Detection of replicative Kashmir #Bee Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus in Asian hornet #Vespa velutina (Lepelieter 1836) in #Italy (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 12 July 2019

Detection of replicative Kashmir Bee Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus in Asian hornet Vespa velutina (Lepelieter 1836) in Italy

Maurizio Mazzei, Giovanni Cilia, Mario Forzan, Antonio Lavazza, Franco Mutinelli & Antonio Felicioli

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 10091 (2019) | Download Citation

 

Abstract

Information concerning the pathogenic role of honey bee viruses in invasive species are still scarce. The aim of this investigation was to assess the presence of several honey bee viruses, such as Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV), Slow Paralysis Virus (SPV), Sac Brood Virus (SBV), Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV), in Vespa velutina specimens collected in Italy during 2017. Results of this investigation indicate that among pathogens, replicative form of KBV and BQCV were detected, assessing the spillover effect of both these viruses from managed honey bees to hornets.

Keywords: Wildlife; Honey bee viruses; Bees; Italy.

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A lattice model to manage the #vector and the #infection of the #Xylella fastidiosa on #olive #trees (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 19 June 2019

A lattice model to manage the vector and the infection of the Xylella fastidiosa on olive trees

Annalisa Fierro, Antonella Liccardo & Francesco Porcelli

Scientific Reports, volume 9, Article number: 8723 (2019)

 

Abstract

Since October 2013 a new devastating plant disease, known as Olive Quick Decline Syndrome, has been killing most of the olive trees distributed in Apulia, South Italy. Xylella fastidiosa pauca ST53 is the plant pathogenic bacterium responsible for the disease, and the adult Meadow Spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera Aphrophoridae), is its main vector. This study proposes a lattice model for the pathogen invasion of olive orchard aimed at identifying an appropriate strategy for arresting the infection, built on the management of the vector throughout its entire life cycle. In our model the olive orchard is depicted as a simple square lattice with olive trees and herbaceous vegetation distributed on the lattice sites in order to mimic the typical structure of an olive orchard; adult vectors are represented by particles moving on the lattice according to rules dictated by the interplay between vector and vegetation life cycles or phenology; the transmission process of the bacterium is regulated by a stochastic Susceptible, Infected and Removed model. On this baseline model, we build-up a proper Integrated Pest Management strategy based on tailoring, timing, and tuning of available control actions. We demonstrate that it is possible to reverse the hitherto unstoppable Xylella fastidiosa pauca ST53 invasion, by a rational vector and transmission control strategy.

Keywords: Xylella fastidiosa; Plant diseases; Italy.

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High rate of #transmission in a pulmonary #tuberculosis #outbreak in a primary #school, north-eastern #Italy, 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

High rate of transmission in a pulmonary tuberculosis outbreak in a primary school, north-eastern Italy, 2019

Sandro Cinquetti1, Maria Dalmanzio1, Elisa Ros1, Davide Gentili1,2, Mauro Ramigni3, Adriano Grossi4,5, Xanthi D Andrianou5,6, Leonardo Ermanno La Torre7, Roberto Rigoli8, Pier Giorgio Scotton9, Angela Taraschi10, Vincenzo Baldo11, Giuseppina Napoletano12, Francesca Russo12, Patrizio Pezzotti5, Giovanni Rezza5, Antonietta Filia5

Affiliations: 1 Public Health Office , Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 2 Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3 Epidemiology Office, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 4 University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 5 Department of Infectious Diseases, National Health Institute (Istituto Superiore di Sanità), Rome, Italy; 6 European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden; 7 Department of Radiology, Oderzo Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 8 Department of Microbiology, Treviso Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 9 Department of Infectious Diseases, Treviso Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 10 Department of Pediatrics, Oderzo Hospital, Local Health Unit 2 Marca Trevigiana, Treviso, Italy; 11 Hygiene and Public Health Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 12 Prevention Department, Veneto Regional Health Authority, Venice, Italy

Correspondence: Antonietta Filiaantonietta.filiaiss.it

Citation style for this article: Cinquetti Sandro, Dalmanzio Maria, Ros Elisa, Gentili Davide, Ramigni Mauro, Grossi Adriano, Andrianou Xanthi D, La Torre Leonardo Ermanno, Rigoli Roberto, Scotton Pier Giorgio, Taraschi Angela, Baldo Vincenzo, Napoletano Giuseppina, Russo Francesca, Pezzotti Patrizio, Rezza Giovanni, Filia Antonietta. High rate of transmission in a pulmonary tuberculosis outbreak in a primary school, north-eastern Italy, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(24):pii=1900332. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.24.1900332

Received: 24 May 2019;   Accepted: 13 Jun 2019

 

Abstract

Italy is a low-incidence country for tuberculosis (TB). We describe a TB outbreak in a primary school in north-eastern Italy, involving 10 cases of active pulmonary disease and 42 cases of latent infection. The index case was detected in March 2019, while the primary case, an Italian-born schoolteacher, was likely infectious since January 2018. Administration of a pre-employment health questionnaire to school staff with sustained contact with children should be considered in low-incidence countries.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: TB; Institutional outbreaks; Italy.

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#CCHF Virus #Genome in #Tick from Migratory #Bird, #Italy (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 7—July 2019 / Research Letter

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Genome in Tick from Migratory Bird, Italy

Elisa Mancuso, Luciano Toma, Andrea Polci, Silvio G. d’Alessio, Marco Di Luca, Massimiliano Orsini, Marco Di Domenico, Maurilia Marcacci, Giuseppe Mancini, Fernando Spina, Maria Goffredo, and Federica Monaco

Author affiliations: Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise “G. Caporale,” Teramo, Italy (E. Mancuso, A. Polci, S.G. D’Alessio, M. Orsini, M. Di Domenico, M. Marcacci, G. Mancini, M. Goffredo, F. Monaco); Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy (L. Toma, M. Di Luca); Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale, Bologna, Italy (F. Spina)

 

Abstract

We detected Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in a Hyalomma rufipes nymph collected from a whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) on the island of Ventotene in April 2017. Partial genome sequences suggest the virus originated in Africa. Detection of the genome of this virus in Italy confirms its potential dispersion through migratory birds.

Keywords: Wild Birds; Ticks; CCHF; Italy.

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#Genomic analysis of #Neisseria meningitidis carriage isolates during an #outbreak of serogroup C clonal complex 11, #Tuscany, #Italy (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Genomic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis carriage isolates during an outbreak of serogroup C clonal complex 11, Tuscany, Italy

Luigina Ambrosio, Arianna Neri , Cecilia Fazio , Gian Maria Rossolini, Paola Vacca, Eleonora Riccobono, Fabio Voller, Alessandro Miglietta, Paola Stefanelli

Published: May 28, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217500

 

Abstract

Background

In 2015–2016, a cross-sectional carriage survey was performed in Tuscany Region, Italy, during an outbreak of invasive meningococcal disease due to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C clonal complex 11 (MenC:cc11). This study aims to evaluate the genomic profile of meningococcal carriage isolates collected during the survey.

Methods

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed using Illumina MiSeq on 85 cultivated meningococcal carriage isolates received at the Dept. of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS), as National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD). De novo assembled genomes were scanned by the BIGSdb platform to assign: the genotypic profiles, the cgMLST, the vaccine antigen variants and allele types of antimicrobial resistance associated genes, together with denitrification pathway loci.

Results

Capsule null and non-groupable meningococci accounted for 52.9% and 10.6%, respectively. Among the remaining carriage isolates, serogroup B was the predominant (71.0%). Serogroup C meningococci were culture negative and unavailable for WGS. Overall, 64 genotypic profiles were identified and, based on cgMLST, isolates clustered according to clonal complexes. Eight isolates (9.4%) harbored at least one gene encoding a 4CMenB vaccine antigen. Mutated penAalleles were found in more than 82%. Finally, complete aniA and norB coding sequences were detected among 71.8% of carriage isolates.

Conclusions

Meningococcal carriage isolates collected during the MenC:cc11 outbreak were characterized by an extensive genetic diversity. The lack of outbreak-related isolates among carriage might be attributable to the high transmissibility with low duration of colonization of MenC:cc11 meningococci.

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Citation: Ambrosio L, Neri A, Fazio C, Rossolini GM, Vacca P, Riccobono E, et al. (2019) Genomic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis carriage isolates during an outbreak of serogroup C clonal complex 11, Tuscany, Italy. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217500. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217500

Editor: Daniela Flavia Hozbor, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, ARGENTINA

Received: January 25, 2019; Accepted: May 13, 2019; Published: May 28, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Ambrosio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The genome sequences of the isolates have been deposited in the PubMLST Neisseria database (https://pubmlst.org/neisseria/) and all relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis sg C; Meningococcal meningitis; Italy.

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#WNV #infection in individuals with pre-existing #Usutu virus #immunity, northern #Italy, 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018

Alessandro Sinigaglia1, Monia Pacenti2, Thomas Martello1, Silvana Pagni1,2, Elisa Franchin1,2, Luisa Barzon1,2

Affiliations: 1 Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 2 Microbiology and Virology Unit, Padova University Hospital, Padova, Italy

Correspondence:  Luisa Barzon

Citation style for this article: Sinigaglia Alessandro, Pacenti Monia, Martello Thomas, Pagni Silvana, Franchin Elisa, Barzon Luisa. West Nile virus infection in individuals with pre-existing Usutu virus immunity, northern Italy, 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(21):pii=1900261. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1900261

Received: 27 Apr 2019;   Accepted: 22 May 2019

 

Abstract

In 2018, there was a large West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in northern Italy. We observed five atypical cases of WNV infection that were characterised by the presence of WNV RNA and WNV IgG at the time of diagnosis, but no IgM response during follow-up. Neutralisation assays demonstrated pre-existing Usutu virus immunity in all patients. Besides challenging diagnosis, the immunological crosstalk between the two viruses warrants further investigation on possible cross-protection or infection enhancement effects.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: WNV; Usutu virus; ADE; Italy.

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#Immigration in #Italy: the #medical #community’s role in #human #rights (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Immigration in Italy: the medical community’s role in human rights

Raffaella Casolino

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

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Italy has been witnessing a rapid escalation towards racism and xenophobia since the new government came into power in June, 2018. On Nov 27, 2018, the lower house of the Italian Parliament approved the Decree-Law on Immigration and Security, which includes measures that would abolish humanitarian protection status for migrants, block asylum seekers from accessing reception centres focusing on social inclusion, and extend the duration of detention in return centres and hotspots. These measures fundamentally undermine international human rights principles. The day after approval, the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior declared that Italy would not sign the UN Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration or take part in an intergovernmental conference in Marrakech, Morocco, on Dec 10, 2018.

(…)

I declare no competing interests.

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Reference

UN Human Rights, Office of the high commissioner. Legal changes and climate of hatred threaten migrants’ rights in Italy, say UN experts. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=23908&LangID=E | Date: Nov 21, 2018 | Date accessed: November 28, 2018

 

Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30216-8

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Public Health; Society; Politics; Italy; Migrants; Racism.

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