[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
End of season influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults and children in the United Kingdom in 2017/18
Richard Pebody 1, Abdelmajid Djennad 1, Joanna Ellis 1, Nick Andrews 1, Diogo F P Marques 2, Simon Cottrell 3,Arlene J Reynolds 2, Rory Gunson 4, Monica Galiano 1, Katja Hoschler 1, Angie Lackenby 1, Chris Robertson 5, Mark O’Doherty 6,Mary Sinnathamby 1, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos 1, Ivelina Yonova 7,8, Rebecca Webb 7, Catherine Moore 3, Matthew Donati 1, Muhammad Sartaj 6,Samantha J Shepherd 4, Jim McMenamin 2, Simon de Lusignan 7,8, Maria Zambon 1
Affiliations: 1 Public Health England, United Kingdom; 2 Health Protection Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom; 3 Public Health Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom; 4 West of Scotland Specialist Virology Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom; 5 University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom; 6 Public Health Agency Northern Ireland, Belfast, United Kingdom; 7 University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom; 8 Royal College of General Practitioners, London, United Kingdom
Correspondence: Richard Pebody
Citation style for this article: Pebody Richard, Djennad Abdelmajid, Ellis Joanna, Andrews Nick, Marques Diogo F P, Cottrell Simon, Reynolds Arlene J, Gunson Rory,Galiano Monica, Hoschler Katja, Lackenby Angie, Robertson Chris, O’Doherty Mark, Sinnathamby Mary, Panagiotopoulos Nikolaos, Yonova Ivelina, Webb Rebecca,Moore Catherine, Donati Matthew, Sartaj Muhammad, Shepherd Samantha J, McMenamin Jim, de Lusignan Simon, Zambon Maria. End of season influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults and children in the United Kingdom in 2017/18. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(31):pii=1800488. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.31.1800488
Received: 31 Aug 2018; Accepted: 11 Jun 2019
In the United Kingdom (UK), in recent influenza seasons, children are offered a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4), and eligible adults mainly trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV).
To estimate the UK end-of-season 2017/18 adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) and the seroprevalence in England of antibodies against influenza viruses cultured in eggs or tissue.
This observational study employed the test-negative case–control approach to estimate aVE in primary care. The population-based seroprevalence survey used residual age-stratified samples.
Influenza viruses A(H3N2) (particularly subgroup 3C.2a2) and B (mainly B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage, similar to the quadrivalent vaccine B-virus component but mismatched to TIV) dominated. All-age aVE was 15% (95% confidence interval (CI): −6.3 to 32) against all influenza; −16.4% (95% CI: −59.3 to 14.9) against A(H3N2); 24.7% (95% CI: 1.1 to 42.7) against B and 66.3% (95% CI: 33.4 to 82.9) against A(H1N1)pdm09. For 2–17 year olds, LAIV4 aVE was 26.9% (95% CI: −32.6 to 59.7) against all influenza; −75.5% (95% CI: −289.6 to 21) against A(H3N2); 60.8% (95% CI: 8.2 to 83.3) against B and 90.3% (95% CI: 16.4 to 98.9) against A(H1N1)pdm09. For ≥ 18 year olds, TIV aVE against influenza B was 1.9% (95% CI: −63.6 to 41.2). The 2017 seroprevalence of antibody recognising tissue-grown A(H3N2) virus was significantly lower than that recognising egg-grown virus in all groups except 15–24 year olds.
Overall aVE was low driven by no effectiveness against A(H3N2) possibly related to vaccine virus egg-adaption and a new A(H3N2) subgroup emergence. The TIV was not effective against influenza B. LAIV4 against influenza B and A(H1N1)pdm09 was effective.
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Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Influenza B; Vaccines, UK.