Zhao,  Chaokun Guan …

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26061

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26061

 

Abstract

Objective

This retrospective study was designed to explore whether neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a prognostic factor in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid‐19).

Methods

A cohort of patients with covid‐19 admitted to the Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University  from January 11, 2020 to March 3, 2020 was retrospectively analyzed.  Patients with hematologic malignancy were excluded. The NLR was calculated by  dividing the neutrophil count by the lymphocyte count. NLR values were measured at  the time of admission. The primary outcome was all‐cause in‐hospital mortality. A  multivariate logistic analysis was performed.

Results

1004 patients with covid‐19 were included in this study. The mortality rate was 4.0% (40 cases). The median age of nonsurvivors (68 years) was significantly older than survivors (62 years). Male sex was more predominant in nonsurvival group (27; 67.5%) than in the survival group (466; 48.3%). NLR value of nonsurvival group (median 49.06, IQR 25.71‐69.70) was higher than that of survival group (median 4.11, IQR 2.44‐8.12, P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, NLR > 11.75 was significantly correlated with all‐cause in‐hospital mortality (OR = 44.351, 95% CI = 4.627‐425.088).

Conclusions

These results suggest that the NLR at hospital admission is associated in‐hospital mortality among patients with covid‐19. Therefore, the NLR appears to be a significant prognostic biomarker of outcomes in critically ill patients with covid‐19. However, further investigation is needed to validate this relationship with data collected prospectively.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; China.

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#Diagnostic #performance of immunochromatography #assay for rapid #detection of #IgM and #IgG in #coronavirus disease 2019 (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Diagnostic performance of immunochromatography assay for rapid detection of IgM and IgG in coronavirus disease 2019

Jung‐Yoon Choe,  Ji‐Won Kim,  Hyun Hee Kwon,  Hyo‐Lim Hong,  Chi Young Jung, Chang‐Ho Jeon,  Eun‐Jin Park,  Seong‐Kyu Kim

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26060

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26060

 

Abstract

Serologic assays have been developed to detect infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of an immunochromatography‐based assay of human serum for COVID‐19. The present study enrolled 149 subjects who had been tested by real‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) for COVID‐19 and were classified into two groups: 70 who were positive for COVID‐19 and 79 who were negative for COVID‐19 based on RT‐PCR. An immunochromatography‐based COVID‐19 IgG/IgM rapid test on the sera of the study population was applied to measure the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve compared to RT‐PCR, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). IgM or IgG antibodies were detected in 65 subjects (92.9%) classified as positive for COVID‐19 and in 3 subjects (3.8%) classified as negative for COVID‐19. The sensitivity and specificity percentages for IgM or IgG antibodies were 92.9% (95% CI 84.1 – 97.6) and 96.2% (95% CI 89.3 – 99.2), respectively, with 95.6% PPV and 93.8% NPV. The PPV rapidly improved with increasing disease prevalence from 19.8% to 96.1% in the presence of either IgM or IgG, while the NPV remained high with a change from 99.9% to 93.1%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.945 (95% CI 0.903 – 0.988) for subjects with either IgM or IgG positivity. In conclusion, the immunochromatography‐based COVID‐19 IgG/IgM rapid test is a useful and practical diagnostic assay for detection of COVID‐19, especially in the presence of IgM or IgG antibodies.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Serology; Diagnostic tests.

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Potential negative #effects of the #free use of #chloroquine to manage #COVID19 in #Colombia (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Medical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Potential negative effects of the free use of chloroquine to manage COVID‐19 in Colombia

Aníbal A. Teherán,  Gabriel Camero,  Carolina Hernández,  Luis Perez‐Garcia,  Renato Gúzman,  Alberto Paniz‐Mondolfi,  Juan David Ramírez

First published: 26 May 2020 | DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26059

This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. Please cite this article as doi: 10.1002/jmv.26059

 

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has challenged healthcare systems around the world. Unfortunately, failure has ensued: high‐income countries have succumbed to the global emergency despite highly prepared human and technological assets. There is no current consensus on pharmacological management of COVID‐19, but chloroquine phosphate (CQ) has emerged as a possible therapeutical candidate. However, no conclusive evidence has been published on the efficacy of CQ against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. The Colombian government has approved the use of CQ for COVID‐19, a measure that could negatively impact a large number of patients who depend on this drug for the treatment of other life‐threatening diseases such as malaria and rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Careful consideration should be taken by Colombian authorities regarding the use of CQ in context of the ongoing pandemic.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Colombia; Politics; Chloroquine.

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#Assessment of the #Qualitative #Fit #Test and Quantitative Single-Pass #Filtration Efficiency of Disposable #N95 #Masks Following Gamma #Irradiation (JAMA Netw Open, summary)

[Source: JAMA Network Open, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Assessment of the Qualitative Fit Test and Quantitative Single-Pass Filtration Efficiency of Disposable N95 Masks Following Gamma Irradiation

Avilash Cramer, MS1; Enze Tian, BS2; Mitchell Galanek, BS3; et al. Edward Lamere, PhD3; Ju Li, PhD3; Rajiv Gupta, MD, PhD4; Mike Short, PhD3

Author Affiliations: 1 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, Massachusetts; 2 Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 3 Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; 4 Division of Neuroradiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(5):e209961. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.9961

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Introduction

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to a dramatic shortage of masks and other personal protective equipment in hospitals around the globe. One component of personal protective equipment, the disposable N95 face mask, is in particular demand.1,2 To alleviate a shortage of N95 masks, many methods to resterilize them have been proposed and studied.3 Any method for resterilizing masks must not degrade the filtration efficiency of the mask.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Facemasks.

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#Adverse #Consequences of #Rushing a #SARS-CoV-2 #Vaccine – Implications for Public Trust (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Adverse Consequences of Rushing a SARS-CoV-2 VaccineImplications for Public Trust

Brit Trogen, MD, MS1; David Oshinsky, PhD1; Arthur Caplan, PhD1

Author Affiliations: 1 NYU Langone Health, New York, New York

JAMA. Published online May 26, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8917

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As the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic persists across the US and the world, the spotlight on vaccine science has never been more intense. Researchers across the globe are working rapidly to produce a potential vaccine, and 7 candidates are already in clinical trials.1 Operation Warp Speed, the vaccine development project announced by President Trump, has advocated for a vaccine to be made available in the US by the beginning of 2021.1 But for scientists and physicians, the term “warp speed” should trigger concern. Good science requires rigor, discipline, and deliberate caution. Any medical therapy approved for public use in the absence of extensive safeguards has the potential to cause harm, not only for COVID-19 prevention efforts and vaccine recipients, but also for public trust in vaccination efforts worldwide.

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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Society; Politics; USA.

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