[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUSES.
Bahnson CS1, Poulson RL1, Hollander LP1, Bradley JAC1, Stallknecht DE1.
Author information: 1 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.
Delaware Bay, USA is the only documented location where influenza A virus (IAV) is consistently detected in a shorebird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (RUTU; Arenaria interpres morinella). Although IAV in shorebirds has been well studied at this site for decades, the importance of other species in the avian community as potential sources for the IAVs that infect RUTUs each spring remains unclear. We determined the susceptibility of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), to IAVs isolated from RUTUs in order to gain insight into the potential host range of these viruses. Captive-reared gulls were challenged with RUTU-origin H6N1, H10N7, H11N9, H12N4, and H13N6 IAV, as well as Mallard-origin H6N1 and H11N9. We challenged captive-reared Mallards with the same viruses, except for H13N6. At a biologically plausible challenge dose (104 50% embryo infective doses/0.1 mL), one of five gulls challenged with both H6N1 IAVs shed virus. The remaining gulls were resistant to infection with all viruses. In contrast, all Mallards were infected and shed virus. The H12N4 Mallard challenge group was an exception with no birds infected. These results indicated that Mallards are permissive to infection with viruses originating from a shorebird host and that interspecies transmission could occur. In contrast, host adaptation of IAVs to RUTUs may compromise their ability to be transmitted back to gulls.
KEYWORDS: Delaware Bay; Laughing gull; Mallard; Ruddy Turnstone; influenza A virus
Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; H6N1; H10N7; H11N9; H12N4; H13N6; USA.