#Genetic and #biological characteristics of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H1N8 in #environments related to live #poultry #markets in #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 22;19(1):458. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z.

Genetic and biological characteristics of avian influenza virus subtype H1N8 in environments related to live poultry markets in China.

Zhang Y1, Dong J1, Bo H1, Dong L1, Zou S1, Li X1, Shu Y1,2, Wang D3.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. 2 Present Address: Public Health School (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. dayanwang@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, slaughterhouses, and poultry farms. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza virus have been identified based on environmental surveillance, and an H1N8 virus was isolated from the drinking water of a live poultry market.

METHODS:

Virus isolation was performed by inoculating influenza A-positive specimens into embryonated chicken eggs. Next-generation sequencing was used for whole-genome sequencing. A solid-phase binding assay was performed to test the virus receptor binding specificity. Trypsin dependence plaque formation assays and intravenous pathogenicity index tests were used to evaluate virus pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Different cell lines were chosen for comparison of virus replication capacity.

RESULTS:

According to the phylogenetic trees, the whole gene segments of the virus named A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) were of Eurasian lineage. The HA, NA, PB1, and M genes showed the highest homology with those of H1N8 or H1N2 subtype viruses isolated from local domestic ducks, while the PB2, PA, NP and NS genes showed high similarity with the genes of H7N9 viruses detected in 2017 and 2018 in the same province. This virus presented an avian receptor binding preference. The plaque formation assay showed that it was a trypsin-dependent virus. The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chickens was 0.02. The growth kinetics of the A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) virus in different cell lines were similar to those of a human-origin virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), but lower than those of the control avian-origin and swine-origin viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H1N8 virus was identified in avian influenza-related environments in China for the first time and may have served as a gene carrier involved in the evolution of the H7N9 virus in poultry. This work further emphasizes the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance, especially in live poultry markets (LPMs). Active surveillance of avian influenza in LPMs is a major pillar supporting avian influenza control and response.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H1N8 subtype; Live poultry market

PMID: 31117981 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China; Reassortant strain; H1N1; H1N2; H7N9.

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The re-emergence of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9 viruses in #human[s] in mainland #China, 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019

Deshan Yu1,2, Guofeng Xiang1,3, Wenfei Zhu1,4, Xia Lei1,5, Baodi Li2, Yao Meng4, Lei Yang4, Hongyan Jiao6,Xiyan Li4, Weijuan Huang4, Hejiang Wei4, Yanping Zhang7, Yan Hai5, Hui Zhang2, Hua Yue5, Shumei Zou4, Xiang Zhao4, Chao Li7, Deng Ao6,Ye Zhang4, Minju Tan4, Jia Liu4, Xuemei Zhang6, George F. Gao4,7, Lei Meng2,8, Dayan Wang4,8

Affiliations: 1 These authors contributed equally in this study as first authors; 2 Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou China; 3 Jiuquan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiuquan, China; 4 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health Commission, Beijing, China; 5 Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohehot, China; 6 Alasan League Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Alasan, China; 7 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 8 These authors contributed equally as last authors in this study

Correspondence:  Dayan Wang

Citation style for this article: Yu Deshan, Xiang Guofeng, Zhu Wenfei, Lei Xia, Li Baodi, Meng Yao, Yang Lei, Jiao Hongyan, Li Xiyan, Huang Weijuan, Wei Hejiang,Zhang Yanping, Hai Yan, Zhang Hui, Yue Hua, Zou Shumei, Zhao Xiang, Li Chao, Ao Deng, Zhang Ye, Tan Minju, Liu Jia, Zhang Xuemei, Gao George F., Meng Lei,Wang Dayan. The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(21):pii=1900273. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1900273

Received: 06 May 2019;   Accepted: 23 May 2019

 

Abstract

After no reported human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 for over a year, a case with severe disease occurred in late March 2019. Among HPAI H7N9 viral sequences, those recovered from the case and from environmental samples of a poultry slaughtering stall near their home formed a distinct clade from 2017 viral sequences. Several mutations possibly associated to antigenic drift occurred in the haemagglutinin gene, potentially warranting update of H7N9 vaccine strains.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Gansu; Inner Mongolia; China.

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First successful combination of #ECMO with video-assisted thoracic surgery (#VATS) of pulmonary bullae #resection in the management of refractory #pneumothorax in a critically ill patient with #H7N9 #pneumonia and #ARDS: A case report (Medicine (Baltimore), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(20):e15661. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015661.

First successful combination of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) of pulmonary bullae resection in the management of refractory pneumothorax in a critically ill patient with H7N9 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case report.

Huang J1, Li H1, Chen S2, Lan C3, Lin Q4, Weng H1.

Author information: 1 Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2 Department of Thoracic Surgery. 3 Department of Radiology. 4 Department of Pathology, Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fu Jian, Educational Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

 

Abstract

RATIONALE:

At present, data regarding refractory pneumothorax treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) in combination with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in critically ill patients with H7N9 pneumonia have never been reported.

PATIENT CONCERNS:

A laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus was treated in our hospital. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) developed and the patient was oxygenated via veno-venous ECMO due to the failure of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately, a right refractory pneumothorax occurred. Despite treatment with pleural drainage and select bronchial occlusion, the patient still failed to improve.

DIAGNOSIS:

Fatal H7N9 pneumonia complicated with severe ARDS, pulmonary bullae, and refractory pneumothorax.

INTERVENTIONS:

Successful combination of ECMO with VATS of pulmonary bullae resection was performed and pneumothorax was cured.

OUTCOMES:

One week after the operation, ECMO was removed. However, the patient finally developed multiorgan failure (MOF) complicated by refractory hypoxemia due to progressive lung fibrosis and died 36 days after admission.

LESSONS:

Although the patient died of MOF triggered by severe lung fibrosis at last, the successful treatment of refractory pneumothorax by combination of ECMO with VATS is encouraging. Thus, when refractory pneumothorax in a patient with severe pulmonary dysfunction fails to improve through routine therapy, the treatment of pneumothorax by VATS based on ECMO support can be considered as a feasible selection.

PMID: 31096495 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015661

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; ECMO; ARDS; Pneumonia; Pneumothorax; China.

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A Site of #Vulnerability on the #Influenza Virus #Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface (Cell, abstract)

[Source: Cell, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Cell. 2019 May 16;177(5):1136-1152.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011.

A Site of Vulnerability on the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Head Domain Trimer Interface.

Bangaru S1, Lang S2, Schotsaert M3, Vanderven HA4, Zhu X2, Kose N5, Bombardi R5, Finn JA1, Kent SJ4, Gilchuk P5, Gilchuk I5, Turner HL2, García-Sastre A6, Li S7, Ward AB2, Wilson IA8, Crowe JE Jr9.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 2 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. 3 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 5 The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. 6 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA. 7 Department of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA. 8 Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: wilson@scripps.edu. 9 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address: james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu.

 

Abstract

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab’s extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: B-lymphocytes; antibodies; antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity; antigen-antibody reactions; hemagglutinin glycoproteins; influenza A virus; influenza virus; monoclonal; viral

PMID: 31100268 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.011

Keywords: Influenza A; H1N1; H3N2; H5N1; H7N9; Monoclonal antibodies; Animal models.

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A #hospital #cluster combined with a #family cluster of #avian #influenza #H7N9 #infection in #Anhui Province, #China (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 May 14. pii: S0163-4453(19)30152-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.05.008. [Epub ahead of print]

A hospital cluster combined with a family cluster of avian influenza H7N9 infection in Anhui Province, China.

Zhang W1, Zhao K1, Jin J1, He J2, Zhou W1, Wu J1, Tang R1, Ma W3, Ding C4, Liu W1, Zhang L1, Gao R5.

Author information: 1 Hefei Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230061. 2 Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230601. 3 Lujiang County People’s Hospital, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 231501. 4 The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Heifei, Anhui Province, China, 230601. 5 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China, 102206. Electronic address: gaorongbao@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To identify human-to-human transmission of H7N9 avian influenza virus, we investigated a hospital cluster combined with family cluster in this study.

METHODS:

We obtained and analyzed clinical, epidemiological and virological data from the three patients. RT-PCR, viral culture and sequencing were conducted for determination of causative pathogen.

RESULTS:

The index case presented developed pneumonia with fever after exposure to chicken in a poultry farm. Case A presented pneumonia with high fever on day 3 after she shared a hospital room with the index case. Case B, the father of the index case, presented pneumonia with high fever on day 15 after he took care of the index case. H7N9 virus circulated in the local farm to which the index case was exposed. Full genomic sequence of virus showed 99.8 to 100% identity shared between the index case and case A or case B. Compared to the earliest virus of Anhui, a total of 29 amino acid variation sites were observed in the 8 segments.

CONCLUSIONS:

A hospital cluster combined with family cluster of H7N9 avian influenza infection was identified. Air transmission resulted in the hospital cluster possibly. A poultry farm was the initially infectious source of the cluster.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Air transmission; Avian influenza virus; Family cluster; H7N9; Hospital cluster; Human-to-human transmission

PMID: 31100362 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.05.008

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Nosocomial Outbreaks; Anhui; China.

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SMRT #sequencing revealed the #diversity and characteristics of defective interfering #RNAs in #influenza A (#H7N9) virus infection (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):662-674. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1611346.

SMRT sequencing revealed the diversity and characteristics of defective interfering RNAs in influenza A (H7N9) virus infection.

Lui WY1, Yuen CK1, Li C1, Wong WM1, Lui PY1, Lin CH2, Chan KH1,3,4,5, Zhao H1,3,4,5, Chen H1, To KKW1,3,4,5, Zhang AJX1,3,4,5, Yuen KY1,3,4,5, Kok KH1.

Author information: 1a Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , People’s Republic of China. 2 b Center for Genome Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , People’s Republic of China. 3 c State Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , People’s Republic of China. 4 d Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , People’s Republic of China. 5 e Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine , University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong , People’s Republic of China.

 

Abstract

Influenza defective interfering (DI) particles are replication-incompetent viruses carrying large internal deletion in the genome. The loss of essential genetic information causes abortive viral replication, which can be rescued by co-infection with a helper virus that possesses an intact genome. Despite reports of DI particles present in seasonal influenza A H1N1 infections, their existence in human infections by the avian influenza A viruses, such as H7N9, has not been studied. Here we report the ubiquitous presence of DI-RNAs in nasopharyngeal aspirates of H7N9-infected patients. Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing was first applied and long-read sequencing analysis showed that a variety of H7N9 DI-RNA species were present in the patient samples and human bronchial epithelial cells. In several abundantly expressed DI-RNA species, long overlapping sequences have been identified around at the breakpoint region and the other side of deleted region. Influenza DI-RNA is known as a defective viral RNA with single large internal deletion. Beneficial to the long-read property of SMRT sequencing, double and triple internal deletions were identified in half of the DI-RNA species. In addition, we examined the expression of DI-RNAs in mice infected with sublethal dose of H7N9 virus at different time points. Interestingly, DI-RNAs were abundantly expressed as early as day 2 post-infection. Taken together, we reveal the diversity and characteristics of DI-RNAs found in H7N9-infected patients, cells and animals. Further investigations on this overwhelming generation of DI-RNA may provide important insights into the understanding of H7N9 viral replication and pathogenesis.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza A/H7N9 virus; Illumina sequencing; Single Molecule Real Time sequencing; defective interfering viral genome

PMID: 31084471 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1611346

Keywords: Influenza A; Avian Influenza; H7N9.

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Concomitant #severe #influenza and #cryptococcal #infections: A case report and literature review (Medicine (Baltimore), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 May;98(19):e15544. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015544.

Concomitant severe influenza and cryptococcal infections: A case report and literature review.

Huang J1, Li H1, Lan C2, Zou S3, Zhang H1, Wang X1, Weng H1.

Author information: 1 Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2 Department of Radiology. 3 Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian, Educational Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

 

Abstract

Concomitant influenza and cryptococcal infections are rare. Herein, we describe an unusual case of an avian influenza A (H7N9) infection with several severe mixed bacterial infections and systemic super-infection with Cryptococcus neoformans presenting as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and bloodstream infection in a previously immunocompetent man during hospitalization.A 58-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of hyperpyrexia, dyspnoea, cough, and phlegm with blood. A chest computed tomography scan revealed multiple ground-glass opacities and consolidation in both lungs with right pleural effusion. An initial sputum test was positive for influenza A (H7N9) virus. After antiviral treatment and other supportive measures, the patient’s condition improved. However, the patient’s condition deteriorated again approximately 2 weeks after admission, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood cultures were positive for C. neoformans. Therapy with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole was started. After a 2-week antifungal treatment, BALF and blood cultures were negative for C. neoformans. However, the patient had persistent lung infiltrates with severe pulmonary fibrosis with a prolonged course of disease. On hospital day 40, BALF and blood cultures were both positive for multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Finally, the patient developed septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation and multi-organ failure and succumbed to treatment failure.Cryptococcal infection can occur in patients with severe influenza during hospitalization with a more severe condition, and the clinician should be aware of this infection.

PMID: 31083210 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000015544

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Cryptococcus neoformans.

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