#Phylogeography of #H5N1 #avian #influenza virus in #Indonesia (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Oct;65(5):1339-1347. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12883. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Phylogeography of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia.

Njoto EN1, Scotch M1,2,3, Bui CM1, Adam DC1, Chughtai AA1, MacIntyre CR1,3,4.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 2 Center for Environmental Health Engineering, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 3 College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona. 4 College of Public Service and Community Solution, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described. The spread is consistent with wild bird flyways and poultry trading routes. H5N1 migration was associated with the regions of high chicken densities and low human development indices. These results can be used to inform more targeted planning of H5N1 control and prevention activities in Indonesia.

KEYWORDS: H5N1 Subtype; Indonesia; Influenza A Virus; One Health; Phylogeography

PMID: 29691995 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12883 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Indonesia; Wild Birds; Poultry; Human.

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#Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds in the Izumi plain, #Japan during the 2016/17 winter season (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13087. [Epub ahead of print]

Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan during the 2016/17 winter season.

Ozawa M1,2,3, Matsuu A2,3, Khalil AMA1,3, Nishi N1, Tokorozaki K4, Masatani T2,3, Horie M2,3, Okuya K1, Ueno K1, Kuwahara M5, Toda S4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 2 Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 3 United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan. 4 Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan. 5 Matsuoka Research Institute for Science, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck feces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Our results implied the co-circulation and co-evolution of HPAIVs and LPAIVs within the same wild bird populations, thereby highlighting the importance of avian influenza surveillance targeting not only for HPAIVs, but also for LPAIVs.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; phylogenetic variations

PMID: 30499632 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13087

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Japan.

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#Evidence of a fixed internal gene #constellation in #influenza A viruses isolated from #wildbirds in #Argentina (2006-2016) (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Nov 28;7(1):194. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0190-2.

Evidence of a fixed internal gene constellation in influenza A viruses isolated from wild birds in Argentina (2006-2016).

Rimondi A1, Gonzalez-Reiche AS2,3, Olivera VS4, Decarre J5, Castresana GJ6, Romano M7, Nelson MI8, van Bakel H3, Pereda AJ4,9, Ferreri L2, Geiger G2, Perez DR2.

Author information: 1 Instituto de Virologia CICVyA – Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), CC25 (1712), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. rimondi.agustina@inta.gob.ar. 2 Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, 953 College Station Rd, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. 3 Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA. 4 Instituto de Virologia CICVyA – Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), CC25 (1712), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 5 Instituto de Recursos Biológicos CIRN – Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), CC25 (1712), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 6 Dirección de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, Organismo Provincial para el Desarrollo Sostenible (O.P.D.S), Gobierno de la provincia de Buenos Aires, General Conesa, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 7 Centro de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Ambiente, Rosario (ECOSUR), Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. 8 Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20894, USA. 9 Instituto de Patobiología CICVyA – Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), CC25 (1712), Castelar, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

 

Abstract

Wild aquatic birds are the major reservoir of influenza A virus. Cloacal swabs and feces samples (n = 6595) were collected from 62 bird species in Argentina from 2006 to 2016 and screened for influenza A virus. Full genome sequencing of 15 influenza isolates from 6 waterfowl species revealed subtypes combinations that were previously described in South America (H1N1, H4N2, H4N6 (n = 3), H5N3, H6N2 (n = 4), and H10N7 (n = 2)), and new ones not previously identified in the region (H4N8, H7N7 and H7N9). Notably, the internal gene segments of all 15 Argentine isolates belonged to the South American lineage, showing a divergent evolution of these viruses in the Southern Hemisphere. Time-scaled phylogenies indicated that South American gene segments diverged between ~ 30 and ~ 140 years ago from the most closely related influenza lineages, which include the avian North American (PB1, HA, NA, MP, and NS-B) and Eurasian lineage (PB2), and the equine H3N8 lineage (PA, NP, and NS-A). Phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene segments of the H4, H6, and N8 subtypes revealed recent introductions and reassortment between viruses from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres in the Americas. Remarkably and despite evidence of recent hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtype introductions, the phylogenetic composition of internal gene constellation of these influenza A viruses has remained unchanged. Considering the extended time and the number of sampled species of the current study, and the paucity of previously available data, our results contribute to a better understanding of the ecology and evolution of influenza virus in South America.

PMID: 30482896 DOI: 10.1038/s41426-018-0190-2

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Reassortant Strains; H1; H3; H4; H5; H7; H8; H10; Argentina; Wild birds.

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#Satellite #telemetry tracks #flyways of Asian Openbill #storks in relation to #H5N1 #avian #influenza spread and ecological change (BMC Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Vet Res. 2018 Nov 16;14(1):349. doi: 10.1186/s12917-018-1683-x.

Satellite telemetry tracks flyways of Asian Openbill storks in relation to H5N1 avian influenza spread and ecological change.

Ratanakorn P1,2, Suwanpakdee S1,2, Wiriyarat W2,3, Eiamampai K4, Chaichoune K2,3, Wiratsudakul A1,2, Sariya L2, Puthavathana P5,6.

Author information: 1 Department of Clinical Science and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 2 The Monitoring and Surveillance Center for Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 3 Department of Preclinic and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. 4 Department of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. 5 Center for Research and Innovation, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Thailand. pilaipan.put@mahidol.edu. 6 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand. pilaipan.put@mahidol.edu.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Asian Openbills, Anastomus oscitans, have long been known to migrate from South to Southeast Asia for breeding and nesting. In Thailand, the first outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in the Openbills coincided with the outbreak in the poultry. Therefore, the flyways of Asian Openbills was determined to study their role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI virus to poultry and wild birds, and also within their flocks.

RESULTS:

Flyways of 5 Openbills from 3 colonies were monitored using Argos satellite transmitters with positioning by Google Earth Programme between 2007 and 2013. None of the Openbills tagged with satellite telemeters moved outside of Thailand. Their home ranges or movement areas varied from 1.6 to 23,608 km2 per month (95% utility distribution). There was no positive result of the viral infection from oral and cloacal swabs of the Openbills and wild birds living in the vicinity by viral isolation and genome detection during 2007 to 2010 whereas the specific antibody was not detected on both Openbills and wild birds by using microneutralization assay after 2008. The movement of these Openbills did not correlate with H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in domestic poultry but correlated with rice crop rotation and populations of the apple snails which are their preferred food. Viral spread within the flocks of Openbills was not detected.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study showed that Openbills played no role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI virus, which was probably due to the very low prevalence of the virus during the monitoring period. This study revealed the ecological factors that control the life cycle of Asian Openbills.

KEYWORDS: Anastomus oscitans; Asian Openbill; Flyway; H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI); Satellite telemetry

PMID: 30445946 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-018-1683-x

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Wild Birds; Thailand.

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#Pathogenesis and genetic characteristics of novel #reassortant low-pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7 viruses isolated from migratory #birds in the Republic of #Korea in the winter of 2016-2017 (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Nov 15;7(1):182. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0181-3.

Pathogenesis and genetic characteristics of novel reassortant low-pathogenic avian influenza H7 viruses isolated from migratory birds in the Republic of Korea in the winter of 2016-2017.

Lee YN1, Cheon SH1, Lee EK1, Heo GB1, Bae YC2, Joh SJ2, Lee MH1, Lee YJ3.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 39660, Republic of Korea. 2 Avian Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 39660, Republic of Korea. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 39660, Republic of Korea. leeyj700@korea.kr.

 

Abstract

In this study, we characterized H7 subtype low-pathogenicity (LP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) isolated from wild bird habitats in the Republic of Korea from 2010 to early 2017. Through national surveillance, 104 H7 IAVs were isolated, accounting for an average of 14.9% of annual IAV isolations. In early 2017, H7 subtypes accounted for an unusually high prevalence (43.6%) of IAV detections in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the viruses isolated in the winter of 2016-2017 fell within cluster II of group C, belonging to the Eurasian lineage of H7 IAVs. Notably, cluster II of group C included the H7 gene from the highly pathogenic H7N7 IAV that was detected in northeastern Italy in April of 2016. Through a gene-constellation analysis, the H7 LPIAVs that we isolated constituted ≥11 distinct genotypes. Because the viruses belonging to the genotypes G2.1 and G1 were observed most frequently, we compared the replication and transmission of representative viruses to these genotypes in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Notably, the representative G2.1 strain was capable of systemic replication and efficient transmission in chickens (as evidenced by virus isolation and histopathological examination) without any clinical signs except mortality (in one infected chicken). The efficient subclinical viral replication and shedding of the G2.1 virus in chickens may facilitate its silent spread among poultry after introduction. Given that wild birds harbor novel strains that could affect poultry, our results highlight the need for enhanced IAV surveillance in both wild birds and poultry in Eurasia.

PMID: 30442892 DOI: 10.1038/s41426-018-0181-3

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N7; Reassortant Strain; Wild Birds; Poultry; Italy; S. Korea.

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White-Tailed Sea #Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) #DieOff Due to #Infection with Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Virus, Subtype #H5N8, in #Germany (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2018 Sep 7;10(9). pii: E478. doi: 10.3390/v10090478.

White-Tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) Die-Off Due to Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus, Subtype H5N8, in Germany.

Krone O1, Globig A2, Ulrich R3, Harder T4, Schinköthe J5, Herrmann C6, Gerst S7, Conraths FJ8, Beer M9.

Author information: 1 Department of Wildlife Diseases, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, 10315 Berlin, Germany. krone@izw-berlin.de. 2 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Anja.Globig@fli.de. 3 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Reiner.Ulrich@fli.de. 4 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Timm.Harder@fli.de. 5 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. jan.schinkoethe@fli.de. 6 Agency for Environment, Nature Conservation, and Geology Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 18273 Güstrow, Germany. Christof.Herrmann@lung.mv-regierung.de. 7 Department of Diagnostic Investigation of Epizootics (LALLF), State Office for Agriculture, Food Safety, and Fishery, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, 18059 Rostock, Germany. sascha.gerst@lallf.mvnet.de. 8 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Franz.Conraths@fli.de. 9 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany. Martin.Beer@fli.de.

 

Abstract

In contrast to previous incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5 viruses, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b viruses caused numerous cases of lethal infections in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) affecting mainly young eagles (younger than five years of age) in Germany during winter 2016/2017. Until April 2017, 17 HPAIV H5N8-positive white-tailed sea eagles had been detected (three found alive and 14 carcasses) by real-time RT-PCR and partial nucleotide sequence analyses. Severe neurological clinical signs were noticed which were corroborated by immunohistopathology revealing mild to moderate, oligo- to multifocal necrotizing virus-induced polioencephalitis. Lethal lead (Pb) concentrations, a main factor of mortality in sea eagles in previous years, could be ruled out by atomic absorption spectrometry. HPAIV H5 clade 2.3.4.4b reportedly is the first highly pathogenic influenza virus known to induce fatal disease in European white-tailed see eagles. This virus strain may become a new health threat to a highly protected species across its distribution range in Eurasia. Positive cloacal swabs suggest that eagles can spread the virus with their faeces.

KEYWORDS: HPAIV H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4b; fatal infection; neurological symptoms; white-tailed sea eagle

PMID: 30205456 PMCID: PMC6163648 DOI: 10.3390/v10090478 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Wild Birds; Germany.

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#Comparison of 2016–17 and Previous #Epizootics of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza #H5 #Guangdong Lineage in #Europe (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 24, Number 12—December 2018 / Research

Comparison of 2016–17 and Previous Epizootics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 Guangdong Lineage in Europe

Pablo Alarcon1, Adam Brouwer1, Divya Venkatesh, Daisy Duncan, Chrysostomos I. Dovas, George Georgiades, Isabella Monne, Alice Fusaro, Adam Dan, Krzysztof Śmietanka, Vassilios Ragias, Andrew C. Breed, Taxiarchis Chassalevris, Gabriela Goujgoulova, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Eoin Ryan, Azucena Sánchez, Eric Niqueux, Niina Tammiranta, Siamak Zohari, David A. Stroud, Vladimir Savić, Nicola S. Lewis, and Ian H. Brown

Author affiliations: Royal Veterinary College, London, UK (P. Alarcon); Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, UK (P. Alarcon, A. Brouwer, D. Duncan, A.C. Breed, N.S. Lewis, I.H. Brown); University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U K (D. Venkatesh); Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece (C.I. Dovas, T. Chassalevris); Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Thessaloniki (G. Georgiades, V. Ragias); Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Padova, Italy (I. Monne, A. Fusaro); Veterinary Diagnostic Institute, Budapest, Hungary (A. Dan); National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy, Poland (K. Śmietanka); Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia (A.C. Breed); University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia (A.C. Breed); NDRVMI, Sofia, Bulgaria (G. Goujgoulova); Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark (C.K. Hjulsager); Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Celbridge, Ireland (E. Ryan); Central Veterinary Laboratory, Madrid, Spain (A. Sánchez); French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, Ploufragan, France (E. Niqueux); Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki, Finland (N. Tammiranta); National Veterinary Institute and World Organisation for Animal Health Collaborating Center, Uppsala, Sweden (S. Zohari); Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK (D. Stroud); Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia (V. Savić)

 

Abstract

We analyzed the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 epizootic of 2016–17 in Europe by epidemiologic and genetic characteristics and compared it with 2 previous epizootics caused by the same H5 Guangdong lineage. The 2016–17 epizootic was the largest in Europe by number of countries and farms affected and greatest diversity of wild birds infected. We observed significant differences among the 3 epizootics regarding region affected, epidemic curve, seasonality, and outbreak duration, making it difficult to predict future HPAI epizootics. However, we know that in 2005–06 and 2016–17 the initial peak of wild bird detections preceded the peak of poultry outbreaks within Europe. Phylogenetic analysis of 2016–17 viruses indicates 2 main pathways into Europe. Our findings highlight the need for global surveillance of viral changes to inform disease preparedness, detection, and control.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5; Poultry; Wild Birds; European Region.

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