#Antibiotic #resistance in #Salmonella enterica isolated from #dairy #calves in #Uruguay (Braz J Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Braz J Microbiol. 2019 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy calves in Uruguay.

Casaux ML1, Caffarena RD1,2, Schild CO1,2, Giannitti F1, Riet-Correa F1, Fraga M3.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. 2 Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. 3 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. mfraga@inia.org.uy.



Salmonella enterica is an important animal and human pathogen that can cause enteritis and septicaemia in calves. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of salmonellosis in dairy calves. Here, we report the isolation of antibiotic resistant S. enterica serotypes from calves, including multidrug-resistant isolates. A total of 544 faecal samples from live healthy and diarrheic dairy calves from 29 commercial dairy farms and organ samples from 19 deceased calves that succumbed to salmonellosis in 12 commercial dairy farms in Uruguay were processed for selective S. enterica culture. In total, 41 isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, from 9 classes of compounds, was evaluated by disk-diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype, followed by S. Dublin and S. Anatum. Whether determined by diffusion assay or microdilution, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin were the most frequently pattern found. Based on MIC, 5 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 21 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, and 14 were multidrug-resistant (resistant to at least one antibiotic in 3 different categories of antibiotics). Eleven different resistance patterns were found. Multidrug resistance in S. enterica is a concern for animal and public health not only because of its zoonotic potential but also due to the possibility of transfer resistance determinants to other bacterial genera. This represents the first report of the antibiotic resistance in S. enterica in dairy farms in Uruguay.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Dairy calves; Salmonella Anatum; Salmonella Dublin; Salmonella Typhimurium

PMID: 31606855 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Salmonella Typhimurium; Cattle; Salmonellosis; Food Safety; Uruguay.



#Serosurvey for #Influenza D Virus Exposure in #Cattle, #USA, 2014–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 / Research

Serosurvey for Influenza D Virus Exposure in Cattle, United States, 2014–2015

Simone Silveira, Shollie M. Falkenberg  , Bryan S. Kaplan, Beate Crossley, Julia F. Ridpath, Fernando B. Bauermann, Charles P. Fossler, David A. Dargatz, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Amy L. Vincent, Cláudio W. Canal, and John D. Neill

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (S. Silveira, C.W. Canal); US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA (S.M. Falkenberg, B.S. Kaplan, J.F. Ridpath, R.P. Dassanayake, A.L. Vincent, J.D. Neill); University of California, Davis, California, USA (B. Crossley); Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA (F.B. Bauermann); US Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (C.P. Fossler, D.A. Dargatz)



Influenza D virus has been detected predominantly in cattle from several countries. In the United States, regional and state seropositive rates for influenza D have previously been reported, but little information exists to evaluate national seroprevalence. We performed a serosurveillance study with 1,992 bovine serum samples collected across the country in 2014 and 2015. We found a high overall seropositive rate of 77.5% nationally; regional rates varied from 47.7%–84.6%. Samples from the Upper Midwest and Mountain West regions showed the highest seropositive rates. In addition, seropositive samples were found in 41 of the 42 states from which cattle originated, demonstrating that influenza D virus circulated widely in cattle during this period. The distribution of influenza D virus in cattle from the United States highlights the need for greater understanding about pathogenesis, epidemiology, and the implications for animal health.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Seroprevalence; USA.


#Global #trends in #antimicrobial #resistance in #animals in low- and middle-income countries (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries

Thomas P. Van Boeckel1,2,6,*,†,  João Pires1,6,†, Reshma Silvester2, Cheng Zhao1, Julia Song3,4, Nicola G. Criscuolo1, Marius Gilbert5, Sebastian Bonhoeffer6,‡, Ramanan Laxminarayan1,2,4,‡

1 Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. 2 Center for  Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy, New Delhi, India. 3 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 4 Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. 5 Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium. 6 Institute for Integrative Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

*Corresponding author. Email: thomas.vanboeckel@env.ethz.ch

† These authors contributed equally to this work.

‡ These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  20 Sep 2019: Vol. 365, Issue 6459, eaaw1944 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw1944


Livestock antibiotic resistance

Most antibiotic use is for livestock, and it is growing with the increase in global demand for meat. It is unclear what the increase in demand for antibiotics means for the occurrence of drug resistance in animals and risk to humans. Van Boeckel et al. describe the global burden of antimicrobial resistance in animals on the basis of systematic reviews over the past 20 years (see the Perspective by Moore). There is a clear increase in the number of resistant bacterial strains occurring in chickens and pigs. The current study provides a much-needed baseline model for low- and middle-income countries and provides a “one health” perspective to which future data can be added.

Science, this issue p. eaaw1944; see also p. 1251


Structured Abstract


The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Since 2000, meat production has plateaued in high-income countries but has grown by 68%, 64%, and 40% in Asia, Africa, and South America, respectively. The transition to high-protein diets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been facilitated by the global expansion of intensive animal production systems in which antimicrobials are used routinely to maintain health and productivity. Globally, 73% of all antimicrobials sold on Earth are used in animals raised for food. A growing body of evidence has linked this practice with the rise of antimicrobial-resistant infections, not just in animals but also in humans. Beyond potentially serious consequences for public health, the reliance on antimicrobials to meet demand for animal protein is a likely threat to the sustainability of the livestock industry, and thus to the livelihood of farmers around the world.


In LMICs, trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are poorly documented. In the absence of systematic surveillance systems, point prevalence surveys represent a largely untapped source of information to map trends in AMR in animals. We use geospatial models to produce global maps of AMR in LMICs and give policy-makers—or a future international panel—a baseline for monitoring AMR levels in animals and target interventions in the regions most affected by the rise of resistance.


We identified 901 point prevalence surveys from LMICs reporting AMR rates in animals for common indicator pathogens: Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobial compounds with resistance higher than 50% (P50) increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs and plateaued between 0.12 and 0.23 in cattle. Global maps of AMR (available at resistancebank.org) show hotspots of resistance in northeastern India, northeastern China, northern Pakistan, Iran, eastern Turkey, the south coast of Brazil, Egypt, the Red River delta in Vietnam, and the areas surrounding Mexico City and Johannesburg. Areas where resistance is just starting to emerge are Kenya, Morocco, Uruguay, southern Brazil, central India, and southern China. Uncertainty in our predictions was greatest in the Andes, the Amazon region, West and Central Africa, the Tibetan plateau, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Dense geographical coverage of point prevalence surveys did not systematically correlate with the presence of hotspots of AMR, such as in Ethiopia, Thailand, Chhattisgarh (India), and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The highest resistance rates were observed with the most commonly used classes of antimicrobials in animal production: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and penicillins.


The portfolio of antimicrobials used to raise animals for food is rapidly getting depleted, with important consequences for animal health, farmers’ livelihoods, and potentially for human health. Regions affected by the highest levels of AMR should take immediate actions to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials that are essential in human medicine by restricting their use in animal production. In some middle-income countries, particularly in South America, surveillance must be scaled up to match that of low-income African countries that are currently outperforming them despite more limited resources. Policy-makers coordinating the international response to AMR may consider sparing African countries from the most aggressive measures to restrict access to veterinary drugs, which may undermine livestock-based economic development and rightfully be perceived as unfair. However, in regions where resistance is starting to emerge, there is a window of opportunity to limit the rise of resistance by encouraging a transition to sustainable animal farming practices. High-income countries, where antimicrobials have been used on farms since the 1950s, should support this transition—for example, through a global fund to subsidize improvement in farm-level biosafety and biosecurity.



The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Antimicrobial consumption in animals is threefold that of humans and has enabled large-scale animal protein production. The consequences for the development of antimicrobial resistance in animals have received comparatively less attention than in humans. We analyzed 901 point prevalence surveys of pathogens in developing countries to map resistance in animals. China and India represented the largest hotspots of resistance, with new hotspots emerging in Brazil and Kenya. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobials showing resistance above 50% increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs. Escalating resistance in animals is anticipated to have important consequences for animal health and, eventually, for human health.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Worldwide; Cattle; Poultry; Pigs.


#Antibiotic Use in #Food #Animals in the #World with Focus on #Africa: Pluses and Minuses (J Glob Antimicrob Resist., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2019 Aug 8. pii: S2213-7165(19)30198-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.07.031. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic Use in Food Animals in the World with Focus on Africa: Pluses and Minuses.

Van TTH1, Yidana Z2, Smooker PM3, Coloe PJ4.

Author information: 1 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia. 2 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia; Kintampo Health Research Centre, Kintampo, Ghana. 3 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia. Electronic address: peter.smooker@rmit.edu.au. 4 College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University, Australia.



Antibiotics are sometimes used in food animal production in developing countries to promote the well-being and growth of the animals. This practice provides some economic benefits to producers and consumers at large. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with a number of concerns. A major concern has been that repeatedly exposing these animals to small doses of antibiotics contributes significantly to antibiotic resistance, since a good fraction of the antibiotics used are the same or surrogates of antibiotics used in human therapeutic practices. Studies over decades have shown an explicit relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in veterinary science. Many antibiotics can be purchased over the counter in African countries and antibiotic resistance is an important issue to address in this region. This review examines some of the risks and benefits associated with antibiotic use in food animals. We conclude that the use of antibiotics in food animal production constitutes a major contributing factor to the current antibiotic resistance crisis and they should only be used for treatment of sick animals based on prior diagnosis of disease.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Africa; Antibiotic; Antibiotic resistance; Bacteria; Food animals; Growth promoters

PMID: 31401170 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.07.031

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Poultry; Cattle; Food Safety; Africa.


Early #dissemination of qnrE1 in #Salmonella Typhimurium from #livestock in South #America (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Early dissemination of qnrE1 in Salmonella Typhimurium from livestock in South America

Daniel F. Monte, Nilton Lincopan, Louise Cerdeira, Paula J. Fedorka-Cray, Mariza Landgraf

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00571-19



The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrE1 has been limited to South America to date and was identified for the first time in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a human infection in Argentina in 2007 (1).…

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Quinolones; South America; Cattle.


#Prevalence and concentration of stx+ #Ecoli and E. coli O157 in #bovine #manure from #Florida #farms (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms

Christopher A. Baker, Jaysankar De, Bruna Bertoldi, Laurel Dunn, Travis Chapin, Michele Jay-Russell, Michelle D. Danyluk, Keith R. Schneider

Published: May 24, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445



Fresh produce outbreaks due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) continue to occur in the United States (US). Manure-amended soils can pose a public health risk when used for growing raw agricultural commodities. Knowing the prevalence and concentration of STEC in untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin (BSAAO) is important to help guide the most appropriate pre-harvest interval(s) following application to limit risks from these soil amendments. Bovine manure samples were collected from 12 farms in Florida, including samples from piles, lagoons, barns, and screened solids. Two methods were used to detect stx1/2 and rfbE genes in samples. A prevalence rate of 9% for stx1 and/or stx2 and 19% for rfbE was observed from the 518 bovine manure samples evaluated. A most probable number (MPN) assay was performed on stx+ samples when applicable. The geometric mean for stx+samples (n = 20) was 3.37 MPN g-1 (0.53 log MPN g-1) with a maximum value of 6,800 MPN g-1 (3.83 log MPN g-1). This research was part of a larger nationwide geographical study on the prevalence and concentration of STEC in bovine manure to help guide regulations on feasible pre-harvest intervals for the application of untreated BSAAO.


Citation: Baker CA, De J, Bertoldi B, Dunn L, Chapin T, Jay-Russell M, et al. (2019) Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445

Editor: P. Pardha-Saradhi, University of Delhi, INDIA

Received: March 18, 2019; Accepted: May 10, 2019; Published: May 24, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by the Western Center for Food Safety contract U19-FD004995 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: E. Coli; Cattle; Environmental pollution; USA.


#Genomic #investigation of the emergence of invasive #MDR #Salmonella Dublin in #humans and #animals in #Canada (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic investigation of the emergence of invasive multidrug resistant Salmonella Dublin in humans and animals in Canada

Chand S. Mangat, Sadjia Bekal, Brent P. Avery, Geneviève Côté, Danielle Daignault, Florence Doualla-Bell, Rita Finley, Brigitte Lefebvre, Amrita Bharat, E. Jane Parmley,Richard J. Reid-Smith, Jean Longtin, Rebecca J. Irwin, Michael R. Mulvey
and on behalf of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Public Health Partnership

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00108-19



Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is a zoonotic pathogen that often leads to invasive bloodstream infections in humans that are multidrug resistant. Described here are the results of Canadian national surveillance of S. Dublin from 2003 – 2015 in humans and bovines, principally collected through the Canadian Integrated Program for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). An increase in human infections due to multidrug resistant (MDR) S. Dublin was observed in 2010, many of which were bloodstream infections. Phylogenomic analysis of human and bovine isolates revealed a closely-related network that differed by only 0-17 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) suggesting some potential transmission between humans and bovines. Phylogenomic comparison of global publically available sequences of S. Dublin showed that Canadian isolates clustered closely with those from the United States of America. A high correlation between phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility was observed in Canadian isolates. IS26 replication was widespread amongst U.S. and Canadian isolates and caused the truncation and inactivation of the resistance genes strA and blaTEM-1B. A hybrid virulence and MDR plasmid (pN13-01125) isolated from a Canadian S. Dublin isolate was searched against NCBI SRA data of bacteria. The pN13-01125 coding sequences were found in 13 Salmonella serovars but S. Dublin appears to be a specific reservoir. In summary, we have observed the rise of invasive MDR S. Dublin in humans in Canada and found that they are closely related to bovine isolates and to American isolates in their mobile and chromosomal content.

© Crown copyright 2019.

The government of Australia, Canada, or the UK (“the Crown”) owns the copyright interests of authors who are government employees. The Crown Copyright is not transferable.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bovine; Human; Canada; Samonella enterica.