[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]


Bahnson CS1, Poulson RL1, Hollander LP1, Bradley JAC1, Stallknecht DE1.

Author information: 1 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.



Delaware Bay, USA is the only documented location where influenza A virus (IAV) is consistently detected in a shorebird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (RUTU; Arenaria interpres morinella). Although IAV in shorebirds has been well studied at this site for decades, the importance of other species in the avian community as potential sources for the IAVs that infect RUTUs each spring remains unclear. We determined the susceptibility of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), to IAVs isolated from RUTUs in order to gain insight into the potential host range of these viruses. Captive-reared gulls were challenged with RUTU-origin H6N1, H10N7, H11N9, H12N4, and H13N6 IAV, as well as Mallard-origin H6N1 and H11N9. We challenged captive-reared Mallards with the same viruses, except for H13N6. At a biologically plausible challenge dose (104 50% embryo infective doses/0.1 mL), one of five gulls challenged with both H6N1 IAVs shed virus. The remaining gulls were resistant to infection with all viruses. In contrast, all Mallards were infected and shed virus. The H12N4 Mallard challenge group was an exception with no birds infected. These results indicated that Mallards are permissive to infection with viruses originating from a shorebird host and that interspecies transmission could occur. In contrast, host adaptation of IAVs to RUTUs may compromise their ability to be transmitted back to gulls.

KEYWORDS: Delaware Bay; Laughing gull; Mallard; Ruddy Turnstone; influenza A virus

PMID: 31532732

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; H6N1; H10N7; H11N9; H12N4; H13N6; USA.



#Influenza A (#H3) #Outbreak at a #Hurricane #Harvey #Megashelter in Harris County, #Texas: Successes and Challenges in Disease Identification and Control Measure Implementation (Disaster Med Public Health Prep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2019 Feb;13(1):97-101. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2018.159.

Influenza A (H3) Outbreak at a Hurricane Harvey Megashelter in Harris County, Texas: Successes and Challenges in Disease Identification and Control Measure Implementation.

Liu L1, Haynie A1, Jin S1, Zangeneh A1, Bakota E1, Hornstein BD1, Beckham D1, Reed BC1, Kiger J1, McClendon M1, Perez E1, Schaffer M1, Becker L1, Shah UA1.

Author information: 1 Harris County Public Health,Houston, Texas (Dr. Aisha Haynie is no longer affiliated with the agency).



When Hurricane Harvey landed along the Texas coast on August 25, 2017, it caused massive flooding and damage and displaced tens of thousands of residents of Harris County, Texas. Between August 29 and September 23, Harris County, along with community partners, operated a megashelter at NRG Center, which housed 3365 residents at its peak. Harris County Public Health conducted comprehensive public health surveillance and response at NRG, which comprised disease identification through daily medical record reviews, nightly “cot-to-cot” resident health surveys, and epidemiological consultations; messaging and communications; and implementation of control measures including stringent isolation and hygiene practices, vaccinations, and treatment. Despite the lengthy operation at the densely populated shelter, an early seasonal influenza A (H3) outbreak of 20 cases was quickly identified and confined. Influenza outbreaks in large evacuation shelters after a disaster pose a significant threat to populations already experiencing severe stressors. A holistic surveillance and response model, which consists of coordinated partnerships with onsite agencies, in-time epidemiological consultations, predesigned survey tools, trained staff, enhanced isolation and hygiene practices, and sufficient vaccines, is essential for effective disease identification and control. The lessons learned and successes achieved from this outbreak may serve for future disaster response settings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:97-101).

KEYWORDS: Hurricane Harvey; influenza outbreak; shelter surveillance and response

PMID: 30841952 DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2018.159 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H3N2; Disaster preparedness; Hurricanes; USA; Texas.


The susceptibility of #Oklahoma’s #basement to #seismic #reactivation (Nat Geosci., abstract)

[Source: Nature Geoscience, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The susceptibility of Oklahoma’s basement to seismic reactivation

F. Kolawole, C. S. Johnston, C. B. Morgan, J. C. Chang, K. J. Marfurt, D. A. Lockner, Z. Reches & B. M. Carpenter

Nature Geoscience (2019)



Recent widespread seismicity in Oklahoma is attributed to the reactivation of pre-existing, critically stressed and seismically unstable faults due to decades of wastewater injection. However, the structure and properties of the reactivated faults remain concealed by the sedimentary cover. Here, we explore the major ingredients needed to induce earthquakes in Oklahoma by characterizing basement faults in the field, in seismic surveys and via rock-mechanics experiments. Outcrop and satellite mapping reveal widespread fault and fracture systems with trends that display a marked similarity to the trends of recent earthquake lineaments. Our three-dimensional seismic analyses show steeply dipping basement-rooted faults that penetrate the overlying sedimentary sequences, representing pathways for wastewater migration. Experimental stability analysis indicates that Oklahoma’s basement rocks become seismically unstable at conditions relevant to the dominant hypocentral depths of the recent earthquakes. These analyses demonstrate that the geometry, structure and mechanical stability of Oklahoma’s basement make it critically susceptible to seismic reactivation.

Keywords: Geology; USA; Fracking; Earthquakes; Oklahoma.


Evidence of #Background #Checks in an #Online #Firearms #Marketplace (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Evidence of Background Checks in an Online Firearms Marketplace

Coleman Drake, PhD1, Ashley M. Hernandez, MSPH2, Yang Liu, PhD3, Adam H. Schwartz, PhD2, Maria E. Sundaram, MSPH, PhD4


Published online: September 16, 2019



Injuries and deaths from firearms are increasingly recognized as a public health crisis in the U.S.1 Studies investigating whether background check requirements reduce firearm-related homicide and suicide have been inconclusive,2 though some studies suggest these requirements may be effective at reducing firearm deaths.3,4 Currently, federal regulations require that firearm dealers with a federal firearms license conduct a background check before sales.5,6 However, although some states require private sellers to conduct a background check, federal regulations do not require private sellers to conduct background checks.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Firearms.


Better Prepare Than React: Reordering #PublicHealth #Priorities 100 Years After the #SpanishFlu #Epidemic (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2018 Nov;108(11):1465-1468. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304682. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Better Prepare Than React: Reordering Public Health Priorities 100 Years After the Spanish Flu Epidemic.

Greenberger M1.

Author information: 1 Michael Greenberger is with the Carey School of Law and the Center for Health and Homeland Security, University of Maryland, Baltimore. He is also the founder and director of the University of Maryland Center for Health and Homeland Security.



This commentary argues that 100 years after the deadly Spanish flu, the public health emergency community’s responses to much more limited pandemics and outbreaks demonstrate a critical shortage of personnel and resources. Rather than relying on nonpharmaceutical interventions, such as quarantine, the United States must reorder its health priorities to ensure adequate preparation for a large-scale pandemic.

PMID: 30252520 PMCID: PMC6187800 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304682 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Spanish Flu; USA.


#Risk for Invasive #Streptococcal #Infections among #Adults Experiencing #Homelessness, #Anchorage, #Alaska, #USA, 2002–2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / CME ACTIVITY – Research

Risk for Invasive Streptococcal Infections among Adults Experiencing Homelessness, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2002–2015

Emily Mosites  , Tammy Zulz, Dana Bruden, Leisha Nolen, Anna Frick, Louisa Castrodale, Joseph McLaughlin, Chris Van Beneden, Thomas W. Hennessy, and Michael G. Bruce

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, Alaska, USA (E. Mosites, T. Zulz, D. Bruden, L. Nolen, T.W. Hennessy, M.G. Bruce); Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Anchorage (A. Frick, L. Castrodale, J. McLaughlin); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (C. Van Beneden)

CME Editor: Jude Rutledge, BA, Technical Writer/Editor, Emerging Infectious Diseases. Disclosure: Jude Rutledge has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

CME Author: Charles P. Vega, MD, Health Sciences Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California. Disclosure: Charles P. Vega, MD, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: served as an advisor or consultant for Genentech, Inc.; GlaxoSmithKline; Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C.; served as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for Shire.

Authors Disclosures: Emily Mosites, PhD, MPH; Tammy Zulz, MPH; Dana Bruden, MS; Leisha Nolen, MD, PhD; Anna Frick, MPH; Louisa Castrodale, DVM, MPH; Joe McLaughlin, MD, MPH; Chris A. Van Beneden, MD, MPH; Thomas Hennessy, MD, MPH; and Michael G. Bruce, MD, MPH, have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.



The risk for invasive streptococcal infection has not been clearly quantified among persons experiencing homelessness (PEH). We compared the incidence of detected cases of invasive group A Streptococcus infection, group B Streptococcus infection, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) infection among PEH with that among the general population in Anchorage, Alaska, USA, during 2002–2015. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Arctic Investigations Program surveillance system, the US Census, and the Anchorage Point-in-Time count (a yearly census of PEH). We detected a disproportionately high incidence of invasive streptococcal disease in Anchorage among PEH. Compared with the general population, PEH were 53.3 times as likely to have invasive group A Streptococcus infection, 6.9 times as likely to have invasive group B Streptococcus infection, and 36.3 times as likely to have invasive pneumococcal infection. Infection control in shelters, pneumococcal vaccination, and infection monitoring could help protect the health of this vulnerable group.

Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Invasive Streptococcal Disease; Society; USA; Alaska.


The #PanVax #Tool to Improve #Pandemic #Influenza #Emergency #Vaccination Program #Readiness and Partnership (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2019 Sep;109(S4):S322-S324. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305233.

The PanVax Tool to Improve Pandemic Influenza Emergency Vaccination Program Readiness and Partnership.

Carias C1, Lehnert JD1, Greening B Jr1, Adhikari BB1, Kahn EB1, Meltzer MI1, Graitcer SB1.

Author information: 1 Cristina Carias, Bradford Greening Jr, Emily B. Kahn, and Martin I. Meltzer are with the Health Economics and Modeling Unit, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Jonathan D. Lehnert, Bishwa B. Adhikari, and Samuel B. Graitcer are with the Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Jonathan D. Lehnert is also with IHRC, Atlanta.




To show how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pandemic Vaccine Campaign Planning Tool (PanVax Tool) can help state and local public health emergency planners demonstrate and quantify how partnerships with community vaccine providers can improve their overall pandemic vaccination program readiness.


The PanVax Tool helps planners compare different strategies to vaccinate their jurisdiction’s population in a severe pandemic by allowing users to customize the underlying model inputs in real time, including their jurisdiction’s size, community vaccine provider types, and how they allocate vaccine to these providers. In this report, we used a case study with hypothetical data to illustrate how jurisdictions can utilize the PanVax Tool for preparedness planning.


By using the tool, planners are able to understand the impact of engaging with different vaccine providers in a vaccination campaign.


The PanVax Tool is a useful tool to help demonstrate the impact of community vaccine provider partnerships on pandemic vaccination readiness and identify areas for improved partnerships for pandemic response.

PMID: 31505153 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2019.305233

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Vaccines; Pandemic Preparedness; USA.