Sensitive and Specific #Detection of Low-Level #Antibody Responses in Mild #MERS #Coronavirus #Infections (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Research

Sensitive and Specific Detection of Low-Level Antibody Responses in Mild Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections

Nisreen M.A. Okba, V. Stalin Raj, Ivy Widjaja, Corine H. Geurts van Kessel, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity D. Chandler, Wan Beom Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Elmoubasher A.B.A. Farag, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Berend-Jan Bosch, Myoung-don Oh, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Chantal B.E.M. Reusken, and Bart L. Haagmans

Author affiliations: Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (N.M.A. Okba, V.S. Raj, C.H. Geurts van Kessel, E. de Bruin, F.D. Chandler, M.P.G. Koopmans, C.B.E.M. Reusken, B.L. Haagmans); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (I. Widjaja, B.-J. Bosch); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (W.B. Park, N.-J. Kim, M.-D. Oh); Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar (E.A.B.A. Farag, M. Al-Hajri)

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans can cause asymptomatic to fatal lower respiratory lung disease. Despite posing a probable risk for virus transmission, asymptomatic to mild infections can go unnoticed; a lack of seroconversion among some PCR-confirmed cases has been reported. We found that a MERS-CoV spike S1 protein–based ELISA, routinely used in surveillance studies, showed low sensitivity in detecting infections among PCR-confirmed patients with mild clinical symptoms and cross-reactivity of human coronavirus OC43–positive serum samples. Using in-house S1 ELISA and protein microarray, we demonstrate that most PCR-confirmed MERS-CoV case-patients with mild infections seroconverted; nonetheless, some of these samples did not have detectable levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The use of a sensitive and specific serologic S1-based assay can be instrumental in the accurate estimation of MERS-CoV prevalence.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Seroprevalence.

——

Advertisements

#Transmissibility of #MERS-CoV #Infection in Closed Setting, #Riyadh, #Saudi Arabia, 2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 10—October 2019 / Synopsis

Transmissibility of MERS-CoV Infection in Closed Setting, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2015

Maria D. Van Kerkhove1  , Sadoof Aswad, Abdullah Assiri, Ranawaka A.P.M Perera, Malik Peiris, Hassan E. El Bushra, and Abdulaziz A. BinSaeed

Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (M.D. Van Kerkhove); Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (S. Aswad, A. Assiri, H.E. El Bushra, A.A. BinSaeed); Jubail General Hospital, Riyadh (S. Aswad); The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (R.A.P.M. Perera, M. Peiris); HKU-Pasteur Research Pole, Hong Kong (M. Peiris)

 

Abstract

To investigate a cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases in a women-only dormitory in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in October 2015, we collected epidemiologic information, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab samples, and blood samples from 828 residents during November 2015 and December 2015–January 2016. We found confirmed infection for 19 (8 by reverse transcription PCR and 11 by serologic testing). Infection attack rates varied (2.7%–32.3%) by dormitory building. No deaths occurred. Independent risk factors for infection were direct contact with a confirmed case-patient and sharing a room with a confirmed case-patient; a protective factor was having an air conditioner in the bedroom. For 9 women from whom a second serum sample was collected, antibodies remained detectable at titers >1:20 by pseudoparticle neutralization tests (n = 8) and 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (n = 2). In closed high-contact settings, MERS coronavirus was highly infectious and pathogenicity was relatively low.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Seroprevalence; Serology; Saudi Arabia.

——

Impact of #Zika virus emergence in French #Guiana: A large general #population #seroprevalence survey (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Impact of Zika virus emergence in French Guiana: A large general population seroprevalence survey

Claude Flamand, Sarah Bailly, Camille Fritzell, Léna Berthelot, Jessica Vanhomwegen,Henrik Salje, Juliette Paireau, Séverine Matheus, Antoine Enfissi,Sandrine Fernandes-Pellerin, Félix Djossou, Sébastien Linares, Jean-François Carod,Mirdad Kazanji, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Simon Cauchemez, Dominique Rousset

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz396, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz396

Published: 16 August 2019

 

Abstract

Background

Since the identification of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in May 2015, the virus has spread throughout the Americas. However, ZIKV burden in the general population in affected countries remains unknown.

Methods

We conducted a general population survey in the different communities of French Guiana through individual interviews and serologic survey during June–October 2017. All serum samples were tested for anti ZIKV IgG antibodies using a recombinant antigen-based SGERPAxMap microsphere immunoassay while part of them were further evaluated through anti ZIKV microneutralization tests (MNTs).

Results

The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 23.3% [20.9%-25.9%] among 2,697 participants, varying from 0% to 45.6% according to municipalities. ZIKV circulated in a large majority of French Guiana but not in the most isolated forest areas. The proportion of reported symptomatic Zika infection was estimated at 25.5% [20.3% – 31.4%] in ZIKV-positive individuals.

Conclusions

This study described a large-scale representative ZIKV seroprevalence study in South America from the recent 2015-2016 Zika epidemic. Our findings reveal that the majority of the population remains susceptible to ZIKV, which could potentially allow future reintroductions of the virus.

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; French Guyana.

—–

#Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus #HTLV and its associated #factors in #donors of a #blood bank of Medellín – #Colombia, 2014-2018 (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018

Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias, Carolina Vélez-Quintero , Olga Victoria Calle-González , Jennifer Florez-Duque, Juan Carlos Zapata

Published: August 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

 

Abstract

Background

Research on HTLV in Colombia is limited; despite being an endemic country there are few studies on the magnitude of this infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV I/II and its associated factors in donors to a blood bank of Medellín Colombia, 2014–2018.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional study of 52,159 donors with a secondary information source. Seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was determined with its confidence interval and the population characteristics were described by frequency and summary measures. To explore the associated factors, Pearson’s Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test, crude odds ratios were used and they were adjusted by logistic regression in SPSS 25.0.

Results

88% of the population lived in the metropolitan area, 68.5% belonged to the University. 76.2% were altruistic donors (unpaid donors who did not donate to a specific patient). 24.5% were repetitive (paid) donors. 75% of the donors were under 41 years old. The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II was 0.176% (95% CI = 0.139% -0.213%), being statistically lower in repetitive donors and men.

Conclusion

The seroprevalence of HTLV I/II infection in the studied blood bank is lower than that reported in other blood banks at the departmental and national levels. In Medellín, it was associated with the frequency of donation and gender, which is useful information for the hemovigilance programs of the city.

___

Citation: Cardona-Arias JA, Vélez-Quintero C, Calle-González OV, Florez-Duque J, Zapata JC (2019) Seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus HTLV and its associated factors in donors of a blood bank of Medellín-Colombia, 2014-2018. PLoS ONE 14(8): e0221060. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221060

Editor: Jason Blackard, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, UNITED STATES

Received: April 11, 2019; Accepted: July 29, 2019; Published: August 12, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Cardona-Arias et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research relies upon salary support for the authors. JAC-A was supported by University of Antioquia and Cooperative University of Colombia. CV-Q, OVC-G, and JF-D were supported, as students, by the University of Antioquia. JCZ salary was supported by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV), University of Maryland School of Medicine. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: HTLV-I/II; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Colombia.

——

Retrospective #investigation of #IgM #antibodies against #Zika virus in serum from febrile #patients in #Mozambique, 2009-2015 (BMC Res Notes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Res Notes. 2019 Jul 31;12(1):469. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4511-x.

Retrospective investigation of IgM antibodies against Zika virus in serum from febrile patients in Mozambique, 2009-2015.

Chelene IR1, Ali S1, Mula FI1, Muianga AF1, Monteiro VO1, Oludele J1, Chongo IS1, José A1, Amade NA2, António VS3, Gudo ES1.

Author information: 1 Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Vila de Marracuene, EN1, Parcela nº3943, Maputo, Mozambique. 2 Centro de Colaboração em Saúde, Rua Damião de Gois, Maputo, Mozambique. 3 Instituto Nacional de Saúde, Vila de Marracuene, EN1, Parcela nº3943, Maputo, Mozambique. vsa.co.mz@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as an important health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, geographical distribution and trend of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against ZIKV between 2009 and 2015 in Mozambique.

RESULTS:

The median age of participants was 3 years [interquartile range (IQR): 1.0-6.0 years)] and 56.5% (480/850) of them were male. Of the 850 samples, 42 (4.9%) were positive for IgM antibodies against ZIKV. Positive samples were found in 9 provinces of the country. Frequency of IgM antibodies against ZIKV was slightly higher in patients aged 5-9 years old, and in the north region of the country.

KEYWORDS: Febrile patient; Mozambique; Zika

PMID: 31366379 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4511-x

Keywords: Serology; Seroprevalence; Zika Virus; Mozambique.

——

#Serological #analysis of #Ebola virus #survivors and close #contacts in #SierraLeone: A cross-sectional study (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Serological analysis of Ebola virus survivors and close contacts in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study

Peter J. Halfmann , Amie J. Eisfeld, Tokiko Watanabe, Tadashi Maemura, Makoto Yamashita, Satoshi Fukuyama, Tammy Armbrust, Isaiah Rozich, Alhaj N’jai, Gabriele Neumann, Yoshihiro Kawaoka , Foday Sahr

Published: August 1, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007654 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The 2013–2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the largest and deadliest outbreak to date. Here we conducted a serological study to examine the antibody levels in survivors and the seroconversion in close contacts who took care of Ebola-infected individuals, but did not develop symptoms of Ebola virus disease. In March 2017, we collected blood samples from 481 individuals in Makeni, Sierra Leone: 214 survivors and 267 close contacts. Using commercial, quantitative ELISAs, we tested the plasma for IgG-specific antibodies against three major viral antigens: GP, the only viral glycoprotein expressed on the virus surface; NP, the most abundant viral protein; and VP40, a major structural protein of Zaire ebolavirus. We also determined neutralizing antibody titers. In the cohort of Ebola survivors, 97.7% of samples (209/214) had measurable antibody levels against GP, NP, and/or VP40. Of these positive samples, all but one had measurable neutralizing antibody titers against Ebola virus. For the close contacts, up to 12.7% (34/267) may have experienced a subclinical virus infection as indicated by detectable antibodies against GP. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether these close contacts truly experienced subclinical infections and whether these asymptomatic infections played a role in the dynamics of transmission.

 

Author summary

As the causative agent of an often lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and nonhuman primates, Zaire ebolavirus typically causes high fever, severe diarrhea, and vomiting which results in case fatality rates as high as 90%. The 2013–2016 outbreak in West Africa was the largest and most devastating Ebola outbreak to date resulting in over 28,600 identified human cases and 11,300 deaths. Though our knowledge of virus transmission is incomplete, we do know that transmission occurs through direct contact with virus-contaminated body fluids (blood, secretions, or other body fluids), materials such as bedding contaminated with these fluids, and through the handling and preparation of contaminated food. Asymptomatic Ebola virus infections that result in seroconversion in the absence of disease symptoms have been observed both in humans and experimentally in animal models. In the present serology study, we determined a majority of Ebola survivors in our cohort had measurable antibody levels against at least one viral antigen, as expected. In our cohort of close contacts, relatives and health care workers who took care of Ebola-infected individuals during the outbreak, we observed a rate of seroprevalence of 12.7% as indicated by detectable GP antibody levels. Given that Ebola virus is typically associated with a highly lethal disease in humans, it is of great interest to determine the host-virus interactions and transmission dynamics associated with asymptomatic cases.

___

Citation: Halfmann PJ, Eisfeld AJ, Watanabe T, Maemura T, Yamashita M, Fukuyama S, et al. (2019) Serological analysis of Ebola virus survivors and close contacts in Sierra Leone: A cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007654. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007654

Editor: Benjamin Althouse, Institute for Disease Modeling, UNITED STATES

Received: January 23, 2019; Accepted: July 23, 2019; Published: August 1, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Halfmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript.

Funding: YK was was supported for this work by the Japanese agencies of J-PRIDE for Global Epidemic from AMED (JP17fm0208101j0001), by RPERID from AMED (JP17fk018029h002) and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas from MEXT (no. 16H06429, 16K21723 and 16H06434). The funders had no role in the study design data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Makona; Serology; Seroprevalence; Sierra Leone.

——-

#Fatal Case of #Lassa Fever, Bangolo District, Côte d’Ivoire, 2015 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 9—September 2019 / Research Letter

Fatal Case of Lassa Fever, Bangolo District, Côte d’Ivoire, 2015

Mathieu Mateo  , Caroline Picard, Yahaya Sylla, Emilie Kamo, Danielle Odegue, Alexandra Journeaux, Stéphane Kouassi Kan, Marcelle Money, David N’Golo Coulibaly, Eugène Koffi, Souleymane Meite, Véronique Akran, Hervé Kadjo, Edgard Adjogoua, Solange N’Gazoa Kakou, Sylvain Baize, and Mireille Dosso

Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France (M. Mateo, C. Picard, A. Journeaux, S. Baize); Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Lyon (M. Mateo, C. Picard, A. Journeaux, S. Baize); Institut Pasteur de Côte d’Ivoire, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire (Y. Sylla, E. Kamo, D. Odegue, S.K. Kan, M. Money, D. N’Golo Coulibaly, E. Koffi, S. Meite, V. Akran, H. Kadjo, E. Adjogoua, S. N’Gazoa Kakou, S. Baize, M. Dosso)

 

Abstract

Lassa fever has not been reported in Côte d’Ivoire. We performed a retrospective analysis of human serum samples collected in Côte d’Ivoire in the dry seasons (January–April) during 2015–2018. We identified a fatal human case of Lassa fever in the Bangolo District of western Côte d’Ivoire during 2015.

Keywords: Lassa fever; Seroprevalence; Ivory Coast.

——