In vitro #neuraminidase inhibitory concentration (#IC50) of four neuraminidase inhibitors in the #Japanese 2017-18 #season: Comparison with the 2010-11 to 2016-17 seasons (J Infect Chemother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Chemother. 2019 May 14. pii: S1341-321X(19)30099-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2019.04.007. [Epub ahead of print]

In vitro neuraminidase inhibitory concentration (IC50) of four neuraminidase inhibitors in the Japanese 2017-18 season: Comparison with the 2010-11 to 2016-17 seasons.

Ikematsu H1, Kawai N2, Chong Y3, Bando T2, Iwaki N2, Kashiwagi S2.

Author information: 1 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan; Ricerca Clinica Co., Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address: ikematsu@gray.plala.or.jp. 2 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. 3 Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan.

 

Abstract

To assess the extent of susceptibility to the four most commonly used neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) of the viruses epidemic in the 2017-18 Japanese influenza season, we measured the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for influenza virus isolates from patients and compared them with the results from the 2010-11 to 2016-17 seasons. Viral isolation was done with specimens obtained prior to treatment, and the type and subtype was determined by RT-PCR using type- and subtype-specific primers. The IC50 was determined by a neuraminidase inhibition assay using a fluorescent substrate. A total of 237 virus isolates, 50 A(H1N1)pdm09, 92 A(H3N2), and 95 B were measured. No A(H1N1)pdm09 with highly reduced sensitivity for oseltamivir was found in the 2017-18 season. No isolates with highly reduced sensitivity to the four NAIs have been found for A(H3N2) or B from the 2010-11 to 2017-18 seasons. The geometric mean IC50s of the four NAIs were quite consistent during the eight studied seasons. These results indicate that the sensitivity to the four commonly used NAIs has been maintained.

Copyright © 2019 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: 50% inhibitory concentration; Influenza virus; Neuraminidase inhibitor; Resistance; Surveillance

PMID: 31101530 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2019.04.007

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Peramivir; Laninamivir; Japan; Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Influenza B.

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A Site of #Vulnerability on the #Influenza Virus #Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface (Cell, abstract)

[Source: Cell, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cell. 2019 May 16;177(5):1136-1152.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011.

A Site of Vulnerability on the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface.

Bangaru S1, Lang S2, Schotsaert M3, Vanderven HA4, Zhu X2, Kose N5, Bombardi R5, Finn JA1, Kent SJ4, Gilchuk P5, Gilchuk I5, Turner HL2, García-Sastre A6, Li S7, Ward AB2, Wilson IA8, Crowe JE Jr9.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 2 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. 3 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 5 The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 6 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 7 Department of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. 8 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: wilson@scripps.edu. 9 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address: james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu.

 

Abstract

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab’s extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: B-lymphocytes; antibodies; antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity; antigen-antibody reactions; hemagglutinin glycoproteins; influenza A virus; influenza virus; monoclonal; viral

PMID: 31100268 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1; H3N2; H5N1; H7N9; Monoclonal antibodies; Animal models.

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Attachment #Patterns of #Human and #Avian #Influenza Viruses to #Trachea and #Colon of 26 #Bird Species – Support for the Community Concept (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Apr 18;10:815. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00815. eCollection 2019.

Attachment Patterns of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses to Trachea and Colon of 26 Bird Species – Support for the Community Concept.

Eriksson P1, Lindskog C2, Lorente-Leal V1, Waldenström J3, González-Acuna D4, Järhult JD5, Lundkvist Å1, Olsen B5, Jourdain E6, Ellström P5.

Author information: 1 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 2 Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 3 Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden. 4 Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, Chillán, Chile. 5 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 6 UMR0346 – EPIA, INRA, VetAgro Sup, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) have a broad host range, but are most intimately associated with waterfowl (Anseriformes) and, in the case of the H13 and H16 subtypes, gulls (Charadriiformes). Host associations are multifactorial, but a key factor is the ability of the virus to bind host cell receptors and thereby initiate infection. The current study aims at investigating the tissue attachment pattern of a panel of AIVs, comprising H3N2, H6N1, H12N5, and H16N3, to avian trachea and colon tissue samples obtained from host species of different orders. Virus attachment was not restricted to the bird species or order from which the virus was isolated. Instead, extensive virus attachment was observed to several distantly related avian species. In general, more virus attachment and receptor expression were observed in trachea than in colon samples. Additionally, a human seasonal H3N2 virus was studied. Unlike the studied AIVs, this virus mainly attached to tracheae from Charadriiformes and a very limited set of avian cola. In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed.

KEYWORDS: avian influenza; birds; lectin staining; pattern of virus attachment; virus histochemistry

PMID: 31057520 PMCID: PMC6482220 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00815

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H3N2; H6N1; H12N5; H16N3; Wild Birds; Poultry.

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#Birth #Cohort Effects in #Influenza #Surveillance #Data: Evidence that First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Birth Cohort Effects in Influenza Surveillance Data: Evidence that First Influenza Infection Affects Later Influenza-Associated Illness

Alicia P Budd, Lauren Beacham, Catherine B Smith, Rebecca J Garten, Carrie Reed, Krista Kniss, Desiree Mustaquim, Farida B Ahmad, Charisse N Cummings, Shikha Garg, Min Z Levine, Alicia M Fry, Lynnette Brammer

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz201, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz201

Published: 03 May 2019

 

Abstract

Background

The evolution of influenza A viruses results in birth cohorts that have different initial influenza virus exposures. Historically, A/H3 predominant seasons have been associated with more severe influenza-associated disease; however, since the 2009 pandemic there are suggestions that some birth cohorts experience more severe illness in A/H1 predominant seasons.

Methods

U.S. influenza virologic, hospitalization and mortality surveillance data during 2000-2017 were analyzed for cohorts born between 1918 and 1989 that likely had different initial influenza virus exposures based on viruses circulating during early childhood. Relative risk/rate during H3 compared to H1 predominant seasons during pre-pandemic versus pandemic and later periods were calculated for each cohort.

Results

During the pre-pandemic period, all cohorts had more influenza-associated disease during H3 predominant seasons than H1 predominant seasons. During the pandemic and later period, four cohorts had higher hospitalization and mortality rates during H1 predominant seasons than H3 predominant seasons.

Discussion

Birth cohort differences in risk of influenza-associated disease by influenza A virus subtype can be seen in U.S. influenza surveillance data and differ between pre-pandemic and pandemic and later periods. As the population ages, the amount of influenza-associated disease may be greater in future H1 predominant seasons than H3 predominant seasons.

influenza, birth cohort, influenza hospitalization, influenza morality, influenza surveillance

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2019. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; USA.

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#Dual and #triple #infections with #Influenza A and B viruses: a case-control study in Southern #Brazil (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Dual and triple infections with Influenza A and B viruses: a case-control study in Southern Brazil

Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Ivana R Santos Varella, Patricia Fisch, Letícia Garay Martins, Ana B G Veiga

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz221, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz221

Published: 29 April 2019

 

Abstract

Influenza surveillance is important for disease control and should consider possible coinfection with different viruses, which can be associated with disease severity. This study analyzed 34,459 patients with respiratory infection from 2009 to 2018, of which 8,011 were positive for IAV or IBV. We found 18 cases of influenza dual infection, including H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 (1 case), H1N1pdm09 and IBV (6 cases), H3N2 and IBV (8 cases), and non-subtyped IAV and IBV (3 cases); and one case of triple detection of H3N2, H1N1pdm09 and IBV. Compared with mono-infected patients (n=76), coinfection was significantly associated with cardiopathy and death. Besides demographics and clinical symptoms, we assessed vaccination status, antiviral treatment, time of antiviral use, hospitalization, and ICU admission, but no significant differences were found between coinfected or mono-infected cases. Our findings indicate that influenza coinfection occurs more often than previously reported and that it can lead to a worse disease outcome.

Influenza Virus, Coinfection, Respiratory Infections

Topic: influenza – heart diseases – antiviral agents – brazil – demography – herpesvirus 1, cercopithecine – infectious mononucleosis – intensive care unit – orthomyxoviridae – respiratory tract infections – vaccination – infection – influenzavirus a – viruses – coinfection – surveillance, medical – influenza a virus, h3n2 subtype – severity of illness

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Influenza B; Brazil.

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No #gene #communication between the #human #H3N2 and #H1N1pdm09 #influenza A viruses (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: The Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

No gene communication between the human H3N2 and H1N1 pandemic 2009 influenza A viruses

Xuejuan Shen a,#, Zhiqing Pu a,#, David M. Irwin b,c, Yongyi Shen a,d

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.04.014

Published online: April 25, 2019 – Accepted: April 20, 2019

 

Abstract

Recently, a study in this journal suggested that the 2014 H1N1 pandemic 2009 (H1N1/pdm2009) had gene communication with 2016/2017 H3N2 1. The influenza A H1N1/pdm2009 virus, a novel swine-derived, triple reassortant virus, was rapidly transmitted between humans and spread to 168 countries, resulting in over 123,000 human deaths globally from March to December 2009 2, 3. Since then, it has replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 and circulated as a seasonal virus along with the H3N2 virus, posing substantial risks to human populations 4, creating an opportunity for coinfection and therefore recombination or reassortment between them.

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# These authors contributed equally to this work.

© 2019 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza A; H1N1pdm09; H3N2.

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#Canine #infectious #respiratory disease: New insights into the #etiology and #epidemiology of associated pathogens (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2019 Apr 25;14(4):e0215817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817. eCollection 2019.

Canine infectious respiratory disease: New insights into the etiology and epidemiology of associated pathogens.

Maboni G1, Seguel M2, Lorton A1, Berghaus R3, Sanchez S1,4.

Author information: 1 Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 2 Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 3 Department of Population Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America. 4 Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

 

Abstract

Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a syndrome where multiple viral and bacterial pathogens are involved sequentially or synergistically to cause illness. There is limited information regarding the prevalence of pathogens related to CIRD in the United States as well as the role of co-infections in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive etiologic and epidemiologic study of multiple CIRD agents in a diverse dog population using molecular methods and statistical modeling analyses. In addition, a novel probe-based multiplex real-time PCR was developed to simultaneously detect and differentiate two species of Mycoplasma (M. canis and M. cynos). Canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, influenza A virus (H3N2 and H3N8), Bordetella bronchiseptica, M. canis, M. cynos and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were investigated in specimens from clinically ill and asymptomatic dogs received at the Athens Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Results showed low occurrence of classical CIRD agents such as B. bronchiseptica, canine adenovirus and distemper virus, while highlighting the potential role of emerging bacteria such as M. canis and M. cynos. Statistical modeling analyses of CIRD pathogens emphasized the impact of co-infections on the severity of clinical presentation, and showed that host factors, such as animal age, are the most important predictors of disease severity. This study provides new insights into the current understanding of the prevalence and role of co-infections with selected viruses and bacteria in the etiology of CIRD, while underscoring the importance of molecular diagnosis and vaccination against this disease.

PMID: 31022218 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215817

Keywords: Dogs; Canine Avian Influenza; H3N2; H3N8; Mycoplasma canis; Bordetella bronchiseptica; Canine adenovirus.

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