Prevalence of #Wēnzhōu virus in small #mammals in #Yunnan Province, #China (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence of Wēnzhōu virus in small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

Jinxia Wang , Xinglou Yang , Haizhou Liu, Li Wang, Jihua Zhou, Xi Han, Yan Zhu, Weihong Yang, Hong Pan, Yunzhi Zhang , Zhengli Shi

Published: February 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007049 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Mammarenaviruses are associated with human hemorrhagic fever diseases in Africa and America. Recently, a rodent mammarenavirus, Wēnzhōu virus (WENV) and related viruses, have been reported in China, Cambodia, and Thailand. Moreover, in Cambodia, these viruses were suspected to be associated with human disease. In China, Yunnan Province is famous for its abundant animal and plant diversity and is adjacent to several South-eastern Asia countries. Therefore, it is necessary to know whether WENV-related viruses, or other mammarenaviruses, are prevalent in this province.

Methodology/Principal findings

Small mammals were trapped, euthanized, and sampled. Mammarenavirus RNA was detected using a nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 1040 small mammals belonging to 13 genera and 26 species were trapped in Yunnan Province. WENV-related mammarenaviruses were detected in 41 rodent liver samples, mainly in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and oriental house rats (R. tanezumi).Viral nucleocapsid protein was detected in liver sections by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Full-length-genomes were amplified by RT-PCR and used for phylogenetic analysis with the MEGA package. Recombination analysis was performed using the SimPlot and Recombination Detection Program.

Conclusions/Significance

WENV related viruses circulated in small mammals in Yunnan Province. Whole genome sequence analysis of five selected viral strains showed that these viruses are closely related to WENVs discovered in Asia and form an independent branch in the phylogenetic tree in the WENV clade. Paying attention to investigate the influence of these viruses to public health is essential in the epidemic regions.

 

Author summary

Rodents are natural reservoirs of mammarenavirus. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), isolated in Asian countries during the 1990s, has a worldwide distribution and was the first mammarenavirus isolated. In 2014, a second mammarenavirus, Wēnzhōu virus (WENV), was identified in rodents in Zhejiang Province of China and later in Guangdong, Shandong, and Hainan Provinces. Most importantly, WENV or related viruses were reported in Thailand and Cambodia. In Cambodia, the isolated virus was associated with human respiratory diseases. In this study, we detected WENV or related viruses in Yunnan Province and found a high prevalence in rats of two species (Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete L and S segments of five strains showed that these viruses form an independent phylogenetic branch in WENV clade most closely related to WENVs found in China and Cambodia. Considering the wide spread distribution of rats and altered distribution patterns due to ecological changes, we propose that these viruses may have a wider prevalence and be found in countries from South-eastern Asia to China. Given that WENV may be associated with human diseases, it is necessary to improve surveillances of these viruses in their natural reservoirs and in humans.

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Citation: Wang J, Yang X, Liu H, Wang L, Zhou J, Han X, et al. (2019) Prevalence of Wēnzhōu virus in small mammals in Yunnan Province, China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007049. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007049

Editor: Townsend Peterson, The University of Kansas, UNITED STATES

Received: April 29, 2018; Accepted: December 4, 2018; Published: February 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81874274 and 81660558), a Scientific and Technological Basis Special Project grant (2013FY113500) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of PR China, Yunnan health training project of high level talents (L-2017027). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Mammarenavirus; LCMV; Wenzhou virus; Human; Wildlife; Yunnan; China.

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#Genetic and biological characterization of two #reassortant #H5N2 #avian #influenza A viruses isolated from #waterfowl in #China in 2016 (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Oct;224:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.016. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Genetic and biological characterization of two reassortant H5N2 avian influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in China in 2016.

Liu K1, Gao R1, Gu M2, Li J1, Shi L1, Sun W1, Liu D1, Gao Z1, Wang X2, Hu J2, Liu X2, Hu S2, Chen S2, Gao S2, Peng D2, Jiao XA2, Liu X3.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 2 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-Food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. 3 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-Food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

Two reassortant H5N2 viruses in which hemagglutinin (HA) was clustered into clade 2.3.4.4, were isolated from apparently healthy waterfowl in live poultry markets in Eastern China in 2016. We used specific pathogen-free chickens, mallard ducks, and BALB/c mice to evaluate the isolates’ biological characteristics in different animal models. The newly isolated reassortant H5N2 viruses were able to cause severe disease in chickens and effective contact transmission, only at high doses. Our pathogenicity studies in ducks yielded an interesting result: the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) indicated that isolate A/goose/Eastern China/1106/2016(1106) was low pathogenic and the other isolate A/duck/Eastern China/YD1516/2016(YD1516) was of highly pathogenicity in ducks. However, our 50% duck lethal dose (DLD50) experiment demonstrated that these viruses were all of low pathogenicity (DLD50 > 107.0 EID50) in ducks. Additionally, despite the fact that reassortant H5N2 were of low pathogenicity in mice, they could bind to both avian-type (SAα-2,3 Gal) and human-type (SAα-2,6 Gal) receptors, suggesting that these isolates still present a high risk for human infection. Therefore, it is of great importance to implement continual surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) to protect both veterinary and public health.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N2; Pathogenicity; Reassortant; Waterfowl

PMID: 30269795 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.016 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Reassortant Strain; Wild birds; China.

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Probabilistic logic analysis of the highly heterogeneous spatiotemporal #HFRS incidence distribution in #Heilongjiang province (#China) during 2005-2013 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Probabilistic logic analysis of the highly heterogeneous spatiotemporal HFRS incidence distribution in Heilongjiang province (China) during 2005-2013

Junyu He, George Christakos , Jiaping Wu, Piotr Jankowski, Andreas Langousis, Yong Wang, Wenwu Yin, Wenyi Zhang

Published: January 31, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007091 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonosis caused by hantavirus (belongs to Hantaviridae family). A large amount of HFRS cases occur in China, especially in the Heilongjiang Province, raising great concerns regarding public health. The distribution of these cases across space-time often exhibits highly heterogeneous characteristics. Hence, it is widely recognized that the improved mapping of heterogeneous HFRS distributions and the quantitative assessment of the space-time disease transition patterns can advance considerably the detection, prevention and control of epidemic outbreaks.

Methods

A synthesis of space-time mapping and probabilistic logic is proposed to study the distribution of monthly HFRS population-standardized incidences in Heilongjiang province during the period 2005–2013. We introduce a class-dependent Bayesian maximum entropy (cd-BME) mapping method dividing the original dataset into discrete incidence classes that overcome data heterogeneity and skewness effects and can produce space-time HFRS incidence estimates together with their estimation accuracy. A ten-fold cross validation analysis is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed cd-BME implementation compared to the standard class-independent BME implementation. Incidence maps generated by cd-BME are used to study the spatiotemporal HFRS spread patterns. Further, the spatiotemporal dependence of HFRS incidences are measured in terms of probability logic indicators that link class-dependent HFRS incidences at different space-time points. These indicators convey useful complementary information regarding intraclass and interclass relationships, such as the change in HFRS transition probabilities between different incidence classes with increasing geographical distance and time separation.

Results

Each HFRS class exhibited a distinct space-time variation structure in terms of its varying covariance parameters (shape, sill and correlation ranges). Given the heterogeneous features of the HFRS dataset, the cd-BME implementation demonstrated an improved ability to capture these features compared to the standard implementation (e.g., mean absolute error: 0.19 vs. 0.43 cases/105 capita) demonstrating a point outbreak character at high incidence levels and a non-point spread character at low levels. Intraclass HFRS variations were found to be considerably different than interclass HFRS variations. Certain incidence classes occurred frequently near one class but were rarely found adjacent to other classes. Different classes may share common boundaries or they may be surrounded completely by another class. The HFRS class 0–68.5% was the most dominant in the Heilongjiang province (covering more than 2/3 of the total area). The probabilities that certain incidence classes occur next to other classes were used to estimate the transitions between HFRS classes. Moreover, such probabilities described the dependency pattern of the space-time arrangement of HFRS patches occupied by the incidence classes. The HFRS transition probabilities also suggested the presence of both positive and negative relations among the main classes. The HFRS indicator plots offer complementary visualizations of the varying probabilities of transition between incidence classes, and so they describe the dependency pattern of the space-time arrangement of the HFRS patches occupied by the different classes.

Conclusions

The cd-BME method combined with probabilistic logic indicators offer an accurate and informative quantitative representation of the heterogeneous HFRS incidences in the space-time domain, and the results thus obtained can be interpreted readily. The same methodological combination could also be used in the spatiotemporal modeling and prediction of other epidemics under similar circumstances.

 

Author summary

Heilongjiang Province reported the largest number of HFRS cases in China. Previous studies focused on identifying the severe HFRS outbreak regions, exploring the relative impact of environmental factors, forecasting HFRS cases etc. However, the study of the spatiotemporal spread dynamics and patterns of HFRS is still lacking, which is the focus of the present study. This study proposed a novel mapping technique (i.e., class-dependent Bayesian Maximum Entropy, cd-BME) for studying the distribution of HFRS, overcoming the highly heterogeneous features of HFRS data; and, probabilistic logic notions (stochastic indicators) were employed to study the spatiotemporal dependency of HFRS incidence and draw conclusions regarding the HFRS spread under conditions of uncertainty. By dividing the original HFRS data into four classes in terms of percentiles, the cd-BME exhibited better performance in mapping HFRS distribution than the standard (class-independent) BME technique and the mainstream inverse distance technique. Regarding the maps of HFRS distribution, the point outbreak character dominated the HFRS spread at high incidence levels, whereas the lowest incidence level covered more than 2/3 of Heilongjiang Province. Certain HFRS incidence generally occurred between intraclass or neighbor classes. The probabilities of HFRS transition between incidence classes with various spatial distances and temporal instants can be found in the HFRS indicator plots. The above comprehensive information can allow a better understanding of the spatiotemporal HFRS spread mechanisms and further improve HFRS decision-making, management and control.

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Citation: He J, Christakos G, Wu J, Jankowski P, Langousis A, Wang Y, et al. (2019) Probabilistic logic analysis of the highly heterogeneous spatiotemporal HFRS incidence distribution in Heilongjiang province (China) during 2005-2013. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(1): e0007091. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007091

Editor: Justin V. Remais, University of California Berkeley, UNITED STATES

Received: July 26, 2018; Accepted: December 18, 2018; Published: January 31, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 He et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Patient data are protected by the China CDC and are unsuitable for public sharing. The HFRS data is not allowed to be publicly shared due to local infection disease law. Interested parties can apply for the data by contacting the Data-center of China Public Health Science (http://www.phsciencedata.cn/Share/ky_sjml.jsp?id=59761d3e-ca3c-4c65-a6a5-67be1d2fb692) or email data@chinacdc.cn.

Funding: This research was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41671399 and 11501339) and the China Scholarship Council (201706320278). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Hantavirus; HFRS; Heilongjiang; China.

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#Clinical indices and #mortality of hospitalized #avian #influenza A (#H7N9) patients in #Guangdong, #China (Chin Med J (Engl.), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Chin Med J (Engl). 2019 Feb 5;132(3):302-310. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000043.

Clinical indices and mortality of hospitalized avian influenza A (H7N9) patients in Guangdong, China.

Yang Y1, Li X1, Birkhead GS2, Zheng Z1, Lu JH1,3,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University at Albany, NY 12222, USA. 3 Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China. 4 One Health Center of Excellence for Research & Training, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Six epidemic waves of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China with high mortality. However, study on quantitative relationship between clinical indices in ill persons and H7N9 outcome (fatal and non-fatal) is still unclear. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect laboratory-confirmed cases with H7N9 viral infection from 2013 to 2015 in 23 hospitals across 13 cities in Guangdong Province, China.

METHODS:

Multivariable logistic regression model and classification tree model analyses were used to detect the threshold of selected clinical indices and risk factors for H7N9 death. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and analyses were used to compare survival and death distributions and differences between indices. A total of 143 cases with 90 survivors and 53 deaths were investigated.

RESULTS:

Average age (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.036, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.016-1.057), interval days between dates of onset and confirmation (OR = 1.078, 95% CI = 1.004-1.157), interval days between onset and oseltamivir treatment (OR = 5.923, 95% CI = 1.877-18.687), body temperature (BT) (OR = 3.612, 95% CI = 1.914-6.815), white blood cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.212, 95% CI = 1.092-1.346) were significantly associated with H7N9 death after adjusting for confounders. The chance of death from H7N9 infection was 80.0% if BT was over 38.1 °C, and chance of death is 67.4% if WBC count was higher than 9.5 (10/L). Only 27.1% of patients who began oseltamivir treatment less than 9.5 days after disease onset died, compared to 68.8% of those who started treatment more than 15.5 days after onset.

CONCLUSIONS:

The intervals between date of onset and confirmation of diagnosis, between date of onset to oseltamivir treatment, age, BT and WBC are found to be the best predictors of H7N9 mortality.

PMID: 30681496 DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000043

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.

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Characterization of a novel #reassortant #H7N3 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus isolated from a #poultry #meat product taken on a passenger flight to #Japan (J Vet Med Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Vet Med Sci. 2019 Jan 24. doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0628. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of a novel reassortant H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a poultry meat product taken on a passenger flight to Japan.

Shibata A1, Harada R1, Okamatsu M2, Matsuno K2,3, Arita T4, Suzuki Y4, Shirakura M4, Odagiri T4, Takemae N5, Uchida Y5, Saito T5, Sakoda Y2,3, Osaka H1.

Author information: 1 Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University. 3 Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University. 4 Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases. 5 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

 

Abstract

A new reassortant H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a duck meat product that was illegally taken on board a passenger flight from China to Japan in March 2018. Sequencing analysis revealed that the H7N3 isolate, A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE30-1/2018 (Dk/HE30-1) (H7N3), was a reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) that contained the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of Chinese H7N9 HPAIV. Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) possessed a novel polybasic sequence motif PEVPKRRRTAR/GLF at the HA cleavage site that has never previously been reported in H7 HPAIVs. The HA antigenicity of Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) slightly differed from that of H7N9 HPAIVs previously reported. These findings will help further our knowledge of the circulation and genetic evolution of emerging AIVs in endemic areas.

KEYWORDS: H7N3 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; reassortant virus

PMID: 30674734 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.18-0628

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N3; H7N9; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Japan; China.

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Recombinant #baculovirus #vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of #H7N9 #avian #influenza virus confers full protection against lethal highly pathogenic H7N9 virus infection in #chickens (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2019 Jan 22. doi: 10.1007/s00705-018-04142-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Recombinant baculovirus vaccine expressing hemagglutinin of H7N9 avian influenza virus confers full protection against lethal highly pathogenic H7N9 virus infection in chickens.

Hu J1,2,3, Liang Y1,2,3, Hu Z1,2,3, Wang X1,2,3, Gu M1,2,3, Li R1,2,3, Ma C1,2,3, Liu X1,2,3, Hu S1,2,3, Chen S1,2,3, Peng D1,2,3, Jiao X2,4,3, Liu X5,6,7.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 48 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China. 2 Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 3 Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. 4 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. 5 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, 48 East Wenhui Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009, China. xfliu@yzu.edu.cn. 6 Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. xfliu@yzu.edu.cn. 7 Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

The emergent highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) (HPAI) virus is a major public concern in China. Therefore, it is crucially important to develop an effective vaccine against this virus. In this study, we constructed a baculovirus vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 strain A/Chicken/Jiaxing/148/2014 (JX148). The recombinant baculovirus (rBac-JX148HA) generated in this study showed good growth in insect cells and good safety, and it stably expressed the HA protein. We compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of the inactivated whole-virus vaccine JX148 and rBac-JX148HA. One chicken in the JX148-treated group died on day 4 post-challenge, and three chickens had typical clinical symptoms (survival rate, 90%; morbidity, 40%). However, no chickens immunized with rBac-JX148HA showed clinical signs during the 14-day observation period. An analysis of viral shedding and viral replication demonstrated that rBac-JX148HA more efficiently inhibited viral shedding and viral replication than the inactivated whole-virus vaccine. Taken together, these results indicate that the inactivated recombinant baculovirus vaccine induces a high hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer, provides complete protection against challenge with the highly pathogenic H7N9 virus, and effectively inhibits viral shedding. Therefore, the candidate vaccine has potential utility in the prevention and control of H7N9 avian influenza and is also appropriate for veterinary vaccines using cell suspension culture technology.

PMID: 30671655 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-04142-4

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; Vaccines; China.

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#Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a young #child infected with #avian #influenza A (#H9N2) virus in #China (J Int Med Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Int Med Res. 2018 Aug;46(8):3462-3467. doi: 10.1177/0300060518779959. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a young child infected with avian influenza A (H9N2) virus in China.

Liu R1, Zhao B2, Li Y1, Zhang X1, Chen S1, Chen T1.

Author information: 1 Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Three cases of the avian influenza A (H9N2) virus have been documented in Changsha, which is a large city that has nine districts and a population of 7.04 million in central South China. Among these patients, one was a girl and two were boys. The ages of the patients were 9 months, 2 years, and 15 years. Two cases of H9N2 were detected in September, 2015 and one was detected in 2017. Two patients were children who had not reached the age for kindergarten and one was a student. These three cases were all mild and were detected in a sentinel hospital of the Chinese Influenza Surveillance System. We describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the youngest patient with H9N2 in 2017 and the surveillance results of the H9N2 virus in live poultry markets in Changsha. From January 2014 to December 2017, 4212 samples were collected in live poultry markets in Changsha, among which 25.81% (1087/4212) were H9N2-positive. Public health concerns should be addressed for emerging H9N2 virus infection, and more strategies should be performed before this virus mutates to be more transmissible and highly pathogenic.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H9N2; children; mild case; poultry; public health

PMID: 29896990 PMCID: PMC6134662 DOI: 10.1177/0300060518779959 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China.

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