#Prevalence and concentration of stx+ #Ecoli and E. coli O157 in #bovine #manure from #Florida #farms (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms

Christopher A. Baker, Jaysankar De, Bruna Bertoldi, Laurel Dunn, Travis Chapin, Michele Jay-Russell, Michelle D. Danyluk, Keith R. Schneider

Published: May 24, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445

 

Abstract

Fresh produce outbreaks due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) continue to occur in the United States (US). Manure-amended soils can pose a public health risk when used for growing raw agricultural commodities. Knowing the prevalence and concentration of STEC in untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin (BSAAO) is important to help guide the most appropriate pre-harvest interval(s) following application to limit risks from these soil amendments. Bovine manure samples were collected from 12 farms in Florida, including samples from piles, lagoons, barns, and screened solids. Two methods were used to detect stx1/2 and rfbE genes in samples. A prevalence rate of 9% for stx1 and/or stx2 and 19% for rfbE was observed from the 518 bovine manure samples evaluated. A most probable number (MPN) assay was performed on stx+ samples when applicable. The geometric mean for stx+samples (n = 20) was 3.37 MPN g-1 (0.53 log MPN g-1) with a maximum value of 6,800 MPN g-1 (3.83 log MPN g-1). This research was part of a larger nationwide geographical study on the prevalence and concentration of STEC in bovine manure to help guide regulations on feasible pre-harvest intervals for the application of untreated BSAAO.

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Citation: Baker CA, De J, Bertoldi B, Dunn L, Chapin T, Jay-Russell M, et al. (2019) Prevalence and concentration of stx+ E. coli and E. coli O157 in bovine manure from Florida farms. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217445. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217445

Editor: P. Pardha-Saradhi, University of Delhi, INDIA

Received: March 18, 2019; Accepted: May 10, 2019; Published: May 24, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by the Western Center for Food Safety contract U19-FD004995 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: E. Coli; Cattle; Environmental pollution; USA.

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Boosting #Global #YellowFever #Vaccine #Supply for #Epidemic #Preparedness: 3 Actions for #China and the #USA (Virol Sin., abstract)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Boosting Global Yellow Fever Vaccine Supply for Epidemic Preparedness: 3 Actions for China and the USA

Authors: Daniel R. Lucey, Kristen R. Kent

Perspective / First Online: 24 May 2019

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Yellow fever (YF) is an acute disease caused by a flavivirus that infects the liver. It can cause jaundice, bleeding, kidney damage, and death. No antiviral therapy exists. A vaccine does exist, however, and fortunately confers life-long immunity after a single dose (Monath et al.2016; WHO 2017a, b).

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Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement: This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Keywords: Yellow Fever; Vaccines; USA; China.

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#Environmental #Sampling #Survey of #H5N2 Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken #Farms in #Minnesota and #Iowa (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Dec;62(4):373-380. doi: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1.

Environmental Sampling Survey of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken Farms in Minnesota and Iowa.

Lopez KM1, Nezworski J2, Rendahl A1, Culhane M1, Flores-Figueroa C3, Muñoz-Aguayo J3, Halvorson DA1, Johnson R1, Goldsmith T1, Cardona CJ4.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108. 2 Blue House Veterinary, 145 West Yellowstone Trail, Buffalo, MN 55314. 3 Mid-Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, 1802 18th St. Northeast, Willmar, MN 56201. 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, ccardona@umn.edu.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Respiratory secretions, feces, feathers, and eggs of avian influenza-infected hens provide ample sources of virus which heavily contaminate barn and farm environments during a disease outbreak. Environmental sampling surveys were conducted in the Midwestern United States on affected farms during the 2015 H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to assess the degree of viral contamination. A total of 930 samples were obtained from various sites inside and outside layer barns housing infected birds and tested with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The distribution and load of viral RNA in barns in which most birds were dead at the onset of depopulation efforts (high-mortality barns) were compared with those of barns in which birds were euthanatized before excess mortality occurred (normal-mortality barns). A statistically significant difference was seen between cycle threshold (Ct) values for samples taken of fans, feed troughs, barn floors, barn walls, cages, manure-associated locations, barn doors, egg belts, and the exterior of high-mortality vs. normal-mortality barns. In high-mortality barns, sample sites were found to be the most to least contaminated in the following order: cages, manure-associated locations, barn floors, egg belts, feed troughs, barn doors, barn walls, fans, exterior, and egg processing. Significant changes in Ct values over time following HPAI detection in a barn and depopulation of birds on an infected farm were observed for the manure-associated, barn floor, barn wall, and fan sampling sites. These results show that high mortality in a flock as a result of HPAI will increase contamination of the farm environment. The results also suggest optimal sampling locations for detection of virus; however, the persistence of RNA on highmortality farms may delay the determination that adequate sanitization has been performed for restocking to take place.

KEYWORDS: barn; contamination; disinfection; egg layers; environmental sampling; highly pathogenic avian influenza; virus

PMID: 31119921 DOI: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry; USA; Minnesota; Iowa.

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Changing #Trends in #Opioid #Overdose #Deaths and #Prescription Opioid Receipt Among #Veterans (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Changing Trends in Opioid Overdose Deaths and Prescription Opioid Receipt Among Veterans

Lewei (Allison) Lin, MD, MS1,2, Talya Peltzman, MPH3, John F. McCarthy, PhD, MPH1,2,3, Elizabeth M. Oliva, PhD4,5, Jodie A. Trafton, PhD4,5, Amy S.B. Bohnert, PhD, MHS1,2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.01.016

Published online: May 22, 2019

 

Abstract

Introduction

To inform overdose prevention, this study assessed both recent trends in opioid overdose mortality across opioid categories and receipt of prescription opioid analgesics among Veterans who died from overdose in the Veterans Health Administration.

Methods

Using Veterans Health Administration records linked to National Death Index data, annual cohorts (2010–2016) of Veterans who received Veterans Health Administration care were obtained and were examined by opioid overdose categories (natural/semisynthetic opioids, heroin, methadone, and other synthetic opioids) on (1) overdose rates and changes in rates adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; and (2) Veterans Health Administration prescription opioid receipt. Analyses were conducted in 2018.

Results

The overall rate of opioid overdose among Veterans increased from 14.47 per 100,000 person-years in 2010 to 21.08 per 100,000 person-years in 2016 (adjusted rate ratio=1.65, 95% CI=1.51, 1.81). There was a decline in methadone overdose (adjusted rate ratio=0.66, 95% CI=0.51, 0.84) and no significant change in natural/semisynthetic opioid overdose (adjusted rate ratio=1.08, 95% CI=0.94, 1.24). However, the synthetic opioid overdose rate (adjusted rate ratio=5.46, 95% CI=4.41, 6.75) and heroin overdose rate (adjusted rate ratio=4.91, 95% CI=3.92, 6.15) increased substantially. Among all opioid overdose decedents, prescription opioid receipt within 3 months before death declined from 54% in 2010 to 26% in 2016.

Conclusions

Opioid overdose rates among Veterans Health Administration Veterans increased because of increases in heroin and synthetic opioid overdose rates. Prescriptions of opioids declined among patients who died from all categories of opioid overdose; by 2016, only a minority received an opioid analgesic from Veterans Health Administration within 3 months of overdose. Future prevention efforts should extend beyond patients actively receiving opioid prescriptions.

Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Keywords: Opioids; Heroin; Drugs overdose; USA; Society.

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#Trends in #Incidence and Stage at #Diagnosis of #Colorectal #Cancer in Adults Aged 40 Through 49 Years, 1975-2015 (JAMA, abstract)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Research Letter / May 21, 2019

Trends in Incidence and Stage at Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer in Adults Aged 40 Through 49 Years, 1975-2015

Reinier G. S. Meester, PhD1; Ajitha Mannalithara, PhD1; Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, PhD2; et alUri Ladabaum, MD, MS1

Author Affiliations: 1 Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; 2 Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

JAMA. 2019;321(19):1933-1934. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.3076

 

Abstract

Evidence suggests that incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing among adults younger than 50 years in the United States.1 The underlying causes of the increased incidence are unclear. If the increase is the result of earlier detection due to increased use of colonoscopy, earlier stage at diagnosis would be expected, whereas if the increased incidence is the result of true increases in risk, relatively later stage at diagnosis would be expected. We investigated trends in CRC incidence by stage in adults younger than 50 years. We focused our study on adults aged 40 through 49 years, who account for almost 3 of 4 young-onset cases.

Keywords: Cancer; USA.

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#Privatisation of #immigration #detention facilities (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Privatisation of immigration detention facilities

Altaf Saadi, Lello Tesema

Published: May 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

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In December, 2018, two Guatemalan children, a 7-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, died while detained in immigration custody in the USA. Their tragic deaths should raise alarm about the dangerously substandard medical and mental health care at US immigration detention facilities.

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We declare no competing interests.

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Article Info

Published: May 20, 2019

Identification: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30351-4

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: USA; Society; Politics; Migrants; Racism; Public Health.

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Analysis of #geographic location and #pathways for #influenza A virus infection of commercial upland #game #bird and conventional #poultry farms in the #USA (BMC Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Vet Res. 2019 May 14;15(1):147. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-1876-y.

Analysis of geographic location and pathways for influenza A virus infection of commercial upland game bird and conventional poultry farms in the United States of America.

Ssematimba A1,2, St Charles KM3, Bonney PJ3, Malladi S3, Culhane M3, Goldsmith TJ3, Halvorson DA3, Cardona CJ4.

Author information: 1 Secure Food Systems Team, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, USA. amos.ssematimba@gmail.com. 2 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Gulu University, P.O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda. amos.ssematimba@gmail.com. 3 Secure Food Systems Team, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, USA. 4 Secure Food Systems Team, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, USA. ccardona@umn.edu.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease that affects several species and has zoonotic potential. Due to its associated health and economic repercussions, minimizing AI outbreaks is important. However, most control measures are generic and mostly target pathways important for the conventional poultry farms producing chickens, turkeys, and eggs and may not target other pathways that may be specific to the upland game bird sector. The goal of this study is to provide evidence to support the development of novel strategies for sector-specific AI control by comparing and contrasting practices and potential pathways for spread in upland game bird farms with those for conventional poultry farms in the United States. Farm practices and processes, seasonality of activities, geographic location and inter-farm distance were analyzed across the sectors. All the identified differences were framed and discussed in the context of their associated pathways for virus introduction into the farm and subsequent between-farm spread.

RESULTS:

Differences stemming from production systems and seasonality, inter-farm distance and farm densities were evident and these could influence both fomite-mediated and local-area spread risks. Upland game bird farms operate under a single, independent owner rather than being contracted with or owned by a company with other farms as is the case with conventional poultry. The seasonal marketing of upland game birds, largely driven by hunting seasons, implies that movements are seasonal and customer-vendor dynamics vary between industry groups. Farm location analysis revealed that, on average, an upland game bird premises was 15.42 km away from the nearest neighboring premises with birds compared to 3.74 km for turkey premises. Compared to turkey premises, the average poultry farm density in a radius of 10 km of an upland game bird premises was less than a half, and turkey premises were 3.8 times (43.5% compared with 11.5%) more likely to fall within a control area during the 2015 Minnesota outbreak.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that the existing differences in the seasonality of production, isolated geographic location and epidemiological seclusion of farms influence AI spread dynamics and therefore disease control measures should be informed by these and other factors to achieve success.

KEYWORDS: Biosecurity; Epidemiological contacts; Infection pathways; Influenza a virus; Upland game birds

PMID: 31088548 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1876-y

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; USA.

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