#Antibiotic Use in #Food #Animals in the #World with Focus on #Africa: Pluses and Minuses (J Glob Antimicrob Resist., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2019 Aug 8. pii: S2213-7165(19)30198-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.07.031. [Epub ahead of print]

Antibiotic Use in Food Animals in the World with Focus on Africa: Pluses and Minuses.

Van TTH1, Yidana Z2, Smooker PM3, Coloe PJ4.

Author information: 1 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia. 2 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia; Kintampo Health Research Centre, Kintampo, Ghana. 3 Biosciences & Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Australia. Electronic address: peter.smooker@rmit.edu.au. 4 College of Science, Engineering and Health, RMIT University, Australia.

 

Abstract

Antibiotics are sometimes used in food animal production in developing countries to promote the well-being and growth of the animals. This practice provides some economic benefits to producers and consumers at large. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with a number of concerns. A major concern has been that repeatedly exposing these animals to small doses of antibiotics contributes significantly to antibiotic resistance, since a good fraction of the antibiotics used are the same or surrogates of antibiotics used in human therapeutic practices. Studies over decades have shown an explicit relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in veterinary science. Many antibiotics can be purchased over the counter in African countries and antibiotic resistance is an important issue to address in this region. This review examines some of the risks and benefits associated with antibiotic use in food animals. We conclude that the use of antibiotics in food animal production constitutes a major contributing factor to the current antibiotic resistance crisis and they should only be used for treatment of sick animals based on prior diagnosis of disease.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Africa; Antibiotic; Antibiotic resistance; Bacteria; Food animals; Growth promoters

PMID: 31401170 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.07.031

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Poultry; Cattle; Food Safety; Africa.

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Early #dissemination of qnrE1 in #Salmonella Typhimurium from #livestock in South #America (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Early dissemination of qnrE1 in Salmonella Typhimurium from livestock in South America

Daniel F. Monte, Nilton Lincopan, Louise Cerdeira, Paula J. Fedorka-Cray, Mariza Landgraf

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00571-19

 

ABSTRACT

The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrE1 has been limited to South America to date and was identified for the first time in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a human infection in Argentina in 2007 (1).…

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Quinolones; South America; Cattle.

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#Prevalence and concentration of stx+ #Ecoli and E. coli O157 in #bovine #manure from #Florida #farms (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms

Christopher A. Baker, Jaysankar De, Bruna Bertoldi, Laurel Dunn, Travis Chapin, Michele Jay-Russell, Michelle D. Danyluk, Keith R. Schneider

Published: May 24, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445

 

Abstract

Fresh produce outbreaks due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) continue to occur in the United States (US). Manure-amended soils can pose a public health risk when used for growing raw agricultural commodities. Knowing the prevalence and concentration of STEC in untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin (BSAAO) is important to help guide the most appropriate pre-harvest interval(s) following application to limit risks from these soil amendments. Bovine manure samples were collected from 12 farms in Florida, including samples from piles, lagoons, barns, and screened solids. Two methods were used to detect stx1/2 and rfbE genes in samples. A prevalence rate of 9% for stx1 and/or stx2 and 19% for rfbE was observed from the 518 bovine manure samples evaluated. A most probable number (MPN) assay was performed on stx+ samples when applicable. The geometric mean for stx+samples (n = 20) was 3.37 MPN g-1 (0.53 log MPN g-1) with a maximum value of 6,800 MPN g-1 (3.83 log MPN g-1). This research was part of a larger nationwide geographical study on the prevalence and concentration of STEC in bovine manure to help guide regulations on feasible pre-harvest intervals for the application of untreated BSAAO.

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Citation: Baker CA, De J, Bertoldi B, Dunn L, Chapin T, Jay-Russell M, et al. (2019) Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445

Editor: P. Pardha-Saradhi, University of Delhi, INDIA

Received: March 18, 2019; Accepted: May 10, 2019; Published: May 24, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by the Western Center for Food Safety contract U19-FD004995 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: E. Coli; Cattle; Environmental pollution; USA.

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#Genomic #investigation of the emergence of invasive #MDR #Salmonella Dublin in #humans and #animals in #Canada (Antimicrob Agents Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic investigation of the emergence of invasive multidrug resistant Salmonella Dublin in humans and animals in Canada

Chand S. Mangat, Sadjia Bekal, Brent P. Avery, Geneviève Côté, Danielle Daignault, Florence Doualla-Bell, Rita Finley, Brigitte Lefebvre, Amrita Bharat, E. Jane Parmley,Richard J. Reid-Smith, Jean Longtin, Rebecca J. Irwin, Michael R. Mulvey
and on behalf of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Public Health Partnership

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00108-19

 

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) is a zoonotic pathogen that often leads to invasive bloodstream infections in humans that are multidrug resistant. Described here are the results of Canadian national surveillance of S. Dublin from 2003 – 2015 in humans and bovines, principally collected through the Canadian Integrated Program for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). An increase in human infections due to multidrug resistant (MDR) S. Dublin was observed in 2010, many of which were bloodstream infections. Phylogenomic analysis of human and bovine isolates revealed a closely-related network that differed by only 0-17 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) suggesting some potential transmission between humans and bovines. Phylogenomic comparison of global publically available sequences of S. Dublin showed that Canadian isolates clustered closely with those from the United States of America. A high correlation between phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility was observed in Canadian isolates. IS26 replication was widespread amongst U.S. and Canadian isolates and caused the truncation and inactivation of the resistance genes strA and blaTEM-1B. A hybrid virulence and MDR plasmid (pN13-01125) isolated from a Canadian S. Dublin isolate was searched against NCBI SRA data of bacteria. The pN13-01125 coding sequences were found in 13 Salmonella serovars but S. Dublin appears to be a specific reservoir. In summary, we have observed the rise of invasive MDR S. Dublin in humans in Canada and found that they are closely related to bovine isolates and to American isolates in their mobile and chromosomal content.

© Crown copyright 2019.

The government of Australia, Canada, or the UK (“the Crown”) owns the copyright interests of authors who are government employees. The Crown Copyright is not transferable.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Bovine; Human; Canada; Samonella enterica.

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Potential Intermediate #Hosts for #Coronavirus Transmission: No Evidence of Clade 2c Coronaviruses in Domestic #Livestock from #Ghana (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 10;4(1). pii: E34. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010034.

Potential Intermediate Hosts for Coronavirus Transmission: No Evidence of Clade 2c Coronaviruses in Domestic Livestock from Ghana.

El-Duah P1,2, Sylverken A3,4, Owusu M5,6, Yeboah R7,8, Lamptey J9,10, Frimpong YO11,12, Burimuah V13,14, Antwi C15, Folitse R16, Agbenyega O17, Oppong S18, Adu-Sarkodie Y19.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. elduahphilip9@gmail.com. 2 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. elduahphilip9@gmail.com. 3 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. annan@kccr.de. 4 Department of Theoretical and Applied Biology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. annan@kccr.de. 5 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. owusumichael-gh@hotmail.com. 6 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. owusumichael-gh@hotmail.com. 7 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. Yeboahrichmond82@yahoo.com. 8 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. Yeboahrichmond82@yahoo.com. 9 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. jlamptey80@gmail.com. 10 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. jlamptey80@gmail.com. 11 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. oppongfrimpong1@gmail.com. 12 Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. oppongfrimpong1@gmail.com. 13 Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. vitus7uk@yahoo.co.uk. 14 School of Veterinary Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. vitus7uk@yahoo.co.uk. 15 Department of Animal Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. cantwi@icloud.com. 16 School of Veterinary Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. raphfolitse@yahoo.com. 17 Department of Agroforestry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. olivia_agbenyega@yahoo.com. 18 Department of Wildlife and Range Management, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. kobbyoppong@yahoo.com. 19 Department of Clinical Microbiology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB, UPO, Kumasi 00233, Ghana. yasax@hotmail.co.uk.

 

Abstract

The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), nearly a decade ago with worldwide distribution, was believed to be of zoonotic origin from bats with dromedary camels as intermediate hosts. There is a likelihood of other domestic livestock serving as intermediate hosts for this virus. The presence of coronaviruses, closely related to MERS-CoV in Ghanaian bats, presented the opportunity to test the hypothesis of transmissibility of this virus through domestic livestock species. The possible interactions between livestock and bats in 31 household farms were accessed by observation and interviews with farmers. Rectal swabs and serum from cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, and swine from commercial and household farms were tested for MERS-CoV and a Nycteris sp. bat coronavirus, previously detected in Ghana. A pan-PCR assay to detect clade 2c viruses and recombinant immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-spike IgG antibodies against the target viruses were used. Likely contact between livestock and bats was determined for 13 farms (41.9%) that reported confining their livestock and also observing bats in their homes. Livestock were left unconfined on eight farms (25.8%) that also observed bats roosting in trees close to their homes. No viral RNA or antibodies against the two coronaviruses were detected in any of the livestock species tested. Cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, and swine are not likely hosts of clade 2c coronaviruses.

KEYWORDS: bats; coronavirus; intermediate host; livestock

PMID: 30744201 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010034 Free full text

Keywords: Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Bats; Cattle; Pigs; Ghana.

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Emerging #Influenza D Virus #Threat: What We Know so Far! (J Clin Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Clin Med. 2019 Feb 5;8(2). pii: E192. doi: 10.3390/jcm8020192.

Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know so Far!

Asha K1, Kumar B2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. asha.biotech@rediffmail.com. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. binod_biochem@rediffmail.com.

 

Abstract

Influenza viruses, since time immemorial, have been the major respiratory pathogen known to infect a wide variety of animals, birds and reptiles with established lineages. They belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and cause acute respiratory illness often during local outbreaks or seasonal epidemics and occasionally during pandemics. Recent studies have identified a new genus within the Orthomyxoviridae family. This newly identified pathogen, D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK), first identified in pigs with influenza-like illness was classified as the influenza D virus (IDV) which is distantly related to the previously characterized human influenza C virus. Several other back-to-back studies soon suggested cattle as the natural reservoir and possible involvement of IDV in the bovine respiratory disease complex was established. Not much is known about its likelihood to cause disease in humans, but it definitely poses a potential threat as an emerging pathogen in cattle-workers. Here, we review the evolution, epidemiology, virology and pathobiology of influenza D virus and the possibility of transmission among various hosts and potential to cause human disease.

KEYWORDS: emerging pathogen; epidemic; influenza; influenza A virus (IAV); influenza B virus (IBV); influenza C virus (ICV); influenza D virus (IDV); influenza-like illness; pandemic; respiratory illness

PMID: 30764577 DOI: 10.3390/jcm8020192

Keywords: Influenza C; Influenza D; Cattle; Pigs.

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#Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and #aerosol transmission of #Influenza D virus in #cattle (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and aerosol transmission of Influenza D virus in cattle

Elias Salem, Sara Hägglund, Hervé Cassard, Tifenn Corre, Katarina Näslund, Charlotte Foret, David Gauthier, Anne Pinard, Maxence Delverdier, Siamak Zohari, Jean-François Valarcher,Mariette Ducatez, Gilles Meyer

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01853-18

 

ABSTRACT

The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves, as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper but also the lower respiratory tracts (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 meters apart from inoculated calves, and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naïve contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered as predisposing or co-factor of respiratory disease.

 

IMPORTANCE

Influenza D virus (IDV), a new Genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered as the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus is still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of co-infecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Bovine respiratory disease complex.

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