#Clinical and x-ray #oral #evaluation in patients with #congenital #Zika Virus (J Appl Oral Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Appl Oral Sci. 2019 May 20;27:e20180276. doi: 10.1590/1678-7757-2018-0276.

Clinical and x-ray oral evaluation in patients with congenital Zika Virus.

Carvalho IF1, Alencar PNB1, Carvalho de Andrade MD1, Silva PGB1, Carvalho EDF1, Araújo LS1, Cavalcante MPM1, Sousa FB1.

Author information: 1 Centro Universitário Christus, Departamento de Odontologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to investigate possible malformations in the soft, bone and/or dental tissues in patients with congenital Zika Virus (ZIKV) by clinical and x-ray evaluation.

METHODOLOGY:

Thirty children born with ZIKV and 30 children born without ZIKV (control group) were included in the study. Patients were evaluated over 24 consecutive months according to the variables: sex, age, cleft palates, soft tissue lesions, alveolar ridge hyperplasia, short labial and lingual frenums, inadequate posture of the lingual and perioral muscles at rest, micrognathia, narrow palatine vaults, changes in the teeth shape and/or number, sequence eruption, spasms, seizures and eruption delay were evaluated. Chi-square test, Student’s t-test and nominal logistic regression were used (p<0.05).

RESULTS:

Among the 30 babies examined, the mean age of the first dental eruption was 10.8±3.8 with almost two-thirds of the children (n=18, 60%) experiencing eruptions of their first tooth after 9 months of age, nine children (30%) had inadequate lingual posture at rest, more than half of the children (n=18, 60%) had short labial or lingual frenums. ZIKV babies showed a high prevalence of clef palate (p<0.001), inadequate lingual posture at rest (p=0.004), micrognathia (p=0.002), changes in the shape and/or number of teeth (p=0.006), alteration in sequence of dental eruption (p<0.001) and muscles spasms (p=0.002). The delay eruption was associated with inadequate lingual posture at rest (p=0.047), micrognathia (p=0.002) and changes in the shape and/or number of teeth (p=0.021). The delayed eruption (p=0.006) and narrow palatine vaults (p=0.008) were independently associated with ZIKV. Moreover, female patients showed the most narrow palatine vaults (p=0.010).

CONCLUSIONS:

The children with ZIKV showed a greater tendency to have delayed eruption of the first deciduous tooth, inadequate lingual posture and short labial and lingual frenums.

PMID: 31116278 DOI: 10.1590/1678-7757-2018-0276

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Brazil.

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#GBS Associated With #Zika Virus #Infection: A Prospective Case Series From #Mexico (Front Neurol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Neurol. 2019 Apr 30;10:435. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00435. eCollection 2019.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated With Zika Virus Infection: A Prospective Case Series From Mexico.

Soto-Hernández JL1, Ponce de León Rosales S2, Vargas Cañas ES3, Cárdenas G1, Carrillo Loza K4, Díaz-Quiñonez JA5,6, López-Martínez I5, Jiménez-Corona ME7, Ruiz-Matus C7, Kuri Morales P6.

Author information: 1 Department of Infectious Diseases National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suárez, Mexico City, Mexico. 2 Programa Universitario de Investigación en Salud UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico. 3 Neuromuscular Clinic, Department of Neurology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suárez, Mexico City, Mexico. 4 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suárez, Mexico City, Mexico. 5 Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos “Dr. Manuel Martínez Báez”, Mexico City, Mexico. 6 División de Estudios de Postgrado, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico. 7 Dirección General de Epidemiología, Mexico City, Mexico.

 

Abstract

Background:

On May 2016, anticipating the rainy season from June to October in Mexico, we expected an increase in cases of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections. With the goal of identifying cases of GBS associated with ZIKV infection, a prospective joint study was conducted by a reference center for neurological patients and the Secretary of Health in Mexico City from July 2016 to November 2016.

Methods:

Serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and saliva were tested by RT-PCR for ZIKV, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus in patients referred from states with reported transmissions of ZIKV infection, and with clinical symptoms of GBS according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria. Clinical, electrophysiological, and long-term disability data were collected.

Results:

In the year 2016 twenty-eight patients with GBS were diagnosed at our institute. In five hospitalized patients with GBS, RT-PCR was positive to ZIKV in any collected specimen. Dengue and chikungunya RT-PCR results were negative. All five patients had areflexic flaccid weakness, and cranial nerves affected in three. Electrophysiological patterns were demyelinating in two patients and axonal in three. Three patients were discharged improved in 10 days or less, and two patients required intensive care unit admission, and completely recovered during follow-up.

Conclusion:

Our results are similar to those reported from the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in which out of 33 samples of urine of patients with GBS two had a positive RT-PCR for ZIKV. Simultaneous processing of serum, CSF, urine, and saliva by RT-PCR may increase the success of diagnosis of GBS associated to ZIKV.

KEYWORDS: Guillain–Barré Syndrome; RT-PCR; Zika virus; cranial neuropathies multiple; flavivirus infection

PMID: 31114537 PMCID: PMC6502985 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00435

Keywords: Zika Virus; GBS; Neurology; Mexico.

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Schlafen 11 Restricts #Flavivirus #Replication (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Schlafen 11 Restricts Flavivirus Replication.

Federico Valdez, Julienne Salvador, Pedro M. Palermo, Jonathon E. Mohl, Kathryn A. Hanley, Douglas Watts, Manuel Llano

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00104-19

 

ABSTRACT

Schlafen 11 (Slfn11) is an interferon-stimulated gene that controls synthesis of proteins by regulating tRNA abundance. Likely through this mechanism, Slfn11 has previously been shown to impair human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection and the expression of codon-biased open reading frames. Because replication of positive-sense single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] viruses requires the immediate translation of the incoming viral genome whereas negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [(-)ssRNA] viruses carry at infection an RNA replicase that makes multiple translation competent copies of the incoming viral genome, we reasoned that (+)ssRNA viruses will be more sensitive to the effect of Slfn11 on protein synthesis than (-)ssRNA viruses. To evaluate this hypothesis, we tested the effects of Slfn11 on the replication of a panel of ssRNA viruses in the human glioblastoma cell line A172, which naturally expresses Slfn11. Depletion of Slfn11 significantly increased the replication of (+)ssRNA viruses from the Flavivirus genus, including West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) but had no significant effect on the replication of the (-)ssRNA viruses vesicular stomatitis (VSV, Rhabdoviridae family) and Rift Valley fever (RVFV, Phenuiviridae family). Quantification of the genome-containing viral particles to plaque forming units ratio indicated that Slfn11 impairs WNV infectivity. Intriguingly, Slfn11 prevented WNV-induced down-regulation of a subset of tRNAs implicated in the translation of 11.8% of the viral polyprotein. Low abundance tRNAs might promote optimal protein folding and enhance viral infectivity, as previously reported. In summary, this study demonstrates that Slfn11 restricts flavivirus replication by impairing viral infectivity.

 

AUTHOR SUMMARY

We provide evidence that the cellular protein Schlafen 11 (Slfn11) impairs replication of flaviviruses, including West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). However, replication of single-stranded, negative RNA viruses was not affected. Specifically, Slfn11 decreases the infectivity of WNV potentially by preventing virus-induced modifications of the host tRNA repertoire that could lead to enhanced viral protein folding. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Slfn11 is not the limiting factor of this novel broad anti-viral pathway.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Flavivirus; Zika virus; WNV; Dengue fever; Interferons.

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Comparative analysis of #viral #entry for Asian and African #lineages of #Zika virus (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Apr 25;533:59-67. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparative analysis of viral entry for Asian and African lineages of Zika virus.

Rinkenberger N1, Schoggins JW2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. 2 Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Electronic address: john.schoggins@utsouthwestern.edu.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen with global health and economic impacts. ZIKV circulates as two major lineages, Asian or African. The Asian lineage has recently been associated with significant disease in humans. Numerous studies have revealed differences between African and Asian ZIKV strains with respect to cellular infectivity, pathogenesis, and immune activation. Less is known about the mechanism of ZIKV entry and whether viral entry differs between strains. Here, we characterized ZIKV entry with two Asian and two African strains. All viruses exhibited a requirement for clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Rab5a function. Additionally, all ZIKV strains tested were sensitive to pH in the range of 6.5-6.1 and were reliant on endosomal acidification for infection. Finally, we provide direct evidence that ZIKV primarily fuses with late endosomes. These findings contribute new insight into the ZIKV entry process and suggest that divergent ZIKV strains enter cells in a highly conserved manner.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Endosome; Entry; Flavivirus; Internalization; Zika

PMID: 31112915 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.008

Keywords: Zika Virus; Viral pathogenesis.

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Use of #mosquito #repellents to protect against #Zika virus infection among #pregnant women in #Brazil (Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Public Health. 2019 May 17;171:89-96. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.04.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Use of mosquito repellents to protect against Zika virus infection among pregnant women in Brazil.

Dantas Melo VA1, Santos Silva JR2, La Corte R3.

Author information: 1 Graduate Program in Parasitic Biology, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenue Marechal Rondon S/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, University City Professor José Aloísio de Campos São Cristovão, Brazil. 2 Graduate Program in Parasitic Biology, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenue Marechal Rondon S/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, University City Professor José Aloísio de Campos São Cristovão, Brazil; Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenue Marechal Rondon S/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, University City Professor José Aloísio de Campos São Cristovão, Brazil. 3 Graduate Program in Parasitic Biology, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenue Marechal Rondon S/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, University City Professor José Aloísio de Campos São Cristovão, Brazil; Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe, Avenue Marechal Rondon S/n. Jardim Rosa Elze, University City Professor José Aloísio de Campos São Cristovão, Brazil. Electronic address: rlacorte@ufs.br.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the use of repellents among pregnant women as a protective measure against infection with the Zika virus.

STUDY DESIGN:

Pregnant women (n = 177) were interviewed between November 2016 and February 2017 at Basic Health Units in the city of Propriá, state of Sergipe, Brazil. Two units were located in rural areas and eight in urban regions.

METHODS:

Data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods, the Chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios. The independent variables were grouped by analysis of the main components, and adherence to the use of the repellent was analysed by the logistic regression method.

RESULTS:

A total of 100 women reported using repellents at the time of the interview (56%). The use of repellents was greater among women with higher levels of education (83%) than those with only high school (68%) or elementary school (36%) education. Women assisted by the income transfer programme (Bolsa Família) presented a 2.27 times greater chance of not using repellents compared with pregnant women who were not receiving benefits of the programme. Regarding the logistic regression model, we observed that low economic and social conditions of pregnant women, as well as their lack of advice, had a negative effect on the use of repellents.

CONCLUSIONS:

Repellents were generally used as a preventive measure in pregnant women with higher levels of schooling and fewer children. The relatively high cost of repellents was the main reason for non-use.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Aedes aegypti; Pregnant women; Repellents; Vector control; Zika virus

PMID: 31112836 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.04.002

Keywords: Zika Virus; Pregnancy; Society; Poverty; Mosquitoes repellents.

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Development of Secondary #Microcephaly After #Delivery: Possible Consequence of #Mother- #Baby #Transmission of #Zika Virus in #Breast #Milk (Am J Case Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Case Rep. 2019 May 21;20:723-725. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.915726.

Development of Secondary Microcephaly After Delivery: Possible Consequence of Mother-Baby Transmission of Zika Virus in Breast Milk.

Siqueira Mello A1, Pascalicchio Bertozzi APA2, Rodrigues MMD2, Gazeta RE2, Moron AF3, Soriano-Arandes A4, Sarmento SGP3, Vedovello D1, Silva ACB1, Grillo Fajardo TC1, Witkin SS5, Passos SD2,1.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Pediatric Infectology, Department of Pediatrics, Jundiaí School of Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 2 Department of Pediatrics, Jundiaí School of Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 3 Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) – Paulista School of Medicine and Paulista Center for Fetal Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 4 Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiencies Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. 5 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, NY, USA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Zika virus is an arbovirus that has as main source of transmission the bite of infected insects of the genus Aedes and has been associated with cases of congenital malformation and microcephaly in neonates. However, other sources of transmission have been identified since the emergence of this virus in the world population, such as vertical transmission by semen and possibly other body fluids such as vaginal secretion and breast milk.

CASE REPORT

An infant, born to a mother whose previous delivery was a baby with severe microcephaly, was normal and was negative for Zika virus at birth but developed secondary microcephaly 1 month later, that persisted. The baby was exclusively breast-fed and Zika virus was present in the mother’s milk.

CONCLUSIONS

We report the detection of Zika virus exclusively in the breast milk of a woman after her second delivery of an infant, who later developed microcephaly. This case is consistent with possible vertical transmission.

PMID: 31110169 DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.915726

Keywords: Zika Virus; Pregnancy; Microcephaly.

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#Transmission #potential of African, Asian and American #Zika virus #strains by #Aedes aegypti and #Culex quinquefasciatus from #Guadeloupe (French West Indies) (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):699-706. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1615849.

Transmission potential of African, Asian and American Zika virus strains by Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus from Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

Hery L1, Boullis A1, Delannay C1, Vega-Rúa A1.

Author information: 1a Institute Pasteur of Guadeloupe, Laboratory of Vector Control research, Unit Transmission Reservoir and Pathogens Diversity , Les Abymes , France.

 

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus that has dramatically spread in South America and the Caribbean regions since 2015. The majority of vector incrimination studies available for ZIKV showed that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors for this virus. However, several reports suggest that Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes may be implicated in ZIKV transmission in certain urban settings. In the present study, we evaluated the vector competence for ZIKV of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Guadeloupe using African, American and Asian strains. The results demonstrated that Cx. quinquefasciatus is refractory to ZIKV infection whatever the strain tested at 7, 14 or 21 days post-infection (dpi), while ZIKV transmission was recorded in Ae. aegypti for all the three strains. The African ZIKV strain was better transmitted by Ae. aegypti (∼ 50% mean transmission efficiency) and with a shorter incubation period (7 dpi) when compared to the Asian and American strains (<14% transmission efficiency; incubation period of 14-21 dpi). Taken together, these results suggest that only Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are involved in urban ZIKV transmission in Guadeloupe and highlight a higher infectiousness of the African ZIKV strain in this mosquito species when compared to the Asian and American ones.

KEYWORDS: Guadeloupe; Zika virus; vector competence

PMID: 31109248 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1615849

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Culex quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti; Guadeloupe.

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