#Review analysis and impact of co-circulating #H5N1 and #H9N2 #avian #influenza viruses in #Bangladesh (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jul;146(10):1259-1266. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818001292. Epub 2018 May 21.

Review analysis and impact of co-circulating H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

Parvin R1, Begum JA1, Nooruzzaman M1, Chowdhury EH1, Islam MR1, Vahlenkamp TW2.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology,Faculty of Veterinary Science,Bangladesh Agricultural University,Mymensingh 2202,Bangladesh. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Center of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig,An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103 Leipzig,Germany.



Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007. By reviewing the available scientific literature, the overall situation of AIVs in Bangladesh is discussed. All Bangladeshi (BD) H5N1 and H9N2 AIV sequences available at GenBank were downloaded along with other representative sequences to analyse the genetic diversity among the circulating AIVs in Bangladesh and to compare with the global situation. Three different H5N1 clades, 2.2.2, and, have been detected in Bangladesh. Only is still present. The BD LP H9N2 viruses mostly belonged to the H9 G1 lineage but segregated into many branches, and some of these shared internal genes with HP viruses of subtypes H7N3 and H5N1. However, these reassortment events might have taken place before introduction to Bangladesh. Currently, H9N2 viruses continue to evolve their HA cleavage, receptor binding and glycosylation sites. Multiple mutations in the HA gene associated with adaptation to mammalian hosts were also observed. Strict biosecurity at farms and gradual phasing out of live-bird markets could be the key measures to better control AIVs, whereas stamping out is not a practicable option in Bangladesh. Vaccination also could be an additional tool, which however, requires careful planning. Continuous monitoring of AIVs through systematic surveillance and genetic characterisation of the viruses remains a hallmark of AI control.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Bangladesh; H5N1; H9N2; co-circulation; genetic evolution

PMID: 29781424 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268818001292 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H7N3; H9N2; Poultry; Wild Birds; Bangladesh.



#Shedding of clade #H5N8 and #H5N2 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in peridomestic #wildbirds in the #US (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Feb 10. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13147. [Epub ahead of print]

Shedding of clade H5N8 and H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in peridomestic wild birds in the U.S.

Bosco-Lauth AM1, Marlenee NL1, Hartwig AE1, Bowen RA1, Root JJ2.

Author information: 1 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 2 United States Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA.



European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) are all wild birds commonly found in large numbers in and around human dwellings and domestic livestock operations. This study evaluated the susceptibility of these species to three strains of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HP AIV) clade isolated in the US. Experimental infection of European starlings and rock pigeons did not result in any overt signs attributable to AIV infection and no virus shedding was detected from the oral and cloacal routes. House sparrows shed by the oral route and exhibited limited mortality. Individuals from all three species seroconverted following infection. These data suggest that none of these birds are a likely potential bridge host for future HP AIV outbreaks but that their seroconversion may be a useful surveillance tool for detection of circulating H5 HP AIV.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Columba livia ; Passer domesticus ; Sturnus vulgaris ; Avian influenza virus; Biosecurity; Clade; European starling; Experimental infection; H5N2; H5N8; Highly pathogenic; House sparrow; Outbreak; Rock pigeon

PMID: 30740920 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13147

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; Wild Birds; USA.


Absence of adaptive #evolution is the main #barrier against #influenza emergence in #horses in #Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from #wildbirds (PLoS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Feb 7;15(2):e1007531. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531. eCollection 2019 Feb.

Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds.

Zhu H1, Damdinjav B2, Gonzalez G1, Patrono LV1,3, Ramirez-Mendoza H4, Amat JAR1, Crispell J1, Parr YA1, Hammond TA5, Shiilegdamba E6, Leung YHC7,8, Peiris M7, Marshall JF9, Hughes J1, Gilbert M6,10,11, Murcia PR1.

Author information: 1 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 2 State Central Veterinary Laboratory, Transboundary Animal Disease Laboratory, Avian Influenza Section, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. 3 Project Group Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. 4 Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de Mexico, México. 5 Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk, United Kingdom. 6 Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, United States of America. 7 School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 8 Laboratory Animal Unit, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. 9 Weipers Centre Equine Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 10 Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.  11 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States of America.



Virus ecology and evolution play a central role in disease emergence. However, their relative roles will vary depending on the viruses and ecosystems involved. We combined field studies, phylogenetics and experimental infections to document with unprecedented detail the stages that precede initial outbreaks during viral emergence in nature. Using serological surveys we showed that in the absence of large-scale outbreaks, horses in Mongolia are routinely exposed to and infected by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) circulating among wild birds. Some of those AIVs are genetically related to an avian-origin virus that caused an epizootic in horses in 1989. Experimental infections showed that most AIVs replicate in the equine respiratory tract without causing lesions, explaining the absence of outbreaks of disease. Our results show that AIVs infect horses but do not spread, or they infect and spread but do not cause disease. Thus, the failure of AIVs to evolve greater transmissibility and to cause disease in horses is in this case the main barrier preventing disease emergence.

PMID: 30731004 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Equine Influenza; Horses; Wild Birds; Mongolia.


#Surveillance for #avian #influenza viruses in #wildbirds at live #bird #markets, #Egypt, 2014-2016 (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Feb 3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12634. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds at live bird markets, Egypt, 2014-2016.

Kayed AS1, Kandeil A1, Gomaa MR1, El-Shesheny R1,2, Mahmoud S1, Hegazi N3, Fayez M3, Sheta B4, McKenzie PP2, Webby RJ2, Kayali G5,6, Ali MA1.

Author information: 1 Environmental Research Division, Water Pollution Research Department, Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza, Egypt. 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. 3 Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Microbiology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 4 Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Damietta University, New Damietta, Egypt. 5 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, Texas. 6 Human Link, Baabda, Lebanon.




Egypt is the habitat for a large number of bird species and serves as a vital stopover for millions of migratory birds during their annual migration between the Palearctic and Afrotropical ecozones. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is critical to assessing risks for potential spreading of these viruses among domestic poultry. Surveillance for AIV among hunted and captured wild birds in Egypt was conducted in order to understand the characteristics of circulating viruses.


Sampling of wild bird species occurred in two locations along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt in the period from 2014 to 2016. A total of 1316 samples (cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs) were collected from 20 different species of hunted or captured resident and migratory birds sold at live bird markets. Viruses were propagated then sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and receptor binding affinities were studied.


Eighteen AIVs (1.37%) were isolated from migratory Anseriformes at live bird markets. Further characterization of the viral isolates identified five hemagglutinin (H3, H5, H7, H9, and H10) and five neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N6, and N9) subtypes, which were related to isolates reported in the Eurasian region. Two of the 18 isolates were highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses related to clade 2.2.1, while three isolates were G1-like H9N2 viruses.


Our data show significant diversity of AIVs in Anserifromes sold at live bird markets in Egypt. This allows for genetic exchanges between imported and enzootic viruses and put the exposed humans at a higher risk of infection.

© 2019 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PMID: 30714323 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12634

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Wild Birds; Poultry; Live Birds Markets; Egypt.


#Genetic and biological characterization of two #reassortant #H5N2 #avian #influenza A viruses isolated from #waterfowl in #China in 2016 (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Oct;224:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.016. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Genetic and biological characterization of two reassortant H5N2 avian influenza A viruses isolated from waterfowl in China in 2016.

Liu K1, Gao R1, Gu M2, Li J1, Shi L1, Sun W1, Liu D1, Gao Z1, Wang X2, Hu J2, Liu X2, Hu S2, Chen S2, Gao S2, Peng D2, Jiao XA2, Liu X3.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 2 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-Food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. 3 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-Food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China (26116120), Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.



Two reassortant H5N2 viruses in which hemagglutinin (HA) was clustered into clade, were isolated from apparently healthy waterfowl in live poultry markets in Eastern China in 2016. We used specific pathogen-free chickens, mallard ducks, and BALB/c mice to evaluate the isolates’ biological characteristics in different animal models. The newly isolated reassortant H5N2 viruses were able to cause severe disease in chickens and effective contact transmission, only at high doses. Our pathogenicity studies in ducks yielded an interesting result: the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) indicated that isolate A/goose/Eastern China/1106/2016(1106) was low pathogenic and the other isolate A/duck/Eastern China/YD1516/2016(YD1516) was of highly pathogenicity in ducks. However, our 50% duck lethal dose (DLD50) experiment demonstrated that these viruses were all of low pathogenicity (DLD50 > 107.0 EID50) in ducks. Additionally, despite the fact that reassortant H5N2 were of low pathogenicity in mice, they could bind to both avian-type (SAα-2,3 Gal) and human-type (SAα-2,6 Gal) receptors, suggesting that these isolates still present a high risk for human infection. Therefore, it is of great importance to implement continual surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) to protect both veterinary and public health.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H5N2; Pathogenicity; Reassortant; Waterfowl

PMID: 30269795 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.08.016 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Reassortant Strain; Wild birds; China.


Long-term #avian #influenza virus #epidemiology in a small #Spanish #wetland #ecosystem is driven by the breeding #Anseriformes community (Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Res. 2019 Jan 17;50(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s13567-019-0623-5.

Long-term avian influenza virus epidemiology in a small Spanish wetland ecosystem is driven by the breeding Anseriformes community.

Torrontegi O1, Alvarez V1, Acevedo P2, Gerrikagoitia X1, Höfle U2, Barral M3.

Author information: 1 Animal Health Department, NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Parque tecnológico de Bizkaia P-812, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain. 2 Grupo SaBio, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo 12, 13071, Ciudad Real, Spain. 3 Animal Health Department, NEIKER-Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario, Parque tecnológico de Bizkaia P-812, 48160, Derio, Bizkaia, Spain. mbarral@neiker.eus.



During 2007-2009 and 2012-2014, avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in a wild avian community of a northern Spanish wetland using non-invasive sampling methods and host identification by COI barcoding. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate AIV dynamics in a natural wetland ecosystem, taking into account both virological aspects and ecological traits of hosts. Global AIV prevalence decreased significantly during the second sampling period (0.3%) compared to the first (6.6%). Circulating subtype distributions were also different between periods, with a noteworthy H5 and H7 subtype richness during the first sampling period. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos was identified as the main AIV host, although not all positive samples could be ascribed to the host. We modelled AIV prevalence with regard to the avian host community composition and meteorological data from the wetland. Statistical analysis revealed seasonal differences in AIV detection, with higher prevalence during the breeding season compared to other phenological events. The model also shows that the lower AIV prevalence during the second study period was associated with a significant reduction of breeding Anseriformes in the wetland, revealing a long-term fluctuation of AIV prevalence driven by the breeding Anseriformes community. This longitudinal study on AIV epidemiology in a natural ecosystem reveals that although prevalence follows seasonal and annual patterns, long-term prevalence fluctuation is linked to the breeding community composition and size. These results are relevant to understanding the influence of host ecology on pathogen transmission for preventing and managing influenza emergence.

PMID: 30654831 PMCID: PMC6337815 DOI: 10.1186/s13567-019-0623-5 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; Spain.


Co-infections, genetic, and #antigenic relatedness of #avian #influenza #H5N8 and #H5N1 viruses in domestic and #wildbirds in #Egypt (Poult Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Poult Sci. 2019 Jan 22. doi: 10.3382/ps/pez011. [Epub ahead of print]

Co-infections, genetic, and antigenic relatedness of avian influenza H5N8 and H5N1 viruses in domestic and wild birds in Egypt.

Shehata AA1, Sedeik ME2, Elbestawy AR3, Zain El-Abideen MA4, Ibrahim HH5, Kilany WH4, Ali A6.

Author information: 1 Avian and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Egypt. 2 Department of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 3 Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Damanhur University, Behaira, Egypt. 4 Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production (RLQP), Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI), Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 5 Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt. 6 Poultry Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.



A total of 50 poultry farms of commercial broilers (N = 39) and commercial layers (N = 11) suffered from respiratory problems and mortality during the period from January 2016 to December 2017 were investigated. Also, samples were collected from quail (N = 4), Bluebird (Sialis, N = 1), and Greenfinch (Chloris chloris, N = 1) for analysis. Respiratory viral pathogens were screened by PCR and positive samples were subjected to virus isolation and genetic identification. Antigenic relatedness of isolated avian influenza (AI) H5 subtype was evaluated using cross-hemagglutination inhibition. Results revealed that the incidence of single virus infections in commercial broilers was 64.1% (25/39), with the highest incidence for ND (33.3%) and H9N2 (20.5%), followed by H5N1 (7.7%) and H5N8 (2.7). Meanwhile, H9N2/ND mixed infection was the most observed case (7.7%). Other mixed infections H5N1/ND, H5N1/H9N2/ND, H5N1/H9N2/ND/IB, H9N2/IB, and H9N2/ILT were also observed (2.6% each). In commercial layers, H5N1 and ILT were the only detected single infections (18.1% each). Mixed H9N2/ND was the most predominant infection in layers (27.3%). Other mixed infections of H9N2/IB, H5N1/H5N8/H9N2, and H9N2/ND/IB were observed in 3 separate farms (9.1% each). The H5N8 virus was detected in one quail farm and 2 out of 3 wild bird’s samples. Partial HA gene sequence analysis showed the clustering of the selected AI H5N8 within the clade, while H5N1 clustered with the clade Interestingly, the H5N8 isolated from chickens possessed 6 amino acids substitutions at HA1 compared to those isolated from wild birds with low antigenic relatedness to AI H5N1 clades 2.2.1 or In conclusion, mixed viral infections were observed in both broiler and layer chickens in Egypt. The detected triple H5N1, H9N2, and H5N8 influenza co-infection raises the concern of potential AI epidemic strain emergence. The low genetic and antigenic relatedness between AI H5N1 and H5N8 viruses suggest the need for modification of vaccination strategies of avian influenza in Egypt along with strict biosecurity measures.

PMID:  30668795 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pez011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; H9N2; Poultry; Wild Birds; Egypt.