The #DoD at the #Forefront of a #Global #Health #Emergency Response: Lessons Learned from the #Ebola #Outbreak (Health Secur., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Health Secur. 2016 Sep-Oct;14(5):366-374.

The Department of Defense at the Forefront of a Global Health Emergency Response: Lessons Learned from the Ebola Outbreak.

Diehl G1, Bradstreet N1, Monahan F1.

Author information: 1Capt. Glendon Diehl, MSC, USN, PhD, is Director; Nicole Bradstreet, MPP, is Global Health Analyst; and Felicia Monahan, MPH, is Division Manager, Assessment, Monitoring, and Evaluation; all at the Center for Global Health Engagement; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences , Bethesda, Maryland.

 

Abstract

Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense’s (DoD’s) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD’s response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD’s response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts. The search included documents and observations from PubMed, Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, the Joint Lessons Learned Information System, the DoD and US Africa Command websites, and Google Scholar. The records selected from the search were analyzed to provide insights on the DoD’s humanitarian assistance and disaster response engagements that could be employed to inform future operations and policy. Furthermore, the research identifies strengths and gaps in military capabilities to respond to disasters, which can be used to inform future training and education courses. Overall, the findings demonstrate the importance of monitoring, evaluating, and assessing disaster response activities and provide new evidence to support the implementation of activities, in accordance with the Global Health Security Agenda, to strengthen all-threat prevention, detection, and response capabilities worldwide.

PMID: 27661797 DOI: 10.1089/hs.2016.0022

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola; Pandemic Preparedness.

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Evolutionary #conservation of #Ebola virus #proteins predicts important functions at residue level (Bioinformatics, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Bioinformatics. 2016 Sep 21. pii: btw610. [Epub ahead of print]

Evolutionary conservation of Ebola virus proteins predicts important functions at residue level.

Arslan A1, van Noort V2.

Author information: 1KU Leuven, Center of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. 2KU Leuven, Center of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Kasteelpark Arenberg 22, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. vera.vannoort@biw.kuleuven.be.

 

Abstract

MOTIVATION:

The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) resulted in a large number of human deaths. Due to this devastation, the Ebola virus has attracted renewed interest as model for virus evolution. Recent literature on Ebola virus (EBOV) has contributed substantially to our understanding of the underlying genetics and its scope with reference to the 2014 outbreak. But no study yet, has focused on the conservation patterns of EBOV proteins.

RESULTS:

We analyzed the evolution of functional regions of EBOV and highlight the function of conserved residues in protein activities. We apply an array of computational tools to dissect the functions of EBOV proteins in detail, i) protein sequence conservation ii) protein-protein interactome analysis iii) structural modeling iv) kinase prediction. Our results suggest the presence of novel post-translational modifications in EBOV proteins and their role in the modulation of protein functions and protein interactions. Moreover, on the basis of the presence of ATM recognition motifs in all EBOV proteins we postulate a role of DNA damage response pathways and ATM kinase in EVD. The ATM kinase is put forward, for further evaluation, as novel potential therapeutic target.

AVAILABILITY: http://www.biw.kuleuven.be/CSB/EBOV-PTMs CONTACT: vera.vannoort@biw.kuleuven.be

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

PMID: 27659453 DOI: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btw610

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Ebola.

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New #influenza A(#H7N7) viruses detected in live #poultry #markets in #China (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2016 Sep 20;499:165-169. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.06.015. [Epub ahead of print]

New influenza A(H7N7) viruses detected in live poultry markets in China.

Cui P1, Deng G2, Shi J3, Kong H3, Liu L3, Guan Y3, Suzuki Y4, Chen H5.

Author information: 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. 2State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. Electronic address: dengguohua@caas.cn. 3State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.
4College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, Aichi, Japan. 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China. Electronic address: chenhualan@caas.cn.

 

Abstract

H7N7 avian influenza viruses have been widely detected in wild birds and domestic poultry since they were first detected in chickens in Italy in 1902. They can occasionally transmit to humans. Here, we isolated six H7N7 viruses in live poultry markets during routine surveillance from 2010 to 2013. Sequences analysis revealed that these viruses are reassortants bearing genes of H3N8, H7N3, H7N7, and H10N7 influenza viruses detected in wild birds and ducks, and can be categorized into three genotypes (A, B, and C). All six viruses bound to both human-type and avian-type receptors. The viruses in genotype B and C could replicate efficiently in the lungs and nasal turbinates of mice without prior adaptation, and the genotype C virus also replicated in the brain of two of three mice tested. It is important to continue to monitor the evolution of H7N7 viruses and to evaluate their potential to cause human infections.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H7N7; Live poultry market

PMID: 27661735 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.06.015

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; China; Poultry; Avian Influenza; H7N7; Reassortant Strain; H3N8; H7N3; H10N7.

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#Genome #Sequence of #Lassa Virus Isolated from the First Domestically Acquired Case in #Germany (Genome Announc., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 22;4(5). pii: e00938-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00938-16.

Genome Sequence of Lassa Virus Isolated from the First Domestically Acquired Case in Germany.

Wolff S1, Schultze T2, Fehling SK1, Mengel JP2, Kann G3, Wolf T3, Eickmann M1, Becker S1, Hain T4, Strecker T5.

Author information: 1Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Germany. 2German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Germany Institute for Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany. 3Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. 4German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Germany Institute for Medical Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany torsten.hain@mikrobio.med.uni-giessen.de strecker@staff.uni-marburg.de. 5Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Giessen-Marburg-Langen, Germany torsten.hain@mikrobio.med.uni-giessen.de strecker@staff.uni-marburg.de.

 

Abstract

Lassa virus (LASV) is a zoonotic, hemorrhagic fever-causing virus endemic in West Africa, for which no approved vaccines or specific treatment options exist. Here, we report the genome sequence of LASV isolated from the first case of acquired Lassa fever disease outside of Africa.

Copyright © 2016 Wolff et al.

PMID: 27660771 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00938-16

[PubMed]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Germany; Lassa Fever.

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#Prenatal #screening for #microcephaly: an update after three decades (J Perinat Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Perinat Med. 2016 Sep 23. pii: /j/jpme.ahead-of-print/jpm-2016-0220/jpm-2016-0220.xml. doi: 10.1515/jpm-2016-0220. [Epub ahead of print]

Prenatal screening for microcephaly: an update after three decades.

Gelber SE, Grünebaum A, Chervenak FA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Due to the recent outbreak of Zika virus, there has been a newfound interest in fetal and neonatal microcephaly. In 1984, Chervenak et al. proposed criteria for the prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of microcephaly as ≤3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean. Despite improvements in medicine these criteria have not been reevaluated in 30 years.

OBJECTIVE:

To examine how the original 1984 Chervenak et al. criteria for the diagnosis of fetal microcephaly apply to a current population utilizing modern ultrasound equipment and techniques.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective database review of 27,697 ultrasound exams between 18 and 40 weeks’ gestation. Mean and SDs were calculated for each week of gestation from 18 to 40 completed weeks and these were compared to the 1984 data.

RESULTS:

There is no statistically significant difference in gestational age-specific mean head circumference (HC) between the two studied populations. Because the current dataset is larger the SD differ.

CONCLUSIONS:

The 1984 ultrasound criteria for microcephaly remain valid. Physicians today have two alternatives: either use the 3SD cutoff as recommended by Chervenak et al. and endorsed by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) or develop a new dataset for one’s population with statistical validation.

PMID: 27662643 DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2016-0220

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Microcephaly.

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Utility of a #Dengue-Derived #Monoclonal #Antibody to Enhance #Zika #Infection In Vitro (PLoS Curr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Curr. 2016 Jul 5;8. pii: ecurrents.outbreaks.4ab8bc87c945eb41cd8a49e127082620. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.4ab8bc87c945eb41cd8a49e127082620.

Utility of a Dengue-Derived Monoclonal Antibody to Enhance Zika Infection In Vitro.

Charles AS1, Christofferson RC1.

Author information: 1Pathobiological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

 

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged in dengue (DENV) endemic areas, where these two related flaviviruses continue to co-circulate. DENV is a complex of four serotypes and infections can progress to severe disease. It is thought that this is mediated by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) whereby antibodies from a primary DENV infection are incapable of neutralizing heterologous DENV infections with another serotype. ADE has been demonstrated among other members of the Flavivirus group.

METHODS:

We utilize an in vitro ADE assay developed for DENV to determine whether ZIKV is enhanced by a commonly available DENV serotype 2-derived monoclonal antibody (4G2).

RESULTS:

We show that ZIKV infection in vitro is enhanced in the presence of the 4G2 mAb.

DISCUSSION:

Our results demonstrate that ADE between ZIKV and DENV is possible and that the 4G2 antibody is a useful tool for the effects of pre-existing anti-DENV antibodies during ZIKV infections.

KEYWORDS: Zika; antibody; dengue; enhancement; zika virus

PMID: 27660733 DOI: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.4ab8bc87c945eb41cd8a49e127082620

[PubMed]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; A.D.E.; Monoclonal Antibodies.

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#Zika Virus #Replicons for #Drug #Discovery (EbioMedicine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

EBioMedicine. 2016 Sep 14. pii: S2352-3964(16)30420-0. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.09.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Zika Virus Replicons for Drug Discovery.

Xie X1, Zou J1, Shan C1, Yang Y2, Kum DB3, Dallmeier K4, Neyts J4, Shi PY5.

Author information: 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China. 3Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 4Rega Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 5Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Sealy Center for Structural Biology & Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address: peshi@utmb.edu.

 

Abstract

The current epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) has underscored the urgency to establish experimental systems for studying viral replication and pathogenesis, and countermeasure development. Here we report two ZIKV replicon systems: a luciferase replicon that can differentiate between viral translation and RNA synthesis; and a stable luciferase replicon carrying cell line that can be used to screen and characterize inhibitors of viral replication. The transient replicon was used to evaluate the effect of an NS5 polymerase mutation on viral RNA synthesis and to analyze a known ZIKV inhibitor. The replicon cell line was developed into a 96-well format for antiviral testing. Compare with virus infection-based assay, the replicon cell line allows antiviral screening without using infectious virus. Collectively, the replicon systems have provided critical tools for both basic and translational research.

Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Drug discovery; Flavivirus; Replicon; Zika

PMID: 27658737 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.09.013

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika Virus.

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