A systematic #review of #MERS-CoV #seroprevalence and #RNA prevalence in dromedary #camels: Implications for animal #vaccination (Epidemics, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemics. 2019 Jun 5:100350. doi: 10.1016/j.epidem.2019.100350. [Epub ahead of print]

A systematic review of MERS-CoV seroprevalence and RNA prevalence in dromedary camels: Implications for animal vaccination.

Dighe A1, Jombart T2, Van Kerkhove MD3, Ferguson N4.

Author information: 1 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: a.dighe16@imperial.ac.uk. 2 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom; Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom; UK Public Health Rapid Support Team, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom. Electronic address: thibautjombart@gmail.com. 3 Department of Global Infectious Hazards Management, Health Emergencies Program, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, CH-1211, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: vankerkhovem@who.int.  4 MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Medical School Building, St Mary’s Hospital, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, United Kingdom. Electronic address: neil.ferguson@imperial.ac.uk.

 

Abstract

Human infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is driven by recurring dromedary-to-human spill-over events, leading decision-makers to consider dromedary vaccination. Dromedary vaccine candidates in the development pipeline are showing hopeful results, but gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in dromedaries must be addressed to design and evaluate potential vaccination strategies. We aim to bring together existing measures of MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels to assess the distribution of infection, highlighting knowledge gaps and implications for animal vaccination. We systematically reviewed the published literature on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science that reported seroprevalence and/or prevalence of active MERS-CoV infection in dromedary camels from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 60 studies met our eligibility criteria. Qualitative syntheses determined that MERS-CoV seroprevalence increased with age up to 80-100% in adult dromedaries supporting geographically widespread endemicity of MERS-CoV in dromedaries in both the Arabian Peninsula and countries exporting dromedaries from Africa. The high prevalence of active infection measured in juveniles and at sites where dromedary populations mix should guide further investigation – particularly of dromedary movement – and inform vaccination strategy design and evaluation through mathematical modelling.

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Dromedary camels; MERS-CoV; Prevalence of infection; Seroprevalence

PMID: 31201040 DOI: 10.1016/j.epidem.2019.100350

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Seroprevalence; Camels; Vaccines.

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#Serological #evidence of #Zika virus #infection in febrile patients at Greater #Accra Regional Hospital, Accra #Ghana (BMC Res Notes, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Res Notes. 2019 Jun 10;12(1):326. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4371-4.

Serological evidence of Zika virus infection in febrile patients at Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Accra Ghana.

Ankrah GA1, Bonney JHK2, Agbosu EE3, Pratt D3, Adiku TK1,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana. 2 Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana. Kbonney@noguchi.ug.edu.gh. 3 Virology Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 581, Legon, Accra, Ghana. 4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Increase in the evidence of global occurrence of Zika viral infection suggests that in Africa the circulation of the virus which causes 80% of asymptomatic infection could be undetected and/or overlooked. We sought to serologically detect Zika virus infection in febrile patients at Greater Accra Regional Hospital, Ghana.

RESULTS:

Of the 160 patient serum samples analyzed, 33 were found to have antibodies against Zika virus infection. Among the sero-positives 30 (91%) of the cases were anti-Zika virus IgM with the 21-30-year age group recording the highest number of 8 (26%) and 2 (7%) cases being the least for the 61 years and above age group. All sero-positive febrile patients developed at least one symptom consistent with Zika virus infection: 33 (100%) fever, 25 (76%) muscle pain, 24 (73%) joint pain, and conjunctivitis 2 (6%). Digestive symptoms recorded include 16 (49%) nausea, 12 (36%) vomiting and diarrhea 18 (55%). In addition, 28 (85%) loss of appetite, 14 (75%) rapid respiration and chest pain 15 (42%) were reported by seropositive febrile patients. Our data indicates exposure to Zika virus which suggests the possible circulation of the virus among febrile patients in Ghana with a sero-prevalence rate of 20.6%.

KEYWORDS: Anti-Zika virus immunoglobulins M and G (IgM and IgG) antibodies; Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); Seroprevalence; Zika virus

PMID: 31182146 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4371-4

Keywords: Zika Virus; Serology; Seroprevalence; Ghana.

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#WNV #Seroprevalence Among #Blood #Donors in #Hungary (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

West Nile Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Hungary

Anna Nagy, Tímea Szöllősi, Mária Takács, Nóra Magyar, and Éva Barabás

Published Online: 11 Jun 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2401

 

Abstract

Background and Objectives:

West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the most important viral zoonotic infections in Hungary; however, no transfusion-transmitted WNV infections have been confirmed so far. In 2016, the number of clinical cases of WNV reported was 44, but the seasonal WNV screening of whole-blood donors has not yet been implemented. Our aims were to assess the WNV RNA reactivity and the prevalence of WNV-specific antibodies in the samples of blood donors collected in 2016.

Materials and Methods:

WNV RNA with Cobas TaqScreen and anti-WNV antibody determination from plasma samples of 2112 donors was performed. Cross-reactivity to tick-borne encephalitis virus was excluded. WNV neutralization test was used for the confirmation of anti-WNV IgG reactive results, and the presence of anti-WNV IgM antibodies was also determined.

Results:

None of the samples showed WNV RNA reactivity. The total weighted anti-WNV IgG prevalence was 2.34% (95% confidence interval 1.65–3.03), and in addition, three donors were found to be IgM positive. There was a comparable tendency between the data of WNV seroprevalence and cumulative incidence in six out of seven statistical regions in Hungary.

Conclusion:

Our results show a comparable data with publications that estimated the WNV seroprevalence in some other European endemic areas. As protective measures, both the 30-day deferral of blood donors who spent at least 24 h in WNV-exposed areas and the exclusion of affected Hungarian territories from blood donation are enforced by the Hungarian National Blood Transfusion Service. Our study is the first comprehensive serological survey to obtain actual data about WNV seroprevalence in the Hungarian human population.

Keywords: WNV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Blood safety; Hungary.

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#Serological #evidence of #Flavivirus #circulation in #human populations in Northern #Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017 (Virol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virol J. 2019 May 17;16(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y.

Serological evidence of Flavivirus circulation in human populations in Northern Kenya: an assessment of disease risk 2016-2017.

Chepkorir E1,2, Tchouassi DP3, Konongoi SL4, Lutomiah J4, Tigoi C3, Irura Z5, Eyase F6, Venter M7, Sang R3.

Author information: 1 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. echepkorir@icipe.org. 2 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. echepkorir@icipe.org. 3 International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. 4 Center for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O. Box 54628-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. 5 Division of Disease Surveillance and Response, Ministry of Health, P. O. Box 20781-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 606, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya. 7 Center for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, University of Pretoria, P. O. Box 323, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya and Africa at large remains unknown. We assessed the seroprevalence of Yellow fever and other Flaviviruses in human populations in West Pokot and Turkana Counties of Kenya. These areas border Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia where recent outbreaks of Yellow fever and Dengue have been reported, with possibility of spillover to Kenya.

METHODOLOGY:

Human serum samples collected through a cross-sectional survey in West Pokot and Turkana Counties were screened for neutralizing antibodies to Yellow fever, Dengue-2, West Nile and Zika virus using the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). Seroprevalence was compared by county, site and important human demographic characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using Firth logistic regression model.

RESULTS:

Of 877 samples tested, 127 neutralized with at least one of the four flaviviruses (14.5, 95% CI 12.3-17.0%), with a higher proportion in Turkana (21.1%, n = 87/413) than in West Pokot (8.6%, n = 40/464). Zika virus seroprevalence was significantly higher in West Pokot (7.11%) than in Turkana County (0.24%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A significantly higher Yellow fever virus seroprevalence was also observed in Turkana (10.7%) compared to West Pokot (1.29%; χ2 P < 0.0001). A high prevalence of West Nile virus was detected in Turkana County only (10.2%) while Dengue was only detected in one sample, from West Pokot. The odds of infection with West Nile virus was significantly higher in males than in females (aOR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.22-5.34). Similarly, the risk of Zika virus infection in West Pokot was twice higher in males than females (aOR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.91-4.41).

CONCLUSION:

Evidence of neutralizing antibodies to West Nile and Zika viruses indicates that they have been circulating undetected in human populations in these areas. While the observed Yellow Fever prevalence in Turkana and West Pokot Counties may imply virus activity, we speculate that this could also be as a result of vaccination following the Yellow Fever outbreak in the Omo river valley, South Sudan and Uganda across the border.

KEYWORDS: Dengue virus; Flaviviruses risk assessment; Northern Kenya; Plaque reduction neutralization test; Seroprevalence; West Nile virus; Yellow fever virus; Zika virus

PMID: 31101058 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-019-1176-y

Keywords: Flavivirus; WNV; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Yellow Fever; Serology; Seroprevalence; Kenya.

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Cross- #Protection of #Dengue Virus #Infection against #Congenital #Zika #Syndrome, Northeastern #Brazil (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 8—August 2019 / Research

Cross-Protection of Dengue Virus Infection against Congenital Zika Syndrome, Northeastern Brazil

Celia Pedroso1, Carlo Fischer1, Marie Feldmann1, Manoel Sarno, Estela Luz, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites, Beate M. Kümmerer, and Jan Felix Drexler

Author affiliations: Universidade Federal de Bahia, Salvador, Brazil (C. Pedroso, M. Sarno, E. Luz, R. Cabral, E. Martins Netto, C. Brites); Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin Humbolt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Virology, Berlin, Germany (C. Fischer, A. Moreira-Soto, J.F. Drexler); University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany (M. Feldmann, B.M. Kümmerer); German Centre for Infection Research (B.M. Kümmerer, J.F. Drexler)

 

Abstract

The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)–mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case–control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus–seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus–seropositive control mothers. Neutralization titers did not differ significantly between groups. In contrast, DENV seroprevalence and median number of neutralized serotypes were significantly lower among the mothers of neonates with CZS. Supported by model analyses, our results suggest that exposure to multitypic DENV infection may protect from, rather than enhance, development of CZS.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Dengue Fever; Zika Virus; A.D.E.; Congenital Zika Syndrome; Pregnancy; Brazil; Seroprevalence.

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#Influenza D Virus #Infection in Dromedary #Camels, #Ethiopia (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 6—June 2019 / Research Letter

Influenza D Virus Infection in Dromedary Camels, Ethiopia

Shin Murakami, Tomoha Odagiri, Simenew Keskes Melaku, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Hiroho Ishida, Akiko Takenaka-Uema, Yasushi Muraki, Hiroshi Sentsui, and Taisuke Horimoto

Author affiliations: University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (S. Murakami, T. Odagiri, H. Ishida, A. Takenaka-Uema, T. Horimoto); Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (S.K. Melaku); Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (B. Bazartseren); Iwate Medical University, Iwate, Japan (Y. Muraki); Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan (H. Sentsui)

 

Abstract

Influenza D virus has been found to cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We surveyed healthy dromedary camels in Ethiopia and found a high seroprevalence for this virus, in contrast to animals co-existing with the camels. Our observation implies that dromedary camels may play an important role in the circulation of influenza D virus.

Keywords: Influenza D; Seroprevalence; Camels; Ethiopia.

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#Zika virus #infection among symptomatic patients from two healthcare centers in #SaoPaulo State, #Brazil: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral detection in body fluids and serodynamics (Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2019;61:e19. doi: 10.1590/S1678-9946201961019. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Zika virus infection among symptomatic patients from two healthcare centers in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: prevalence, clinical characteristics, viral detection in body fluids and serodynamics.

Tozetto-Mendoza TR1, Avelino-Silva VI2, Fonseca S3, Claro IM2, Paula AV1, Levin AS1,2, Sabino EC1,2, Mendes-Correa MC1,2, Figueiredo WM4, Felix AC1, Souza NCS1, Costa AA4, Inenami M4, Silva RMGD4, Levi JE1, Romano CM1, Paranhos-Baccalà G1,5, Segurado AC1,2, Mayaud P1,6.

Author information: 1 Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 2 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 3 Hospital São Francisco, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. 4 Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Serviço Especial de Saúde de Araraquara, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil. 5 Medical Diagnostic Discovery Department (MD3), bioMérieux SA, Marcy l’Etoile, France. 6 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, United Kingdom.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) clinical presentation and frequency/duration of shedding need further clarification. Symptomatic ZIKV-infected individuals identified in two hospitals in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated regarding clinical characteristics, shedding in body fluids, and serodynamics. Ninety-four of 235 symptomatic patients (Site A: 58%; Site B: 16%) had Real-Time PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection; fever, headache and gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent, and rash was more frequent compared to ZIKV-negative patients. Real-Time PCR in serum had worse performance compared to plasma, while urine had the highest sensitivity. Shedding in genital fluids and saliva was rare. IgM positivity was the highest <14 days after the symptoms onset (86%), decreasing >28 days (24%); IgG positivity increased >14 days (96%) remaining positive in 94% of patients >28 days. ZIKV prevalence varied importantly in two neighboring cities during the same transmission season. Urine Real-Time PCR can improve diagnostic sensitivity; serum testing is less useful. Accurate serological tests are needed to improve diagnosis and surveillance.

PMID: 30970110 DOI: 10.1590/S1678-9946201961019

Keywords: Zika Virus; Brazil; Seroprevalence.

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