#Postmortem evidence of disseminated #Zika virus #infection in an #adult patient (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 11. pii: S1201-9712(19)30060-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.047. [Epub ahead of print]

Postmortem evidence of disseminated Zika virus infection in an adult patient.

Rajahram GS1, Hale G2, Bhatnagar J2, Hiu J3, Thayan R4, William T5, Wong KT6, Tambyah PA7, Yeo TW8.

Author information: 1 Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Clinical Research Centre, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. 2 Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 3 Department of Forensic Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. 4 Virology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute of Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 5 Jesselton Medical Centre, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia. 6 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 7 Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore. 8 Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Institute of Infectious Disease and Epidemiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

 

Abstract

Zika virus infections in immunocompetent adults typically are asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms, but have also been associated with neurological complications including Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Zika virusassociated non-neurological fatalities in adults are rare. Herein, we describe a decedent with multiple commodities who developed an acute febrile illness with rash days prior to death. A post-mortem evaluation detected molecular evidence of disseminated Zika virus. Further testing by Zika virus in-situ hybridization identified genomic and replicative Zika viral RNA in renal tubular epithelial cells, and cardiomyocytes, providing insights into organ-specific viral reservoirs.

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Zika Virus Post-Mortem Myocarditis Renal Tubule In-situ hybridisation

PMID: 30763620 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.01.047

Keywords: Zika Virus.

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#Fibroblast growth factor 2 enhances #Zika virus #infection in human #fetal #brain (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Fibroblast growth factor 2 enhances Zika virus infection in human fetal brain

Daniel Limonta, Juan Jovel, Anil Kumar, Julia Lu, Shangmei Hou, Adriana M Airo, Joaquin Lopez-Orozco, Cheung Pang Wong, Leina Saito, William Branton, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Andrew Mason, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz073, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz073

Published: 13 February 2019

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that can cause microcephaly and other neurological defects in developing fetuses. The cellular response to ZIKV in the fetal brain is not well understood. Here, we show that ZIKV infection of human fetal astrocytes (HFAs), the most abundant cell type in the brain, results in elevated expression and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). This cytokine was shown to enhance replication and spread of ZIKV in HFAs and human fetal brain explants. The pro-viral effect of FGF2 is likely mediated in part by suppression of the interferon response, which would represent a novel mechanism by which viruses antagonize host antiviral defenses. We posit that FGF2-enhanced virus replication in the fetal brain contributes to the neurodevelopmental disorders associated with in utero ZIKV infection. As such, targeting FGF2-dependent signaling should be explored further as a strategy to limit replication of ZIKV.

Zika virus, fibroblast growth factor 2, astrocytes, fetal brain, explant, interferon, congenital, MAP kinase

Issue Section: Major Article

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection.

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The #Zika virus #seroprevalence in #urban and #rural areas of #Suriname in 2017 (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The Zika virus seroprevalence in urban and rural areas of Suriname in 2017

Thomas Langerak, Tom Brinkman, Noreen Mumtaz, Georgina Arron, Sandra Hermelijn, Gaitree Baldewsingh, Merril Wongsokarijo, Lesley Resida, Barry Rockx, Marion P G Koopmans, Eric C M van Gorp, Stephen Vreden

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz063, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz063

Published: 12 February 2019

 

Abstract

In 2015-2016, a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak occurred in the Americas. In 2017, we conducted a ZIKV serosurvey in Suriname in which 770 participants were recruited from one urban area and two rural villages in the tropical rainforest. All collected samples were tested for presence of ZIKV antibodies using a ZIKV IgG ELISA and a virus neutralisation assay. We found that 35.1% of the participants had neutralizing antibodies against ZIKV. In one remote village in the rainforest, 24.5% of the participants had neutralizing antibodies against ZIKV, suggesting that ZIKV was widely spread across Suriname.

Zika virus, seroprevalence, Suriname, flaviviruses

Issue Section:

Brief Report

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Zika Virus; Seroprevalence; Suriname.

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#Zika virus: #Epidemiological #surveillance of the #Mexican Institute of Social Security (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Zika virus: Epidemiological surveillance of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

Concepción Grajales-Muñiz, Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto, David Alejandro Cabrera-Gaytán, Teresita Rojas-Mendoza, Lumumba Arriaga-Nieto, Alfonso Vallejos-Parás

Published: February 11, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212114

 

Abstract

Introduction

At the end of 2015, the first cases of Zika were identified in southern Mexico. During 2016, Zika spread as an outbreak to a large part of the country’s coastal zones.

Methodology

The Zika epidemiological surveillance system records cases with clinical symptoms of Zika virus disease (ZVD) and those confirmed by means of a reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. This report includes the suspected and confirmed cases from 2016. Incidence rates were estimated by region and in pregnant women based on the proportion of confirmed cases.

Results

In total, 43,725 suspected cases of ZVD were reported. The overall incidence of suspected cases of ZVD was 82.0 per 100,000 individuals and 25.3 per 100,000 Zika cases. There were 4,168 pregnant women with suspected symptoms of ZVD, of which infection was confirmed in 1,082 (26%). The estimated incidence rate of ZVD for pregnant women nationwide was 186.1 positive Zika cases per 100,000 pregnant women.

Conclusions

The incidence of Zika in Mexico is higher than that reported previously in the National System of Epidemiological Surveillance. Positive cases of Zika must be estimated and reported.

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Citation: Grajales-Muñiz C, Borja-Aburto VH, Cabrera-Gaytán DA, Rojas-Mendoza T, Arriaga-Nieto L, Vallejos-Parás A (2019) Zika virus: Epidemiological surveillance of the Mexican Institute of Social Security. PLoS ONE 14(2): e0212114. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0212114

Editor: Abdallah M. Samy, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University (ASU), EGYPT

Received: July 13, 2018; Accepted: January 27, 2019; Published: February 11, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Grajales-Muñiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All files are available from the public repository database. https://figshare.com/articles/Zika_virus_epidemiological_surveillance_of_the_Mexican_Institute_of_Social_Security/7152377.

Funding: This work was supported by CONACyT (Mexico’s National Science and Research Council). Through the Technical Committee and Fund Management International Cooperation in Science and Technology CONACYT (FONCICYT) number 274386 to VHBA. This work is part of “The Global Alliance to Control and Prevent the Zika Virus”. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mexico.

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Detection of #Zika virus in mouse mammary #gland and #breast #milk (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Detection of Zika virus in mouse mammary gland and breast milk

Jose Angel Regla-Nava, Karla M. Viramontes, Teodora Vozdolska, Anh-Thy Huynh, Tom Villani, Graeme Gardner, Michael Johnson, Pamela J. Ferro, Sujan Shresta , Kenneth Kim

Published: February 11, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007080 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Clinical reports of Zika Virus (ZIKV) RNA detection in breast milk have been described, but evidence conflicts as to whether this RNA represents infectious virus. We infected post-parturient AG129 murine dams deficient in type I and II interferon receptors with ZIKV. ZIKV RNA was detected in pup stomach milk clots (SMC) as early as 1 day post maternal infection (dpi) and persisted as late as 7 dpi. In mammary tissues, ZIKV replication was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in multiple cell types including cells morphologically consistent with myoepithelial cells. No mastitis was seen histopathologically. In the SMC and tissues of the nursing pups, no infectious virus was detected via focus forming assay. However, serial passages of fresh milk supernatant yielded infectious virus, and immunohistochemistry showed ZIKV replication protein associated with degraded cells in SMC. These results suggest that breast milk may contain infectious ZIKV. However, breast milk transmission (BMT) does not occur in this mouse strain that is highly sensitive to ZIKV infection. These results suggest a low risk for breast milk transmission of ZIKV, and provide a platform for investigating ZIKV entry into milk and mechanisms which may prevent or permit BMT.

 

Author summary

Can Zika virus be transmitted from nursing mothers to their children via breast milk? Only 4 years have passed since the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, and much remains to be understood about the transmission and health consequences of Zika infection. To date some case reports have detected Zika virus RNA in the breast milk of infected mothers, but the presence of a virus’ RNA does not mean that intact virus is present. Milk also contains many natural defense components against infection, so even intact virus carried in breast milk may not be infectious to a child. Here we used a mouse that is genetically engineered to be highly susceptible to Zika infection, and tested whether 1) we could find intact virus in mouse breast milk and 2) infection was passed from mother to pups. We found very low levels of intact Zika virus in mouse breast milk, and found none of the nursing pups to be infected. The model of Zika virus breast milk infection developed in this study establishes a system by which we may learn whether Zika RNA in human breast milk is truly infectious to children, and how Zika virus may enter the milk.

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Citation: Regla-Nava JA, Viramontes KM, Vozdolska T, Huynh A-T, Villani T, Gardner G, et al. (2019) Detection of Zika virus in mouse mammary gland and breast milk. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007080. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007080

Editor: David W.C. Beasley, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: June 5, 2018; Accepted: December 14, 2018; Published: February 11, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Regla-Nava et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This research was funded by NIH grants (R01 AI116813 and R21 NS100477 to S.S.) and the Chiba-UCSD Center for Mucosal Immunology, Allergy and Vaccine Development. And the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology institutional support.

Competing interests: M.J. is CEO of Visikol.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Pregnancy; Animal models.

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#Impact of preexisting #dengue #immunity on #Zika virus #emergence in a dengue endemic region (Science, abstract)

[Source: Science, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Impact of preexisting dengue immunity on Zika virus emergence in a dengue endemic region

Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer1,*, Federico Costa2,3,4,*, Eduardo J. M. Nascimento5,*, Nivison Nery Júnior2,3, Priscila M. S. Castanha6,7, Gielson Almeida Sacramento3, Jaqueline Cruz3, Mayara Carvalho3, Daiana De Olivera3, José E. Hagan3,4, Haritha Adhikarla4, Elsio A. Wunder Jr.3,4, Danilo F. Coêlho6,8, Sasha R. Azar9, Shannan L. Rossi10, Nikos Vasilakis11, Scott C. Weaver10, Guilherme S. Ribeiro2,3,12, Angel Balmaseda13,14, Eva Harris15, Maurício L. Nogueira16, Mitermayer G. Reis3,4,12, Ernesto T. A. Marques5,6,17,*, Derek A. T. Cummings18,19,*,†, Albert I. Ko3,4,*,†

1 Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. 2 Instituto da Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 3 Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/MS, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 4 Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA. 5 Department of Infectious Disease and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 6 Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz/MS, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 7 Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. 8 Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50740-540, Brazil. 9 Institute for Translational Science, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 10 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 11 Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. 12 Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 13 Sustainable Sciences Institute, Managua, Nicaragua. 14 Laboratorio Nacional de Virología, Centro Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia, Ministry of Health, Managua, Nicaragua. 15 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. 16 Faculdade de Medicina de São Jose do Rio Preto, São Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. 17 Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 18 Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. 19 Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

†Corresponding author. Email: albert.ko@yale.edu (A.I.K.); datc@ufl.edu (D.A.T.C.)

* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Science  08 Feb 2019: Vol. 363, Issue 6427, pp. 607-610 / DOI: 10.1126/science.aav6618

 

Zika dynamics in South America

The infection dynamics of Zika virus (ZIKV) are difficult to characterize. Many ZIKV infections are asymptomatic, and the clinical presentation of ZIKV is nonspecific. Rodriguez-Barraquer et al. took advantage of a long-term health study under way in Salvador, Brazil, the epicenter of the recent outbreak in the Americas. They used multiple serological assays, from before and after the emergence of ZIKV in October 2015, to distinguish ZIKV immune responses from those against Dengue virus (DENV). About 73% of the population was attacked by ZIKV. The presence of preexisting antibodies to DENV was associated with less risk of ZIKV infection and fewer symptoms.

Science, this issue p. 607

 

Abstract

The clinical outcomes associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas have been well documented, but other aspects of the pandemic, such as attack rates and risk factors, are poorly understood. We prospectively followed a cohort of 1453 urban residents in Salvador, Brazil, and, using an assay that measured immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) responses against ZIKV NS1 antigen, we estimated that 73% of individuals were infected during the 2015 outbreak. Attack rates were spatially heterogeneous, varying by a factor of 3 within a community spanning 0.17 square kilometers. Preexisting high antibody titers to dengue virus were associated with reduced risk of ZIKV infection and symptoms. The landscape of ZIKV immunity that now exists may affect the risk for future transmission.

Keywords: Dengue fever; Zika Virus; Brazil.

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#Serological evidence of #infection with #dengue and #Zika viruses in #horses on French #Pacific Islands (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands

Cécile Beck , Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Denise Desoutter, Estelle Debergé, Hervé Bichet, Steeve Lowenski, Marine Dumarest, Gaelle Gonzalez, Camille Migné, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Stéphan Zientara, Benoit Durand , Sylvie Lecollinet

Published: February 7, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

New Caledonia and French Polynesia are areas in which arboviruses circulate extensively. A large serological survey among horses from New Caledonia and French Polynesia was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of flaviviruses in the horse population. Here, 293 equine sera samples were screened for flaviviruses using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). The positive sera were then confirmed using a flavivirus-specific microsphere immunoassay (MIA) and seroneutralization tests. This serosurvey showed that 16.6% (27/163) and 30.8% (40/130) of horses were positive for cELISA tests in New Caledonia and French Polynesia, respectively, but the MIA technique, targeting only flaviviruses causing neuro-invasive infections in humans and horses (i.e. West Nile virus [WNV], Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] and tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), showed negative results for more than 85% (57/67) of the cELISA-positive animals. Seroneutralization tests with the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific revealed that 6.1% (10/163; confidence interval [95% CI] 3.0%-11.0%) of sera in New Caledonia and 7.7% (10/130; 95% CI 3.8%-13.7%) in French Polynesia were positive for dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV1) and 4.3% (7/163; 95% CI 1.7%-8.6%) in New Caledonia and 15.4% (20/130, 95% CI 9.7%-22.8%) in French Polynesia were found positive for Zika virus (ZIKV). Seroprevalence of the JEV and WNV flaviviruses on the 293 samples from both island groups were comparatively much lower (less than 2%). This seroprevalence study in the horse population shows that horses can be infected with dengue and Zika viruses and that these infections lead to seroconversions in horses. The consequences of these infections in horses and their role in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles are two issues that deserve further investigation.

 

Author summary

New Caledonia and French Polynesia, located in the South Pacific, are facing circulation of dengue virus (DENV) for a long time and emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) since 2013. A large serosurvey among horses’ population from these two islands was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of the main flaviviruses circulating in the South Pacific. We find out that 6 to 7% of equine sera tested were positive for DENV serotype 1 in the two islands and 4% and 15% were positive for ZIKV in New Caledonia and French Polynesia respectively. Our study highlighted serological evidence of DENV serotype 1 and ZIKV infections of horses leading to meaningful seroconversion. Seroprevalence of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses (i.e. Japanese encephalitis and West-Nile viruses) were comparatively much lower (less than 2%) in New Caledonia and French Polynesia groups suggesting the absence of past active circulation of these viruses in both islands. This finding emphasized the need to investigate the consequences of such infections in the horse population and to determine the role of domestic animals in ZIKV and DENV epidemiological cycles.

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Citation: Beck C, Leparc-Goffart I, Desoutter D, Debergé E, Bichet H, Lowenski S, et al. (2019) Serological evidence of infection with dengue and Zika viruses in horses on French Pacific Islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007162

Editor: David W.C. Beasley, University of Texas Medical Branch, UNITED STATES

Received: July 24, 2018; Accepted: January 15, 2019; Published: February 7, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Beck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: The authors received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika Virus; Dengue Fever; Horses; New Caledonia.

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