The emergence of classical #BSE from atypical/Nor98 #scrapie (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, abstract)

[Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The emergence of classical BSE from atypical/Nor98 scrapie

Alvina Huor, Juan Carlos Espinosa, Enric Vidal, Hervé Cassard, Jean-Yves Douet, Séverine Lugan, Naima Aron, Alba Marín-Moreno, Patricia Lorenzo, Patricia Aguilar-Calvo, Juan Badiola, Rosa Bolea, Martí Pumarola, Sylvie L. Benestad, Leonore Orge, Alana M. Thackray, Raymond Bujdoso, Juan-Maria Torres, and Olivier Andreoletti

PNAS first published December 16, 2019 / DOI:

Edited by Michael B. A. Oldstone, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, and approved November 15, 2019 (received for review September 11, 2019)



The origin of transmissible BSE in cattle remains unestablished. Sheep scrapie is a potential source of this known zoonotic. Here we investigated the capacity of sheep scrapie to propagate in bovine PrP transgenic mice. Unexpectedly, transmission of atypical but not classical scrapie in bovine PrP mice resulted in propagation of classical BSE prions. Detection of prion seeding activity by in vitro protein misfolding cyclic amplification demonstrated BSE prions in the original atypical scrapie isolates. BSE prion seeding activity was also detected in ovine PrP mice inoculated with limiting dilutions of atypical scrapie. Our data demonstrate that classical BSE prions can emerge during intra- and interspecies passage of atypical scrapie and provide an unprecedented insight into the evolution of mammalian prions.



Atypical/Nor98 scrapie (AS) is a prion disease of small ruminants. Currently there are no efficient measures to control this form of prion disease, and, importantly, the zoonotic potential and the risk that AS might represent for other farmed animal species remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the capacity of AS to propagate in bovine PrP transgenic mice. Unexpectedly, the transmission of AS isolates originating from 5 different European countries to bovine PrP mice resulted in the propagation of the classical BSE (c-BSE) agent. Detection of prion seeding activity in vitro by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) demonstrated that low levels of the c-BSE agent were present in the original AS isolates. C-BSE prion seeding activity was also detected in brain tissue of ovine PrP mice inoculated with limiting dilutions (endpoint titration) of ovine AS isolates. These results are consistent with the emergence and replication of c-BSE prions during the in vivo propagation of AS isolates in the natural host. These data also indicate that c-BSE prions, a known zonotic agent in humans, can emerge as a dominant prion strain during passage of AS between different species. These findings provide an unprecedented insight into the evolution of mammalian prion strain properties triggered by intra- and interspecies passage. From a public health perspective, the presence of c-BSE in AS isolates suggest that cattle exposure to small ruminant tissues and products could lead to new occurrences of c-BSE.

prion – atypical scrapie – c-BSE



1 A.H., J.C.E., and E.V. contributed equally to the work.

2 To whom correspondence may be addressed. Email:

Author contributions: E.V. and O.A. designed research; A.H., J.C.E., E.V., H.C., J.-Y.D., S.L., N.A., A.M.-M., P.L., P.A.-C., J.B., R. Bolea, M.P., and O.A. performed research; S.L.B. and L.O. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; A.H., J.C.E., E.V., S.L.B., L.O., A.M.T., R. Bujdoso, J.M.T., and O.A. analyzed data; and A.H., S.L.B., L.O., A.M.T., R. Bujdoso, and O.A. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no competing interest.

This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.

This article contains supporting information online at

Published under the PNAS license.

Keywords: Prions; BSE; Cattle; Scrapie.


#Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic #Lineage, #Japan (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 1—January 2020 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan

Shin Murakami, Ryota Sato, Hiroho Ishida, Misa Katayama, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, H. Ishida, M. Katayama, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Yamagata Livestock Hygiene Service Center, Yamagata, Japan (R. Sato)



Influenza D virus (IDV) can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We isolated a new Japan IDV strain from diseased cattle; this strain is phylogenetically and antigenically distinguished from the previously described IDVs.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Japan.


#Thermotolerant #Campylobacter spp. in #chicken and #bovine #meat in #Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken and bovine meat in Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates

Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Paolo Calistri, Guido Di Donato , Lucia Decastelli, Elisa Goffredo, Daniela Adriano, Maria Emanuela Mancini, Annamaria Galleggiante, Diana Neri, Salvatore Antoci, Cristina Marfoglia, Francesca Marotta, Roberta Nuvoloni, Giacomo Migliorati


Published: December 6, 2019 / DOI:



Campylobacter species are common foodborne pathogens associated with cases of human gastroenteritis worldwide. A detailed understanding of the prevalence, contamination levels and molecular characteristics of Campylobacter spp. in cattle and chicken, which are likely the most important sources of human contamination, is imperative. A collection of 1243 poultry meat samples (665 chicken breasts and 578 chicken thighs) and 1203 bovine meat samples (689 hamburgers and 514 knife-cut meat preparations) were collected at retail outlets, in randomly selected supermarkets located in different Italian regions during one year. Of these samples, 17.38% of the poultry meat and 0.58% of the bovine meat samples tested positive for Campylobacter, of which 131 were Campylobacter jejuni (57.96%) and 95 were Campylobacter coli (42.03%). Campylobacter isolates were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and Campylobacter transmission route to humans. All isolates were molecularly characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. Antibiotic resistance was also investigate. The highest levels of resistance among chicken strains were observed for ciprofloxacin (88.25%), nalidixic acid (81.45%) and tetracycline (75.6%). PFGE analysis revealed 73 pulsotypes for C. jejuni and 54 pulsotypes for C. coli, demonstrating the existance of different and specific clones circulating in Italy. MLST of C.jejuni isolates mainly clustered in the CC353, CC354, CC21, CC206 and CC443; while C.coli isolates clustered only in CC828. The most common flaA alleles were 287 for C. jejuni and 66 for C. coli. Our study confirms that poultry meat is the main source of Campylobacteriosis, whereas red meat had a low level of contamination suggesting a minor role in transmission. The high presence of Campylobacter in retail chicken meat, paired with its increased resistance to antimicrobials with several multidrug resistance profiles detected, is alarming and represents a persistent threat to public health.


Citation: Di Giannatale E, Calistri P, Di Donato G, Decastelli L, Goffredo E, Adriano D, et al. (2019) Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in chicken and bovine meat in Italy: Prevalence, level of contamination and molecular characterization of isolates. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0225957.

Editor: Anderson de Souza Sant’Ana, University of Campinas, BRAZIL

Received: July 26, 2019; Accepted: November 16, 2019; Published: December 6, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Di Giannatale et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health [grant numbers: MSRCTE0115]. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Campylobacter spp.; Food Safety; Poultry; Cattle; Italy.


A murine #model for the study of #influenza D virus (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A murine model for the study of influenza D virus.

J Oliva, J Mettier, L Sedano, M Delverdier, N Bourgès-Abella, B. Hause, J Loupias, I. Pardo, C. Bleuart, P. J.. Bordignon, E Meunier, R Le Goffic, G Meyer, M. F. Ducatez

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01662-19



A novel genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family was identified in the USA and named Influenza D virus (IDV). Bovine have been proposed to be the primary host and three main viral lineages (D/OK-like, D/660-like and D/Japan-like) have been described. Experimental infections were so far performed in swine, ferret, calf and guinea pig, in order to study IDV pathogenesis.

We developed a murine experimental model to ease the study of IDV pathogenesis and immune response. DBA/2 mice were inoculated with 105 TCID50 of D/bovine/France/5920/2014 (D/OK-like). No clinical signs and weight loss were observed. Viral replication was observed mainly in the upper respiratory tract (nasal turbinates) but also in lower respiratory tract of infected mice, with a peak at 4 days post-infection. Moreover, the virus was also detected in the intestines. All infected mice seroconverted by 14 days post infection. Transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that IDV induced an activation of pro-inflammatory genes such as IFN-γ and CCL2. Inoculation of NFκB-luciferase and Ifnar1-/- mice demonstrated that IDV induced mild inflammation and that type I interferons response was not necessary in IDV clearance. Adaptation of IDV by serial passages in mice was not sufficient to induce disease or increased pathogenesis.

Taken together, present data and comparisons with the calf model show that our mouse model allows for the study of IDV replication and fitness (before selected viruses may be inoculated on calves) and also of the immune response.



Influenza D virus (IDV), a new genus of Orthomyxoviridae family, presents a large host range and a worldwide circulation. The pathogenicity of this virus has been studied in the calf model. The mouse model is frequently used to enable a first assessment of a pathogen’s fitness, replication and pathogenesis for influenza A and B viruses. We showed that DBA/2 mice are a relevant in vivo model for the study of IDV replication. This model will allow for rapid IDV fitness and replication evaluation and will enable phenotypic comparisons between isolated viruses. It will also allow for a better understanding of the immune response induced after IDV infection.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Animal models.


Identification of #Coxiella burnetii in Tank Raw #Cow #Milk: First Findings from #Chile (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Identification of Coxiella burnetii in Tank Raw Cow Milk: First Findings from Chile

Javiera Cornejo, Pamela Araya, Daniel Ibáñez, Juan Carlos Hormazabal, Patricio Retamal, Marcela Fresno, and Lisette Lapierre

Published Online: 25 Nov 2019 / DOI:



Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, an important zoonotic disease, and exposure is mainly associated with inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In South America, no systematic studies have been carried out. In Chile, the only official record of Q fever has been an outbreak of occupational context occurring in 1998 with eight confirmed human cases, all workers in the Agriculture and Livestock Service. Recently, in 2017 a Q fever outbreak was reported from dairy farm workers in two regions in southern Chile. This study determined the presence of C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy farms obtained during this outbreak. A duplex real time quantitative PCR assay with primers and probes targeting two different gene sequences, IS1111 and com1, was used for diagnosis. C. burnetii was detected in 2 of 105 samples analyzed (2.1%). These results pose a potential public health risk as the milk from these farms was sold to the local human population. This is the first report on detecting C. burnetii in raw tank milk samples in Chile.

Keywords: Coxiella burnetii; Q Fever; Cattle; Human; Food Safety; Chile.


#Antibiotic #resistance in #Salmonella enterica isolated from #dairy #calves in #Uruguay (Braz J Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Braz J Microbiol. 2019 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from dairy calves in Uruguay.

Casaux ML1, Caffarena RD1,2, Schild CO1,2, Giannitti F1, Riet-Correa F1, Fraga M3.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay. 2 Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. 3 Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA), Plataforma de Investigación en Salud Animal, Estación Experimental INIA La Estanzuela, Ruta 50, km 11.5, 70006, Colonia, Uruguay.



Salmonella enterica is an important animal and human pathogen that can cause enteritis and septicaemia in calves. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed for the treatment of salmonellosis in dairy calves. Here, we report the isolation of antibiotic resistant S. enterica serotypes from calves, including multidrug-resistant isolates. A total of 544 faecal samples from live healthy and diarrheic dairy calves from 29 commercial dairy farms and organ samples from 19 deceased calves that succumbed to salmonellosis in 12 commercial dairy farms in Uruguay were processed for selective S. enterica culture. In total, 41 isolates were serotyped, and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, from 9 classes of compounds, was evaluated by disk-diffusion test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequent serotype, followed by S. Dublin and S. Anatum. Whether determined by diffusion assay or microdilution, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin and ampicillin were the most frequently pattern found. Based on MIC, 5 isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, 21 were resistant to 2 antibiotics, and 14 were multidrug-resistant (resistant to at least one antibiotic in 3 different categories of antibiotics). Eleven different resistance patterns were found. Multidrug resistance in S. enterica is a concern for animal and public health not only because of its zoonotic potential but also due to the possibility of transfer resistance determinants to other bacterial genera. This represents the first report of the antibiotic resistance in S. enterica in dairy farms in Uruguay.

KEYWORDS: Antibiotic resistance; Dairy calves; Salmonella Anatum; Salmonella Dublin; Salmonella Typhimurium

PMID: 31606855 DOI: 10.1007/s42770-019-00151-w

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Salmonella Typhimurium; Cattle; Salmonellosis; Food Safety; Uruguay.


#Serosurvey for #Influenza D Virus Exposure in #Cattle, #USA, 2014–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 / Research

Serosurvey for Influenza D Virus Exposure in Cattle, United States, 2014–2015

Simone Silveira, Shollie M. Falkenberg  , Bryan S. Kaplan, Beate Crossley, Julia F. Ridpath, Fernando B. Bauermann, Charles P. Fossler, David A. Dargatz, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Amy L. Vincent, Cláudio W. Canal, and John D. Neill

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (S. Silveira, C.W. Canal); US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA (S.M. Falkenberg, B.S. Kaplan, J.F. Ridpath, R.P. Dassanayake, A.L. Vincent, J.D. Neill); University of California, Davis, California, USA (B. Crossley); Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA (F.B. Bauermann); US Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA (C.P. Fossler, D.A. Dargatz)



Influenza D virus has been detected predominantly in cattle from several countries. In the United States, regional and state seropositive rates for influenza D have previously been reported, but little information exists to evaluate national seroprevalence. We performed a serosurveillance study with 1,992 bovine serum samples collected across the country in 2014 and 2015. We found a high overall seropositive rate of 77.5% nationally; regional rates varied from 47.7%–84.6%. Samples from the Upper Midwest and Mountain West regions showed the highest seropositive rates. In addition, seropositive samples were found in 41 of the 42 states from which cattle originated, demonstrating that influenza D virus circulated widely in cattle during this period. The distribution of influenza D virus in cattle from the United States highlights the need for greater understanding about pathogenesis, epidemiology, and the implications for animal health.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Seroprevalence; USA.