#Zika Virus and #Pregnancy: Association between Acute #Infection and #Microcephaly in #Newborns in the State of #Rio de Janeiro, #Brazil (Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 2020 Jan;80(1):60-65. doi: 10.1055/a-0972-2052. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Zika Virus and Pregnancy: Association between Acute Infection and Microcephaly in Newborns in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Pereira AM1, Araujo Júnior E2,3, Werner H4, Monteiro DLM1.

Author information: 1 Perinatal Unit, State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil. 2 Department of Obstetrics, Paulista School of Medicine – Federal University of São Paulo (EPM-UNIFESP), São Paulo-SP, Brazil. 3 Medical course, Municipal University of São Caetano do Sul (USCS), São Paulo-SP, Brazil. 4 Department of Radiology, Clínica de Diagnóstico por Imagem (CPDI), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

 

Abstract in English, German

Introduction Aim of the study was to evaluate the association between microcephaly and acute infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) in pregnant women in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Infection was confirmed by laboratory testing. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study of pregnant women with symptoms occurring between 2015 and 2016 suggestive of acute ZIKV infection was carried out, with confirmation of infection done by blood or urine RT-PCR. The relative proportions of categorical variables were calculated for two distinct groups: pregnant women whose newborns had microcephaly and pregnant women who gave birth to infants without microcephaly. Confidence intervals with a 95% level of agreement were estimated for the relative ratios. Results A total of 1609 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.4 ± 6.5 years were evaluated. As regards the time of acute infection, 19.6% (316) of cases occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy. Nineteen (76%) of the 25 cases with microcephaly (1.5%) were associated with an infection contracted in the first trimester of pregnancy (p < 0.001, OR = 13.7, 95% CI: 5.6 - 37.7). 48% (12/25) of the newborns with microcephaly had a birth weight of < 2500 grams, while only 7% (116/1597) of the group of newborns without microcephaly had a similarly low birth weight (p < 0.001, OR = 11.7, 95% CI: 5.2 - 26.2). Logistic regression showed that a birth weight of < 2500 g (OR = 12.54) and ZIKV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 14.05) were associated with microcephaly (area under ROC curve = 0.86). Conclusion Acute ZIKV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy and low birth weight are associated with microcephaly.

KEYWORDS: Zika virus; congenital infection; first trimester of pregnancy; low birth weight; microcephaly

PMID: 31949320 PMCID: PMC6957353 DOI: 10.1055/a-0972-2052

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Microcephaly; Brazil; Pregnancy.

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#Vector #Competence and #Vertical #Transmission of #Zika Virus in #Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector Competence and Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

Xiaoxia Guo, Chunxiao Li, Yongqiang Deng, Yuting Jiang, Aijuan Sun, Qinmei Liu, Yande Dong, Dan Xing, Wuchun Cao, Chengfeng Qin, and Tongyan Zhao

Published Online: 14 Jan 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2492

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Aedes albopictus is widely distributed in China. However, little is known about the vector competence of Ae. albopictus in China. The present study presents the oral susceptibility and vector competence of Ae. albopictus Guangzhou strain to ZIKV. Additionally, vertical transmission of ZIKV is described. The results demonstrated the susceptibility of local Ae. albopictus mosquitoes to ZIKV with an extrinsic incubation period of 6 days. Disseminated infection was observed in Ae. albopictus starting on day 2 postinfection (PI). Starting on day 6 PI, the saliva of Ae. albopictus exhibited ZIKV infection, and the transmission rate was 36.4%. Vertical transmission was observed during the first gonotrophic cycle. The minimum infection rate was observed in third-to-fourth instar larvae.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; China.

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#Sequencing of #ZIKV #genomes directly from Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus #mosquitoes collected during the 2015-16 #epidemics in #Recife (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jan 6:104180. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104180. [Epub ahead of print]

Sequencing of ZIKV genomes directly from Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected during the 2015-16 epidemics in Recife.

Paiva MHS1, Guedes DRD2, Krokovsky L2, Machado LC2, Rezende TMT2, de Morais Sobral MC2, Ayres CFJ2, Wallau GL3.

Author information: 1 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Caruaru, Brazil. 2 Entomology Department of the Aggeu Magalhães Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 3 Entomology Department of the Aggeu Magalhães Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Electronic address: gabriel.wallau@cpqam.fiocruz.br.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a negative sense RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, which was relatively unknown until the first human epidemic in Micronesia, in 2007. Since its spread to French Polynesia and the Americas. Recife, the capital of Pernambuco state and epicenter of the Zika epidemic in Brazil, experienced a large number of microcephaly cases and other congenital abnormalities associated to the ZIKV infection from, 2015 to 16. Evidences suggest that both Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from Recife are capable of replicating and transmitting the virus. Here, we conducted high throughput sequencing of ZIKV genomes directly from Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected during the ZIKV epidemics in Recife, in order to investigate the variability and evolution of the virus. We obtained 11 draft ZIKV genomes derived from 5 pools from each Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus species. Genome coverage breadth ranged from 16 to 100% and average depth from 45 to 46,584×. Two of these genomes were obtained from pools of unfed Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Amino acid substitutions found here were not species-specific, which could indicate species specific virus adaptation. In addition, molecular clock dating estimated that ZIKV draft genomes obtained here were co-circulating in the region during the epidemics. Overall results highlight that viral mutations and even minor variants can be detected in genomes directly sequenced from mosquito samples and insights about natural viral genomic variability and viral evolution can be useful when designing tools for mosquito control programs.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Arboviruses; Culex quinquefasciatus; Surveillance; ZIKV

PMID: 31918041 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104180

Keywords: Zika Virus; Aedes aegypti; Culex quinquefascitus; Mosquitoes; Brazil.

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#Reciprocal immune #enhancement of #dengue and #Zika virus #infection in #human #skin (JCI Insight, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

JCI Insight. 2020 Jan 7. pii: 133653. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.133653. [Epub ahead of print]

Reciprocal immune enhancement of dengue and Zika virus infection in human skin.

Castanha PM, Erdos G, Watkins SC, Falo LD Jr, Marques ET, Barratt-Boyes SM.

 

Abstract

Dengue (DENV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that co-circulate in tropical regions and constitute major threats to global human health. Whether preexisting immunity to one virus affects disease caused by the other during primary or secondary infections is unknown but is critical in preparing for future outbreaks and predicting vaccine safety. Using a human skin explant model, we show that DENV-3 immune sera increased recruitment and infection of Langerhans cells, macrophages and dermal dendritic cells following inoculation with DENV-2 or ZIKV. Similarly, ZIKV immune sera enhanced infection with DENV-2. Immune sera increased migration of infected Langerhans cells to dermis and emigration of infected cells out of skin. Heterotypic immune sera increased viral RNA in dermis almost tenfold and reduced the amount of virus required to infect a majority of myeloid cells by 100 to 1,000 fold. Enhancement was associated with cross-reactive IgG and induction of IL-10 expression and was mediated by both CD32 and CD64 Fcγ receptors. These findings reveal that preexisting heterotypic immunity greatly enhances DENV and ZIKV infection, replication and spread in human skin. This relevant tissue model will be valuable in assessing the efficacy and risk of dengue and Zika vaccines in humans.

KEYWORDS: Dendritic cells; Immunoglobulins; Immunology; Infectious disease; Macrophages

PMID: 31910161 DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.133653

Keywords: Dengue fever; Zika Virus; ADE.

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Longitudinal analysis of the #antibody #repertoire of a #Zika virus-infected patient revealed dynamic changes in antibody response (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):111-123. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1701953.

Longitudinal analysis of the antibody repertoire of a Zika virus-infected patient revealed dynamic changes in antibody response.

Niu X1, Yan Q2,3, Yao Z2,4, Zhang F2,4, Qu L2, Wang C5, Wang C6, Lei H1, Chen C2, Liang R1, Luo J2, Wang Q2,3, Zhao L7, Zhang Y2,3, Luo K2,3, Wang L2,4, Wu H1, Liu T1, Li P2, Zheng Z8, Tan YJ8, Feng L2, Zhang Z6, Han J5, Zhang F7, Chen L1,2.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. 2 Guangdong Laboratory of Computational Biomedicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. 3 University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 4 Institute of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China. 5 HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, AL, USA. 6 Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. 7 Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. 8 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System (NUHS), National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

 

Abstract

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes neonatal abnormalities and other disorders. Antibodies to the ZIKV envelope (E) protein can block infection. In this study, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mRNA transcripts was combined with single-cell PCR cloning of E-binding monoclonal antibodies for analysing antibody response in a patient from the early stages of infection to more than one year after the clearance of the virus. The patient’s IgH repertoire 14 and 64 days after symptom onset showed dramatic dominant clonal expansion but low clonal diversity. IgH repertoire 6 months after disease-free status had few dominant clones but increased diversity. E-binding antibodies appeared abundantly in the repertoire during the early stages of infection but quickly declined after clearance of the virus. Certain VH genes such as VH5-10-1 and VH4-39 appeared to be preferentially enlisted for a rapid antibody response to ZIKV infection. Most of these antibodies require relatively few somatic hypermutations to acquire the ability to bind to the E protein, pointing to a possible mechanism for rapid defence against ZIKV infection. This study provides a unique and holistic view of the dynamic changes and characteristics of the antibody response to ZIKV infection.

KEYWORDS: Zika virus; antibody; monoclonal antibody; next-generation sequencing; repertoire

PMID: 31906823 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1701953

Keywords: Zika Virus.

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#Neurodevelopmental #Abnormalities in #Children With In Utero #Zika Virus Exposure Without Congenital Zika Syndrome (JAMA Pediatr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Jan 6. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5204. [Epub ahead of print]

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Children With In Utero Zika Virus Exposure Without Congenital Zika Syndrome.

Mulkey SB1,2,3, Arroyave-Wessel M1, Peyton C4, Bulas DI1,5, Fourzali Y6, Jiang J1, Russo S1, McCarter R1, Msall ME7, du Plessis AJ1,2,3, DeBiasi RL1,2,8, Cure C9.

Author information: 1 Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC. 2 Department of Pediatrics, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 3 Department of Neurology, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 4 Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. 5 Department of Radiology, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 6 Sabbag Radiologos, Barranquilla, Colombia. 7 Kennedy Research Center on Neurodevelopmental Disabilities, University of Chicago Comer Children’s Hospital, Chicago, Illinois. 8 Department of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC. 9 BIOMELAB, Barranquilla, Colombia.

 

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

The number of children who were born to mothers with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy but who did not have apparent disability at birth is large, warranting the study of the risk for neurodevelopmental impairment in this population without congenital Zika syndrome (CZS).

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate whether infants without CZS but who were exposed to ZIKV in utero have normal neurodevelopmental outcomes until 18 months of age.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This cohort study prospectively enrolled a group of pregnant women with ZIKV in Atlántico Department, Colombia, and in Washington, DC. With this cohort, we performed a longitudinal study of infant neurodevelopment. Infants born between August 1, 2016, and November 30, 2017, were included if they were live born, had normal fetal brain findings on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography, were normocephalic at birth, and had normal examination results without clinical evidence of CZS. Seventy-seven infants born in Colombia, but 0 infants born in the United States, met the inclusion criteria.

EXPOSURES:

Prenatal ZIKV exposure.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Infant development was assessed by the Warner Initial Developmental Evaluation of Adaptive and Functional Skills (WIDEA) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at 1 or 2 time points between 4 and 18 months of age. The WIDEA and AIMS scores were converted to z scores compared with normative samples. Longitudinal mixed-effects regression models based on bootstrap resampling methods estimated scores over time, accounting for gestational age at maternal ZIKV infection and infant age at assessment. Results were presented as slope coefficients with 2-tailed P values based on z statistics that tested whether the coefficient differed from 0 (no change).

RESULTS:

Of the 77 Colombian infants included in this cohort study, 70 (91%) had no CZS and underwent neurodevelopmental assessments. Forty infants (57%) were evaluated between 4 and 8 months of age at a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 5.9 (5.3-6.5) months, and 60 (86%) underwent assessment between 9 and 18 months of age at a median (IQR) age of 13.0 (11.2-16.4) months. The WIDEA total score (coefficients: age = -0.227 vs age2 = 0.006; P < .003) and self-care domain score (coefficients: age = -0.238 vs age2 = 0.01; P < .008) showed curvilinear associations with age. Other domain scores showed linear declines with increasing age based on coefficients for communication (-0.036; P = .001), social cognition (-0.10; P < .001), and mobility (-0.14; P < .001). The AIMS scores were similar to the normative sample over time (95% CI, -0.107 to 0.037; P = .34). Nineteen of 57 infants (33%) who underwent postnatal cranial ultrasonography had a nonspecific, mild finding. No difference was found in the decline of WIDEA z scores between infants with and those without cranial ultrasonography findings except for a complex interactive relationship involving the social cognition domain (P < .049). The AIMS z scores were lower in infants with nonspecific cranial ultrasonography findings (-0.49; P = .07).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

This study found that infants with in utero ZIKV exposure without CZS appeared at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in the first 18 months of life. Long-term neurodevelopmental surveillance of all newborns with ZIKV exposure is recommended.

PMID: 31904798 DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5204

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Psychiatry; Neurology.

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#Surveillance for #Zika in #Mexico: naturally infected #mosquitoes in #urban and semi-urban areas (Pathog Glob Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathog Glob Health. 2020 Jan 5:1-6. doi: 10.1080/20477724.2019.1706291. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance for Zika in Mexico: naturally infected mosquitoes in urban and semi-urban areas.

Correa-Morales F1, González-Acosta C2, Mejía-Zúñiga D3, Huerta H4, Pérez-Rentería C4, Vazquez-Pichardo M4, Ortega-Morales AI5, Hernández-Triana LM6, Salazar-Bueyes VM1, Moreno-García M7.

Author information: 1 Subdirección del Programa de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores, Centro Nacional de Programas Preventivos y Control de Enfermedades, Ciudad de México, México. 2 Coordinación de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vector y Zoonosis, Servicios de Salud de Morelos, Cuernavaca, México. 3 Unidad de Investigación Entomológica y Bioensayos-Servicios de Salud de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México. 4 Laboratorio de Entomología, Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos ‘Dr. Manuel Martínez Báez’, Ciudad de México, México. 5 Departamento de Parasitología, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro Unidad Laguna, Torreón, México. 6 Animal and Plant Health Agency, Virology Department, Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Addlestone, UK. 7 Unidad de Investigación Entomológica y Bioensayos-Centro Regional de Control de Vectores Panchimalco-Servicios de Salud de Morelos, Jojutla, México.

 

Abstract

Zika cases have been reported in 29 out of the 32 states of Mexico. Information regarding which mosquito species might be driving Zika virus transmission/maintenance in nature must be regularly updated. From January 2017 to November 2018, mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using the CDC backpack aspirator in urban and semi-urban areas with evidence of mosquito-borne disease transmission. 3873 mosquito pools were tested for Zika infection using the CDC Trioplex real-time RT-PCR. For each collected specie, maximum likelihood estimator of infection rate (MLE) was estimated. Results showed 492 mosquito pools positive for Zika virus RNA. The majority of the positive pools were Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) (54.6%, MLE = 19) (males and females) and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus (Say) (19.5%, MLE = 16.8). For the first time, ZIKV infection was detected in Ae. (Georgecraigius) epactius (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = 17.1), Cx. (Melanoconion) erraticus (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = non-estimable), Culiseta (Culiseta) inornata (Williston) (MLE = non estimable), and Cs (Cs.) particeps (Adams) (MLE = 369.5). Other detected species were: Ae. (Stg.) albopictus (Skuse) (MLE = 90.5), Cx. (Cx.) coronator s.l. (Dyar and Knab) (MLE = 102.8) and Cx. (Cx.) tarsalis (Coquillett) (MLE = 117.2). However, our results do not allow for the incrimination of these species as vectors of ZIKV. Routine surveillance should start to consider other mosquito species across the taxonomic spectrum of the Culicidae.

KEYWORDS: Arbovirus; Culicidae; mosquito-borne diseases; vector control

PMID: 31902313 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2019.1706291

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes spp.; Mexico.

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