The global burden of premature #mortality due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome (#MERS) using standard expected years of life lost, 2012 to 2019 (BMC Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2019 Nov 14;19(1):1523. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7899-2.

The global burden of premature mortality due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) using standard expected years of life lost, 2012 to 2019.

Salamatbakhsh M1, Mobaraki K2, Sadeghimohammadi S3, Ahmadzadeh J4.

Author information: 1 MSc of Critical Care Nursing, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. 2 Epidemiologist, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. 3 MSc of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran. 4 Epidemiologist, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Ahmadzadeh.j@umsu.ac.ir.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been 8 years since the first case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported in Saudi Arabia and the disease is still being reported in 27 countries; however, there is no international study to estimate the overall burden related of this emerging infectious disease. The present study was conducted to assess the burden of premature mortality due to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) worldwide.

METHODS:

In this retrospective analysis, we have utilized publicly available data from the WHO website related to 1789 MERS patients reported between September 23, 2012 and May 17, 2019. To calculate the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL), life expectancy at birth was set according to the 2000 global burden of disease study on levels 25 and 26 of West model life tables from Coale-Demeny at 82.5 and 80 years for females and males, respectively.

RESULTS:

Overall, the total SEYLL in males and females was 10,702 and 3817.5 years, respectively. The MERS patients within the age range of 30-59 year-olds had the highest SEYLL (8305.5 years) in comparison to the patients within the age groups 0-29 (SEYLL = 3744.5 years) and ≥ 60 years (SEYLL = 2466.5 years). The total SEYLL in all age groups in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 71.5, 2006.5, 3162, 4425.5, 1809.5, 878, 1257.5 and 909 years, respectively. The most SEYLL related to MERS-CoV infection was in the early four years of the onset of the pandemic (2012 to 2015) and in the last four years of the MERS-CoV pandemic (216 to 2019), a significant reduction was observed in the SEYLL related to MERS-CoV infection in the MERS patients.

CONCLUSION:

We believe that the findings of this study will shed light about the burden of premature mortality due to MERS infection in the world and the results may provide necessary information for policy-makers to prevent, control, and make a quick response to the outbreak of MERS-CoV disease.

KEYWORDS: Burden of disease; Premature mortality; Standard expected years of life; Worldwide

PMID: 31727042 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7899-2

Keywords: MERS-CoV.

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Complete #Genome #Sequence of a #Colombian #Zika Virus Strain Obtained from BALB/c Mouse #Brain after Intraperitoneal Inoculation (Microbiol Resourc Announc., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microbiol Resour Announc. 2019 Nov 14;8(46). pii: e01719-18. doi: 10.1128/MRA.01719-18.

Complete Genome Sequence of a Colombian Zika Virus Strain Obtained from BALB/c Mouse Brain after Intraperitoneal Inoculation.

Laiton-Donato K1, Álvarez-Díaz DA2, Rengifo AC3, Torres-Fernández O2, Usme-Ciro JA1,4, Rivera JA2, Santamaría G2, Naizaque J2, Monroy-Gómez J2,5, Sarmiento L2, Gunturiz ML6, Muñoz A7, Vanegas R7, Rico A1, Pardo L1, Peláez-Carvajal D1.

Author information: 1 Grupo de Virología, Dirección de Redes en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. 2 Grupo de Morfología Celular, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. 3 Grupo de Morfología Celular, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, DC, Colombia arengifo@ins.gov.co. 4 Centro de Investigación en Salud para el Trópico-CIST, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Santa Marta, Colombia. 5 Escuela Colombiana de Rehabilitación, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. 6 Equipo Banco de Proyectos, Dirección de Investigación en Salud Pública, Bogotá, DC, Colombia. 7 Grupo Animales de Laboratorio, Dirección de Producción, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Bogotá, DC, Colombia.

 

Abstract

A Zika virus (ZIKV) strain was isolated from an acute febrile patient during the Zika epidemics in Colombia. The strain was intraperitoneally inoculated into BALB/c mice, and 7 days postinoculation, neurological manifestations and ZIKV infection in the brain were demonstrated. The reported genome sequence is highly related to strains circulating in the Americas.

Copyright © 2019 Laiton-Donato et al.

PMID: 31727724 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.01719-18

Keywords: Zika Virus; Colombia.

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#Drug #Decriminalization: A Matter of #Justice and #Equity, Not Just Health (Am J Prev Med., abstract)

[Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Drug Decriminalization: A Matter of Justice and Equity, Not Just Health

Hakique N. Virani, MD1, Rebecca J. Haines-Saah, PhD2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.08.012

Published online: November 15, 2019

 

Abstract

Since 2016, more than 10,300 Canadians have died of an apparent opioid-related overdose, with the majority involving fentanyl or fentanyl analogs.1 This unprecedented public health crisis has decreased life expectancy at birth in the country’s most affected provinces of Alberta and British Columbia.2 Concerned by this epidemic of overdoses, Canadian advocates for drug policy reform have welcomed the recent recommendation from British Columbia’s Provincial Health Officer that drug possession for personal use be decriminalized.

© 2019 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Opioids; Illicit drugs; Society; Canada.

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#Streptococcus suis–Associated #Meningitis, #Bali, #Indonesia, 2014–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / CME ACTIVITY – Research

Streptococcus suis–Associated Meningitis, Bali, Indonesia, 2014–2017

Ni Made Susilawathi, Ni Made Adi Tarini, Ni Nengah Dwi Fatmawati, Putu I.B. Mayura, Anak Agung Ayu Suryapraba, Made Subrata, Anak Agung Raka Sudewi, and Gusti Ngurah Mahardika

Author affiliations: Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

 

Abstract

Streptococcus suis is an emerging agent of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in Asia. We describe the epidemiology of S. suis cases and clinical signs and microbiological findings in persons with meningitis in Bali, Indonesia, using patient data and bacterial cultures of cerebrospinal fluid collected during 2014–2017. We conducted microbiological assays using the fully automatic VITEK 2 COMPACT system. We amplified and sequenced gene fragments of glutamate dehydrogenase and recombination/repair protein and conducted PCR serotyping to confirm some serotypes. Of 71 cases, 44 were confirmed as S. suis; 29 isolates were serotype 2. The average patient age was 48.1 years, and 89% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients with confirmed cases recovered without complications; 11% recovered with septic shock, 7% with deafness, and 2% with deafness and arthritis. The case-fatality rate was 11%. Awareness of S. suis infection risk must be increased in health promotion activities in Bali.

Keywords: Streptococcus suis; Meningitis; Indonesia.

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#TB, #HIV, and viral #hepatitis #diagnostics in eastern #Europe and central #Asia: high time for integrated and people-centred services (Lancet Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Tuberculosis, HIV, and viral hepatitis diagnostics in eastern Europe and central Asia: high time for integrated and people-centred services

Masoud Dara, MD  †, Soudeh Ehsani, MD, Antons Mozalevskis, MD, Elena Vovc, MD, Daniel Simões, MPH, Ana Avellon Calvo, PhD, Jordi Casabona i Barbarà, PhD, Otar Chokoshvili, MPH, Irina Felker, PhD, Sven Hoffner, PhD, Gulmira Kalmambetova, PhD, Ecatarina Noroc, MD, Natalia Shubladze, PhD, Alena Skrahina, MD, Rasim Tahirli, MD, Prof Tengiz Tsertsvadze, PhD,

Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30524-9

 

Summary

Globally, high rates (and in the WHO European region an increasing prevalence) of co-infection with tuberculosis and HIV and HIV and hepatitis C virus exist. In eastern European and central Asian countries, the tuberculosis, HIV, and viral hepatitis programmes, including diagnostic services, are separate vertical structures. In this Personal View, we consider underlying reasons for the poor integration for these diseases, particularly in the WHO European region, and how to address this with an initial focus on diagnostic services. In part, this low integration has reflected different diagnostic development histories, global funding sources, and sample types used for diagnosis (eg, typically sputum for tuberculosis and blood for HIV and hepatitis C). Cooperation between services improved as patients with tuberculosis needed routine testing for HIV and vice versa, but financial, infection control, and logistical barriers remain. Multidisease diagnostic platforms exist, but to be used optimally, appropriate staff training and sensible understanding of different laboratory and infection control risks needs rapid implementation. Technically these ideas are all feasible. Poor coordination between these vertical systems remains unhelpful. There is a need to increase political and operational integration of diagnostic and treatment services and bring them closer to patients.

Keywords: Public Health; European Region; TB; HIV/AIDS; Viral hepatitis.

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#Influenza viruses that require 10 #genomic segments as #antiviral #therapeutics (PLOS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Influenza viruses that require 10 genomic segments as antiviral therapeutics

Alfred T. Harding , Griffin D. Haas , Benjamin S. Chambers, Nicholas S. Heaton

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Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008098 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) encode their genome across eight, negative sense RNA segments. During viral assembly, the failure to package all eight segments, or packaging a mutated segment, renders the resulting virion incompletely infectious. It is known that the accumulation of these defective particles can limit viral disease by interfering with the spread of fully infectious particles. In order to harness this phenomenon therapeutically, we defined which viral packaging signals were amenable to duplication and developed a viral genetic platform which produced replication competent IAVs that require up to two additional artificial genome segments for full infectivity. The modified and artificial genome segments propagated by this approach are capable of acting as “decoy” segments that, when packaged by coinfecting wild-type viruses, lead to the production of non-infectious viral particles. Although IAVs which require 10 genomic segments for full infectivity are able to replicate themselves and spread in vivo, their genomic modifications render them avirulent in mice. Administration of these viruses, both prophylactically and therapeutically, was able to rescue animals from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Together, our results show that replicating IAVs designed to propagate and spread defective genomic segments represent a potent anti-influenza biological therapy that can target the conserved process of particle assembly to limit viral disease.

 

Author summary

Influenza infections are best prevented via prophylactic vaccination. Vaccination, however, is incompletely efficacious, necessitating the use of anti-influenza therapeutics. To date, several different classes of anti-influenza therapeutics have been developed and used in order to combat these infections. Unfortunately, the incidence of influenza resistance to many of these therapeutics has begun to rise, necessitating the development of new strategies. One such strategy is to mimic the activity of naturally occurring viral particles that harbor defective genomes. These defective interfering particles have the ability to interfere with productive viral assembly, preventing the spread of influenza viruses across the respiratory tract. Furthermore, given the manner in which they target influenza segment packaging, a conserved feature of all influenza A viruses, resistance to this therapeutic strategy is unlikely. Here, we report the development of a genetic platform that allows the production of replicating influenza viruses which require 10 genomic segments to be fully infectious. These viruses are capable of amplifying themselves in isolation, but coinfection with a wild-type virus leads to segment exchange and compromises the spread of both viruses. This interference, while mechanistically distinct from naturally occurring defective particles, was able to target the same viral process and rescue animals exposed to an otherwise lethal viral infection. This viral-based approach may represent a cost effective and scalable method to generate effective anti-influenza therapeutics when vaccines or antiviral drugs become ineffective due to the acquisition of viral resistance mutations.

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Citation: Harding AT, Haas GD, Chambers BS, Heaton NS (2019) Influenza viruses that require 10 genomic segments as antiviral therapeutics. PLoS Pathog 15(11): e1008098. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008098

Editor: Carolina B. Lopez, University of Pennsylvania, UNITED STATES

Received: February 7, 2019; Accepted: September 20, 2019; Published: November 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Harding et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: N.S.H. is partially supported by federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under CEIRS Contract No. HHSN272201400005C. A.T.H and B.S.C. were supported by NIH training grant T32-CA009111. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Influenza A.

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#Development, #environmental #degradation, and #disease spread in the #Brazilian #Amazon (PLOS Biol., abstract)

[Source: PLOS Biology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS / PERSPECTIVE

Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon

Marcia C. Castro , Andres Baeza, Cláudia Torres Codeço, Zulma M. Cucunubá, Ana Paula Dal’Asta, Giulio A. De Leo, Andrew P. Dobson, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Raquel Martins Lana, Rachel Lowe, Antonio Miguel Vieira Monteiro, Mercedes Pascual, Mauricio Santos-Vega

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Published: November 15, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

The Amazon is Brazil’s greatest natural resource and invaluable to the rest of the world as a buffer against climate change. The recent election of Brazil’s president brought disputes over development plans for the region back into the spotlight. Historically, the development model for the Amazon has focused on exploitation of natural resources, resulting in environmental degradation, particularly deforestation. Although considerable attention has focused on the long-term global cost of “losing the Amazon,” too little attention has focused on the emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases that directly impact the local population, with spillover effects to other neighboring areas. We discuss the impact of Amazon development models on human health, with a focus on vector-borne disease risk. We outline policy actions that could mitigate these negative impacts while creating opportunities for environmentally sensitive economic activities.

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Citation: Castro MC, Baeza A, Codeço CT, Cucunubá ZM, Dal’Asta AP, De Leo GA, et al. (2019) Development, environmental degradation, and disease spread in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS Biol 17(11): e3000526. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000526

Published: November 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Castro et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) under funding from the National Science Foundation (DBI-1639145) supported this work. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Abbreviations: DETER, Detection of Deforestation in Real Time; EIA, environmental impact assessment; EMBRAPA, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation; INPE, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais; NMCP, National Malaria Control Program; OTCA, Organización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica; PAHO, Pan American Health Organization

Provenance: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Keywords: Public Health; Environmental disasters; Emerging Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Brazil; Amazon.

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