#Baloxavir marboxil #treatment of nude mice infected with #influenza A virus (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Baloxavir marboxil treatment of nude mice infected with influenza A virus

Maki Kiso, Seiya Yamayoshi, Jurika Murakami, Yoshihiro Kawaoka

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz665, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz665

Published: 14 December 2019

 

Abstract

Immunocompromised patients infected with influenza virus require prolonged treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors, because these patients are not able to eradicate the virus from the respiratory tract, leading to the emergence of drug-resistant mutant viruses. Here, we examined the efficacy of baloxavir marboxil in nude mice, which are immunologically deficient. Daily treatment with a suboptimal dose of baloxavir marboxil increased the survival time of the virus-infected nude mice but did not clear the virus from their respiratory organs, resulting in gradual body weight loss after termination of treatment. Despite the prolonged baloxavir marboxil treatment, few resistant mutants were detected.

influenza, baloxavir marboxil, drug resistance, immunocompromised

Issue Section: Brief Report

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Influenza A; Oseltamivir; Baloxavir; Animal models.

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View of Toledo, El Greco (c.1599)

Annotazione 2019-12-14 183228

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View of Toledo
El Greco
Date: c.1599; Spain
Style: Mannerism (Late Renaissance)
Period: Spanish period
Genre: cityscape
Media: oil, canvas
Tag: houses-and-buildings, storm-and-tempest, Toledo, aqueducts, cliffs-and-rocks
Location: Metropolitan Museum of Art (Met), New York City, NY, US
Dimensions: 121.3 x 108.6 cm

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Permissions: Public Domain.

Source: WikiArt, full page: https://www.wikiart.org/en/el-greco/view-of-toledo

 

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#Outbreaks of Clade 2.3.4.4 #H5N8 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza in 2018 in the northern regions of South Africa [#ZA] were unrelated to those of 2017 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Dec 13. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13448. [Epub ahead of print]

Outbreaks of Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza in 2018 in the northern regions of South Africa were unrelated to those of 2017.

Abolnik C1.

Author information: 1 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Old Soutpan Road, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

 

Abstract

Asian-origin H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 Goose/Guangdong/96 lineage, clade 2.3.4.4 group B reached South Africa by June 2017. By the end of that year, 5.4 million layers and broiler chickens died or were culled, with total losses in the poultry industry estimated at US$ 140 million, and thousands of exotic birds in zoological collections, endangered endemic species and backyard poultry and pet birds also perished. The 2017 H5N8 HPAI outbreaks were characterised by two distinct spatial clusters, each associated with specific reassortant viral genotypes. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 5 were restricted to the northern regions, spanning the provinces of Limpopo, Gauteng, North West, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal and Free State. The second, much larger cluster of outbreaks was in the south, in the Western and Eastern Cape provinces, where in 2017 and 2018 outbreaks were caused solely by genotype 4. The last confirmed case of H5N8 HPAI in the northern region in 2017 was in early October, and the viruses seemed to disappear over the summer. However, starting in mid-February 2018, H5N8 HPAI outbreaks resurged in the north. Viruses from two of the eight outbreaks were sequenced, one from an outbreak in quails (Coturnix japonica) in the North West Province, and another from commercial pullets in the Gauteng province. Phylogenetic analysis identified the viruses as a distinct sixth genotype that was most likely a new introduction to South Africa in early 2018.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H5N8; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; poultry; quail; wild birds

PMID: 31833671 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13448

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Africa.

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#Genetic #diversity of #MERS-CoV spike protein gene in #Saudi Arabia (J Infect Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Public Health. 2019 Dec 9. pii: S1876-0341(19)30345-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.11.007. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic diversity of MERS-CoV spike protein gene in Saudi Arabia.

Sohrab SS1, Azhar EI2.

Author information: 1 Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: ssohrab@kau.edu.sa. 2 Special Infectious Agents Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia; Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was primarily detected in 2012 and still causing disease in human and camel. Camel and bats have been identified as a potential source of virus for disease spread to human. Although, significant information related to MERS-CoV disease, spread, infection, epidemiology, clinical features have been published, A little information is available on the sequence diversity of Spike protein gene. The Spike protein gene plays a significant role in virus attachment to host cells. Recently, the information about recombinant MERS-CoV has been published. So, this work was designed to identify the emergence of any another recombinant virus in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

METHODS:

In this study samples were collected from both human and camels and the Spike protein gene was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of MERS-CoV Spike protein gene were used to analyze the recombination, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship with selected sequences from Saudi Arabia.

RESULTS:

The nucleotide sequence identity ranged from 65.7% to 99.8% among all the samples collected from human and camels from various locations in the Kingdom. The lowest similarity (65.7%) was observed in samples from Madinah and Dammam. The phylogenetic relationship formed different clusters with multiple isolates from various locations. The sample collected from human in Jeddah hospital formed a closed cluster with human samples collected from Buraydah, while camel sample formed a closed cluster with Hufuf isolates. The phylogenetic tree by using Aminoacid sequences formed closed cluster with Dammam, Makkah and Duba isolates. The amino acid sequences variations were observed in 28/35 samples and two unique amino acid sequences variations were observed in all samples analyzed while total 19 nucleotides sequences variations were observed in the Spike protein gene. The minor recombination events were identified in eight different sequences at various hotspots in both human and camel samples using recombination detection programme.

CONCLUSION:

The generated information from this study is very valuable and it will be used to design and develop therapeutic compounds and vaccine to control the MERS-CoV disease spread in not only in the Kingdom but also globally.

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Camel; Genetic diversity; Human; MERS-CoV; Saudi Arabia

PMID: 31831395 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2019.11.007

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Human; Camels; Recombination; Saudi Arabia.

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#PanStop: a decade of rapid #containment #exercises for #pandemic #preparedness in the #WHO Western #Pacific Region (Western Pac Surveill Response J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2018 Winter; 9(5 Suppl 1): 71–74. Published online 2018 Dec 18. doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2018.9.5.012 | PMCID: PMC6902655

PanStop: a decade of rapid containment exercises for pandemic preparedness in the WHO Western Pacific Region

Edna Moturi,a Katherine Horton,a Leila Bell,a Lucy Breakwell,a and Erica Dueger a,b

Author information: {a} WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines. {b} Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America.

Correspondence to Erica Dueger (email: tni.ohw@raspw)

Copyright (c) 2018 The authors; licensee World Health Organization.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/legalcode), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any reproduction of this article there should not be any suggestion that WHO or this article endorse any specific organization or products. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article’s original URL.

 

Summary

Rapid containment (RC) is one of the five priority interventions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Action Plan for Pandemic Influenza; (1) it relies on the concept that mass prophylactic administration of antiviral drugs, combined with quarantine and social distancing measures, could contain or delay the international spread of an emerging influenza virus. (2, 3) During a RC operation, mass antiviral prophylaxis treatment and non-pharmaceutical interventions are rapidly implemented within a containment zone surrounding the initial cases; active surveillance and additional activities are extended to a broader buffer zone where cases are most likely to appear based on the movements of cases and contacts. (2, 4) The strategy is dependent on the rapid (within three to five days) detection, investigation and reporting of initial cases; the efficacy and availability of antivirals and vaccines; and timely risk assessment and decision-making. In the Western Pacific Region, a stockpile of antiviral medication and personal protective equipment acquired through donations from the Government of Japan is warehoused in Singapore under the auspices of the Association of South-eastern Asian Nations (ASEAN), (5) and is managed under contract by the Japan International Cooperation System (JICS). (5) These supplies are reserved for early intervention when initial signs of increased human-to-human transmission of a highly contagious influenza virus occur.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Antivirals; Asia Region; WHO.

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#Preparedness for #influenza #vaccination during a #pandemic in the #WHO Western #Pacific Region (Western Pac Surveill Response J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2018 Winter; 9(5 Suppl 1): 11–14. Published online 2018 Dec 20. doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2018.9.5.001 | PMCID: PMC6902652

Preparedness for influenza vaccination during a pandemic in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

Leila Bell,a Lisa Peters,a James D Heffelfinger,a Sheena G Sullivan,b,c Alba Vilajeliu,a Jinho Shin,a Joseph Bresee,d and Erica Dueger a,d

Author information: {a} WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Emerging Diseases Surveillance and Response. {b} WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. {c} Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. {d} Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Corresponding author: Erica Dueger (email: tni.ohw@raspw)

Copyright (c) 2018 The authors; licensee World Health Organization.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution IGO License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/legalcode), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In any reproduction of this article there should not be any suggestion that WHO or this article endorse any specific organization or products. The use of the WHO logo is not permitted. This notice should be preserved along with the article’s original URL.

 

Summary

Influenza vaccination is a key public health intervention for pandemic influenza as it can limit the burden of disease, especially in high-risk groups, minimize social disruption and reduce economic impact. (1) In the event of an influenza pandemic, large-scale production, distribution and administration of pandemic vaccines in the shortest time possible is required. In addition, monitoring vaccine effectiveness, coverage and adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is important. Since seasonal influenza vaccination programmes require annual planning in each of these areas, establishing and strengthening annual influenza programmes will contribute to pandemic preparedness. (2) This paper presents efforts made in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region to improve seasonal influenza vaccination and pandemic preparedness.

(…)

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic preparedness; Vaccines; WHO; Asia Region.

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#Antibiotic #exposure among #children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries:… (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Disease, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antibiotic exposure among children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional study of nationally representative facility-based and household-based surveys

Günther Fink, PhD, Valérie D’Acremont, PhD, Hannah H Leslie, PhD, Jessica Cohen, PhD

Published: December 13, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30572-9

 

Summary

Background

Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to global health. Although detailed information about antibiotic use in high-income countries is available, little is known regarding the use of antibiotics and cumulative exposure to antibiotics in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to quantify antibiotic exposure in children younger than 5 years in LMICs.

Methods

We did a cross-sectional study in sick children younger than 5 years who attended a health-care facility in eight LMICs (Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda) between May, 2006, and December, 2016. Demographic and Health Surveys were used to estimate the cumulative number of illnesses related to a fever or cough and the cumulative number of visits to a health-care facility because of these illnesses for each country. We also used clinical observation data from nationally representative health-care facility-based Service Provision Assessment (SPA) surveys to estimate the proportion of children who were prescribed an antibiotic during a visit to a health-care facility and the number of antibiotic prescriptions issued that were unrelated to fever or respiratory problems. By combining these estimates, and using bootstrap analysis to compute uncertainty intervals, we estimated cumulative antibiotic exposure in children from birth up to age 5 years in each LMIC.

Findings

From SPA surveys, we identified 22 519 clinical observations of children younger than 5 years who visited a health-care facility because of an illness between July, 2007, and December, 2016. From DHS surveys, we identified 68 826 children younger than 5 years who visited a health-care facility between May, 2006, and November, 2016. 85·4% of health-care facility visits were related to either a fever or cough. Antibiotics were prescribed to 80·5% of children diagnosed with respiratory illness, 50·1% with diarrhoea, and 28·3% with malaria. The mean number of antibiotic prescriptions issued to children between birth and age 5 years across the eight LMICs was 24·5 (95% CI 22·6–26·7), ranging from 7·1 (6·3–7·9) in Senegal to 59·1 (54·1–64·6) in Uganda.

Interpretation

Between birth and age 5 years, children in LMICs are prescribed a remarkably high number of antibiotics. A large proportion of these prescriptions appear to be unnecessary. National and local efforts to reduce unnecessary prescription of antibiotics to children would likely improve both patient wellbeing (in terms of preventing side-effects) and reduce the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

Funding

None.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Pediatrics; India.

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