A novel #reassortant #influenza A (#H1N1) virus #infection in #swine in #Shandong Province, eastern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13360. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China.

Yu Z1,2,3, Cheng K4, He H5, Wu J1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250023, China. 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Poultry Diseases Diagnosis and Immunology. 3 Poultry Breeding Engineering Technology Center of Shandong Province. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.

 

Abstract

Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics. Hence, persistent surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine herds could contribute to the prevention and control of this virus. Here, we report a novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus generated by reassortment between 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses and swine viruses. We also found that this virus is prevalent in swine herds in Shandong Province, eastern China. Our findings suggest that surveillance of the emergence of the novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine is imperative.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; human; influenza; reassortant; swine

PMID: 31535780 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13360

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Reassortant strain; Shandong; China.

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Effect of #closure of live #poultry #markets in #China on #prevention and control of #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #influenza: a case study of four cities in #Jiangsu Province (J Public Health Policy, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Public Health Policy. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of closure of live poultry markets in China on prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza: a case study of four cities in Jiangsu Province.

Ma J1, Yang N1, Gu H2, Bai L1, Sun J1, Gu S1, Gu J3.

Author information: 1 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. 2 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. ghai1008@nju.edu.cn. 3 Nanjing Foreign Language School Xianlin Campus, Nanjing, China.

 

Abstract

As of August 2017, China had encountered five seasonal epidemics of H7N9 avian influenza. To prevent people from contracting H7N9 avian influenza, most cities closed live poultry markets (LPMs) to cut off the source of H7N9 virus. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of LPMs closure on reducing zoonotic transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and to make specific recommendations on the duration of closing the LPMs. Results show that the closure of LPMs can effectively control the spread of H7N9 avian influenza and reduce the incidence of human infection with H7N9. If cases of H7N9 avian influenza continue to occur, LPMs should close for at least 3-4 weeks in susceptible areas to control the spread of infection.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H7N9; Incidence; Live poultry market; Zoonotic transmission

PMID: 31527787 DOI: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Live Poultry Markets; Jiangsu; China.

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#Platelet count and #mortality of #H7N9 infected patients in #Guangdong, #China (Platelets., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Platelets. 2019 Sep 11:1-4. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639. [Epub ahead of print]

Platelet count and mortality of H7N9 infected patients in Guangdong, China.

Chen Y1,2, Yang Y1, Cheng J2, Lu J1, Hu W2.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , China. 2 School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane , Australia.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a serve zoonosis with a high mortality rate. Timely and effective diagnosis and early warning is crucial for the clinical treatment of H7N9 patients. The previous studies indicated that thrombocytopenia was associated with the prognosis of influenza cases, but the related evidence of platelet change within the course of the disease remains largely insufficient. A total of 130 laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases and their corresponding medical records from August 2013 to March 2015 were collected from 23 hospitals of 13 cities in Guangdong, China. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the outcome of H7N9 cases and their average platelet count (PC) including maximum, minimum, range, admission and discharge/death of the PC value. Furthermore, we built a classification and regression tree (CART) model to predict the fatality rate which varied with average PC. There was a 7% chance for a mortality from H7N9 if PC was over 207.0 × 10^9/L, while there was a 46.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was between 123.9 × 10^9/L and 207.0 × 10^9/L, and 81.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was less than 123.9 × 10^9/L. This study demonstrates that using platelet count to predict the fatality of H7N9 is significant, and lower platelet counts of H7N9 patients were associated with higher risk of mortality of H7N9 patients, which may need to be taken into consideration when planning clinical treatment.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza A (H7N9); CART; platelet count; predicting death

PMID: 31509040 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.

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Delayed #peak of #human #infections and ongoing #reassortment of #H7N9 #avian #influenza virus in the newly affected western #Chineses provinces during Wave Five (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 6. pii: S1201-9712(19)30363-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Delayed peak of human infections and ongoing reassortment of H7N9 avian influenza virus in the newly affected western Chineses provinces during Wave Five.

Li J1, Chen C2, Wei J3, Huang H2, Peng Y2, Bi Y3, Liu Y4, Yang Y5.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China. 2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China. 3 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. 4 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Medical School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address: yingxialiu@hotmail.com. 5 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address: yyszth2018@163.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Eight additional provinces in western China reported human infections for the first time during the fifth wave of human H7N9 infections. Our study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and virological characteristics of this outbreak.

METHODS:

The epidemiological data of H7N9 cases from the newly affected western Chinese provinces were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, full-length genome sequences of H7N9 virus were downloaded from GenBank and GISAID databases, and phylogenetic, genotyping and genetic analyses were conducted.

RESULTS:

The peak of human infections in the newly affected western Chinese provinces was delayed by 4 months compared to the eastern China, and both low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 infected cases were found. The LP- and HP-H7N9 virus belonged to 10 different genotypes (including 4 new genotypes), of which G11 and G3 were the dominant genotypes, respectively. Almost all of these viruses originated from eastern and southern China, and were most possibly imported from neighboring provinces. Genetic characteristics of the circulating viruses were similar with the viruses from previously affected provinces during Wave Five.

CONCLUSION:

A delayed peak of human infections was observed in the newly affected western Chinese provinces, and reassortment has been ongoing since the introduction of H7N9 viruses. Our study highlights the importance of continued surveillance of the circulation and evolution of H7N9 virus in western China.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; Reassortment; Wave Five; Western dissemination; avian influenza virus (AIV)

PMID: 31499209 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Reassortant strain.

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#H3N2 #avian #influenza viruses detected in live #poultry #markets in #China bind to #human-type #receptors and transmit in guinea pigs and ferrets (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):1280-1290. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1660590.

H3N2 avian influenza viruses detected in live poultry markets in China bind to human-type receptors and transmit in guinea pigs and ferrets.

Guan L1, Shi J1, Kong X1, Ma S1, Zhang Y1, Yin X1, He X1, Liu L1, Suzuki Y2, Li C1, Deng G1, Chen H1.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS , Harbin , People’s Republic of China. 2 College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University , Aichi , Japan.

 

Abstract

The H3N2 influenza viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. Different lineages of H3N2 influenza viruses are also commonly found in animals. If a different lineage of H3N2 virus jumps to humans, a human influenza pandemic could occur with devastating consequences. Here, we studied the genetics, receptor-binding properties, and replication and transmission in mammals of 15 H3N2 avian influenza viruses detected in live poultry markets in China. We found that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses are complicated reassortants with distinct replication phenotypes in mice. Five viruses replicated efficiently in mice and bound to both human-type and avian-type receptors. These viruses transmitted efficiently to direct-contact guinea pigs, and three of them also transmitted among guinea pigs and ferrets via respiratory droplets. Moreover, ferret antiserum induced by human H3N2 viruses did not react with any of the H3N2 avian influenza viruses. Our study demonstrates that the H3N2 avian influenza viruses pose a clear threat to human health and emphasizes the need for continued surveillance and evaluation of the H3N2 influenza viruses circulating in nature.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H3N2; ferret; guinea pig; transmission

PMID: 31495283 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1660590

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H3N2; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China.

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#Antigenic Variation of #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N6) Viruses, #Guangdong Province, #China, 2014–2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Dispatch

Antigenic Variation of Avian Influenza A(H5N6) Viruses, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2018

Ru Bai1, Reina S. Sikkema1, Cong rong Li, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Jie Wu, Lirong Zou, Yi Jing, Jing Lu, Runyu Yuan, Ming Liao, Marion P.G. Koopmans1  , and Chang-wen Ke1

Author affiliations: Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, China (R. Bai, C. Li, J. Wu, L. Zou, Y. Jing, J. Lu, R. Yuan, C. Ke); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.S. Sikkema, B.B. Oude Munnink, M.P.G. Koopmans); Southern Medical University (C. Li, Y. Jing, C. Ke); South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (M. Liao)

 

Abstract

Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014–2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing antigenic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine strain in vaccinated chickens.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry; Guangdong; China.

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A study of the #relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza a (#H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Amantadine; H5N6; H6N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Avian Influenza; Human; Fujian; China.

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