Boosting #Global #YellowFever #Vaccine #Supply for #Epidemic #Preparedness: 3 Actions for #China and the #USA (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Boosting Global Yellow Fever Vaccine Supply for Epidemic Preparedness: 3 Actions for China and the USA

Authors: Daniel R. Lucey, Kristen R. Kent

Perspective / First Online: 24 May 2019

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Yellow fever (YF) is an acute disease caused by a flavivirus that infects the liver. It can cause jaundice, bleeding, kidney damage, and death. No antiviral therapy exists. A vaccine does exist, however, and fortunately confers life-long immunity after a single dose (Monath et al.2016; WHO 2017a, b).

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Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement: This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Keywords: Yellow Fever; Vaccines; USA; China.

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#Genetic and #biological characteristics of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H1N8 in #environments related to live #poultry #markets in #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 22;19(1):458. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z.

Genetic and biological characteristics of avian influenza virus subtype H1N8 in environments related to live poultry markets in China.

Zhang Y1, Dong J1, Bo H1, Dong L1, Zou S1, Li X1, Shu Y1,2, Wang D3.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. 2 Present Address: Public Health School (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. dayanwang@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, slaughterhouses, and poultry farms. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza virus have been identified based on environmental surveillance, and an H1N8 virus was isolated from the drinking water of a live poultry market.

METHODS:

Virus isolation was performed by inoculating influenza A-positive specimens into embryonated chicken eggs. Next-generation sequencing was used for whole-genome sequencing. A solid-phase binding assay was performed to test the virus receptor binding specificity. Trypsin dependence plaque formation assays and intravenous pathogenicity index tests were used to evaluate virus pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Different cell lines were chosen for comparison of virus replication capacity.

RESULTS:

According to the phylogenetic trees, the whole gene segments of the virus named A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) were of Eurasian lineage. The HA, NA, PB1, and M genes showed the highest homology with those of H1N8 or H1N2 subtype viruses isolated from local domestic ducks, while the PB2, PA, NP and NS genes showed high similarity with the genes of H7N9 viruses detected in 2017 and 2018 in the same province. This virus presented an avian receptor binding preference. The plaque formation assay showed that it was a trypsin-dependent virus. The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chickens was 0.02. The growth kinetics of the A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) virus in different cell lines were similar to those of a human-origin virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), but lower than those of the control avian-origin and swine-origin viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H1N8 virus was identified in avian influenza-related environments in China for the first time and may have served as a gene carrier involved in the evolution of the H7N9 virus in poultry. This work further emphasizes the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance, especially in live poultry markets (LPMs). Active surveillance of avian influenza in LPMs is a major pillar supporting avian influenza control and response.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H1N8 subtype; Live poultry market

PMID: 31117981 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China; Reassortant strain; H1N1; H1N2; H7N9.

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The re-emergence of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9 viruses in #human[s] in mainland #China, 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019

Deshan Yu1,2, Guofeng Xiang1,3, Wenfei Zhu1,4, Xia Lei1,5, Baodi Li2, Yao Meng4, Lei Yang4, Hongyan Jiao6,Xiyan Li4, Weijuan Huang4, Hejiang Wei4, Yanping Zhang7, Yan Hai5, Hui Zhang2, Hua Yue5, Shumei Zou4, Xiang Zhao4, Chao Li7, Deng Ao6,Ye Zhang4, Minju Tan4, Jia Liu4, Xuemei Zhang6, George F. Gao4,7, Lei Meng2,8, Dayan Wang4,8

Affiliations: 1 These authors contributed equally in this study as first authors; 2 Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou China; 3 Jiuquan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiuquan, China; 4 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health Commission, Beijing, China; 5 Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohehot, China; 6 Alasan League Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Alasan, China; 7 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 8 These authors contributed equally as last authors in this study

Correspondence:  Dayan Wang

Citation style for this article: Yu Deshan, Xiang Guofeng, Zhu Wenfei, Lei Xia, Li Baodi, Meng Yao, Yang Lei, Jiao Hongyan, Li Xiyan, Huang Weijuan, Wei Hejiang,Zhang Yanping, Hai Yan, Zhang Hui, Yue Hua, Zou Shumei, Zhao Xiang, Li Chao, Ao Deng, Zhang Ye, Tan Minju, Liu Jia, Zhang Xuemei, Gao George F., Meng Lei,Wang Dayan. The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(21):pii=1900273. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1900273

Received: 06 May 2019;   Accepted: 23 May 2019

 

Abstract

After no reported human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 for over a year, a case with severe disease occurred in late March 2019. Among HPAI H7N9 viral sequences, those recovered from the case and from environmental samples of a poultry slaughtering stall near their home formed a distinct clade from 2017 viral sequences. Several mutations possibly associated to antigenic drift occurred in the haemagglutinin gene, potentially warranting update of H7N9 vaccine strains.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Gansu; Inner Mongolia; China.

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Detection of the phenicol–oxazolidinone– #tetracycline #resistance gene poxtA in #Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis of #food-producing #animal origin in #China (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of the phenicol–oxazolidinone–tetracycline resistance gene poxtA in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis of food-producing animal origin in China

Chang-Wei Lei, Zhuang-Zhuang Kang, Shun-Kang Wu, Yan-Peng Chen, Ling-Han Kong, Hong-Ning Wang

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dkz198, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz198

Published: 18 May 2019

Issue Section: Research letter

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Sir,

Oxazolidinones, including linezolid and tedizolid, are effective antimicrobial agents for treating infections caused by MDR Gram-positive bacteria, including VRE.1,2Linezolid is the first commercially available oxazolidinone that can inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyltransferase centre of the bacterial 23S rRNA. After introduction of linezolid, the resistance mechanism that emerged rapidly was related to mutations in genes coding for the 23S rRNA. The transferable oxazolidinone resistance determinants, cfr and optrA, have been reported in enterococci in several regions worldwide.3–6 Very recently, another transferable oxazolidinone resistance gene, poxtA, was reported in an MRSA of clinical origin…

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© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Linezolid; Enterococcus spp.; Food Safety; China.

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The characteristics of current natural foci of #HFRS in #Shandong Province, #China, 2012-2015 (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

The characteristics of current natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shandong Province, China, 2012-2015

Zhaolei Zheng, Peizhu Wang, Zhiqiang Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xu Wang, Shuqing Zuo, Xiujun Li

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007148 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Background

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses, is endemic in China and remains a serious public health problem. Historically, Shandong Province has had the largest HFRS burden in China. However, we do not have a comprehensive and clear understanding of the current epidemic foci of HFRS in Shandong Province.

Methodology/principal findings

The incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed after laboratory testing of the virus in rodents. Spatial epidemiology analysis was applied to investigate the epidemic foci, including their sources. A total of 6,206 HFRS cases and 59 related deaths were reported in Shandong Province. The virus carriage rates of the rodents Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus were 10.24%, 6.31% and 0.27%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that two novel viruses obtained from R. norvegicus in Anqiu City and Qingzhou City were dissimilar to the other strains, but closely related to strains previously isolated in northeastern China. Three epidemic foci were defined, two of which were derived from the Jining and Linyi epidemic foci, respectively, while the other was the residue of the Jining epidemic focus.

Conclusions/significance

The southeastern and central Shandong Province are current key HFRS epidemic foci dominated by A. agrarius and R. norvegicus, respectively. Our study could help local departments to strengthen prevention and control measures in key areas to reduce the hazards of HFRS.

 

Author summary

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a global infectious disease, which is still a serious public health threat in China today. The reported HFRS cases in Shandong Province accounted for approximate one third of total cases in the whole country. HFRS is a zoonosis mainly caused by Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Seoul virus (SEOV), which natural rodent hosts are A. agrarius and R. norvegicus, respectively. To explore the current HFRS epidemic foci based on patients, rodents and molecular epidemiology characteristics in Shandong Province, we collected the records of HFRS cases from whole province and the rodents captured in 14 surveillance sites. We found that the epidemic situation of HFRS is quiet different in temporal and spatial distribution. Three epidemic foci were defined based on patients, rodents and molecular epidemiology characteristics. The situation of HFRS epidemic foci in Shandong Province was clear. Our study provides a reference for relevant departments to develop key prevention strategies.

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Citation: Zheng Z, Wang P, Wang Z, Zhang D, Wang X, Zuo S, et al. (2019) The characteristics of current natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shandong Province, China, 2012-2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(5): e0007148. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007148

Editor: David Joseph Diemert, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, UNITED STATES

Received: January 3, 2019; Accepted: May 2, 2019; Published: May 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Zheng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Some relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. The data of HFRS incidence and death underlying the results presented in the study are available from Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.sdcdc.cn/col/col9776/index.html?uid=51587&pageNum=1).

Funding: This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 81673238, 81473025), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (no. ZR2016HM75) and State Key Research Development Program of China (2016YFC1201902). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Hantavirus; HFRS; Shandong; China.

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First successful combination of #ECMO with video-assisted thoracic surgery (#VATS) of pulmonary bullae #resection in the management of refractory #pneumothorax in a critically ill patient with #H7N9 #pneumonia and #ARDS: A case report (Medicine (Baltimore), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(20):e15661. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015661.

First successful combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) of pulmonary bullae resection in the management of refractory pneumothorax in a critically ill patient with H7N9 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case report.

Huang J1, Li H1, Chen S2, Lan C3, Lin Q4, Weng H1.

Author information: 1 Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2 Department of Thoracic Surgery. 3 Department of Radiology. 4 Department of Pathology, Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fu Jian, Educational Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

 

Abstract

RATIONALE:

At present, data regarding refractory pneumothorax treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in combination with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in critically ill patients with H7N9 pneumonia have never been reported.

PATIENT CONCERNS:

A laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was treated in our hospital. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed and the patient was oxygenated via veno-venous ECMO due to the failure of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, a right refractory pneumothorax occurred. Despite treatment with pleural drainage and select bronchial occlusion, the patient still failed to improve.

DIAGNOSIS:

Fatal H7N9 pneumonia complicated with severe ARDS, pulmonary bullae, and refractory pneumothorax.

INTERVENTIONS:

Successful combination of ECMO with VATS of pulmonary bullae resection was performed and pneumothorax was cured.

OUTCOMES:

One week after the operation, ECMO was removed. However, the patient finally developed multiorgan failure (MOF) complicated by refractory hypoxemia due to progressive lung fibrosis and died 36 days after admission.

LESSONS:

Although the patient died of MOF triggered by severe lung fibrosis at last, the successful treatment of refractory pneumothorax by combination of ECMO with VATS is encouraging. Thus, when refractory pneumothorax in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction fails to improve through routine therapy, the treatment of pneumothorax by VATS based on ECMO support can be considered as a feasible selection.

PMID: 31096495 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015661

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; ECMO; ARDS; Pneumonia; Pneumothorax; China.

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A #hospital #cluster combined with a #family cluster of #avian #influenza #H7N9 #infection in #Anhui Province, #China (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 May 14. pii: S0163-4453(19)30152-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.05.008. [Epub ahead of print]

A hospital cluster combined with a family cluster of avian influenza H7N9 infection in Anhui Province, China.

Zhang W1, Zhao K1, Jin J1, He J2, Zhou W1, Wu J1, Tang R1, Ma W3, Ding C4, Liu W1, Zhang L1, Gao R5.

Author information: 1 Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230061. 2 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230601. 3 Lujiang County People’s Hospital, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 231501. 4 The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230601. 5 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China, 102206. Electronic address: gaorongbao@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To identify human-to-human transmission of H7N9 avian influenza virus, we investigated a hospital cluster combined with family cluster in this study.

METHODS:

We obtained and analyzed clinical, epidemiological and virological data from the three patients. RT-PCR, viral culture and sequencing were conducted for determination of causative pathogen.

RESULTS:

The index case presented developed pneumonia with fever after exposure to chicken in a poultry farm. Case A presented pneumonia with high fever on day 3 after she shared a hospital room with the index case. Case B, the father of the index case, presented pneumonia with high fever on day 15 after he took care of the index case. H7N9 virus circulated in the local farm to which the index case was exposed. Full genomic sequence of virus showed 99.8 to 100% identity shared between the index case and case A or case B. Compared to the earliest virus of Anhui, a total of 29 amino acid variation sites were observed in the 8 segments.

CONCLUSIONS:

A hospital cluster combined with family cluster of H7N9 avian influenza infection was identified. Air transmission resulted in the hospital cluster possibly. A poultry farm was the initially infectious source of the cluster.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Air transmission; Avian influenza virus; Family cluster; H7N9; Hospital cluster; Human-to-human transmission

PMID: 31100362 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.05.008

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Nosocomial Outbreaks; Anhui; China.

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