#Virological and #epidemiological #patterns of #swine #influenza A virus infections in #France: Cumulative data from the RESAVIP surveillance network, 2011-2018

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2019 Dec;239:108477. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108477. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Virological and epidemiological patterns of swine influenza A virus infections in France: Cumulative data from the RESAVIP surveillance network, 2011-2018.

Hervé S1, Garin E2, Calavas D3, Lecarpentier L4, Ngwa-Mbot D5, Poliak S6, Wendling S7, Rose N8, Simon G9.

Author information: 1 ANSES, French Agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Swine Virology Immunology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Swine Influenza, Ploufragan, France; Bretagne Loire University, France. Electronic address: severine.herve@anses.fr. 2 Coop de France, Animal Health Service, Paris, France; Epidemiological Surveillance Platform for Animal Health (ESA Platform), Operational Team, Paris, France. 3 Epidemiological Surveillance Platform for Animal Health (ESA Platform), Operational Team, Paris, France; ANSES, French Agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety, Lyon Laboratory, Epidemiological Surveillance Platform for animal health (ESA Platform), Lyon, France. 4 SNGTV, French National Society of Veterinary Technical Groups, Paris, France. 5 GDS France, French Federation of Health Protection Groups, Paris, France. 6 ADILVA, French Association of Directors and Executives of Public Veterinary Laboratories, Paris, France. 7 Epidemiological Surveillance Platform for Animal Health (ESA Platform), Operational Team, Paris, France; Ministry of Agriculture, DGAL, Directorate General for Food, Paris, France. 8 Bretagne Loire University, France; ANSES, French Agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Epidemiology, Health and Welfare Unit, Ploufragan, France. 9 ANSES, French Agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety, Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort Laboratory, Swine Virology Immunology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Swine Influenza, Ploufragan, France; Bretagne Loire University, France.



Swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) cause acute respiratory syndromes in pigs and may also infect humans. Following the 2009 pandemic, a network was established in France to reinforce swIAV monitoring. This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6 %) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6 %), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1 % and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6 %) was detected throughout the country, without settling in areas of higher pig densities. Its proportion increased in winter, during the seasonal epidemics in humans. The European human-like reassortant swine H3N2 as well as H1avN2 viruses were identified sporadically. In up to 30 % of swIAV-positive cases, pigs exhibited clinical signs of high intensity, regardless of the viral subtype and vaccination program. The recurrent pattern of the disease, i.e., an endemic infection at the herd level, was reported in 41% of cases and mainly affected post-weaning piglets (OR = 5.11 [3.36-7.76]). Interestingly, the study also revealed a significant association between the recurrent pattern and sow vaccination (OR = 1.96 [1.37-2.80]). Although restricted to the studied pig population, these results bring new knowledge about swIAV dynamics and infection patterns in pig herds in France.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Epidemiological features; Pigs; RESAVIP; Surveillance; Swine influenza A virus

PMID: 31767089 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108477

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N2; H3N2; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; France; Reassortant strain.


#Mosquitoes of North-Western #Europe as Potential #Vectors of #Arboviruses: A Review (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 14;11(11). pii: E1059. doi: 10.3390/v11111059.

Mosquitoes of North-Western Europe as Potential Vectors of Arboviruses: A Review.

Martinet JP1,2, Ferté H1,3, Failloux AB2, Schaffner F4,5, Depaquit J1,3.

Author information: 1 Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, ANSES, SFR Cap Santé, EA7510 ESCAPE-USC VECPAR, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51096 Reims CEDEX, France. 2 Arbovirus et Insectes Vecteurs, Département de Virologie, Institut Pasteur, 25-28 rue du docteur Roux, 75015 Paris, France. 3 Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Hôpital Maison-Blanche, CHU de Reims, 45 rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France. 4 National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 71, 8006 Zürich, Switzerland. 5 Francis Schaffner Consultancy, Lörracherstrasse 50, 4125 Riehen (Basel-Land), Switzerland.




The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown.


To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses.


A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed.


Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus.


Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.

KEYWORDS: Aedes; Anopheles; Culex; Culiseta; Usutu; West Nile; Zika; chikungunya; dengue; transmission

PMID: 31739553 DOI: 10.3390/v11111059

Keywords: Zika Virus; Mosquitoes; Aedes albopictus; France.


The first local cases of #Zika virus in #Europe (Lancet, summary)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

The first local cases of Zika virus in Europe

Oliver J Brady, Simon I Hay

Published: November 18, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32790-4


In October, 2019, the first mosquito-transmitted, locally acquired cases of Zika virus were reported in Europe.1 This outbreak event has implications far beyond the three people affected and represents a new phase in the global Zika threat. When Zika virus first emerged in the Pacific in 2007, then spread to the Americas and the Caribbean in 2015–17, the global community treated Zika virus as an epidemic disease. The Zika virus was expected to spread to Asia,2 but when surveillance began, not only were outbreaks in Asia found to be due to indigenous strains of Zika virus, but the virus was found to have been circulating silently for decades.3



OJB reports grants from Wellcome and SIH declares no competing interests.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.


#Vector-borne #transmission of #Zika virus in #Europe, southern #France, August 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019

Sandra Giron1, Florian Franke1, Anne Decoppet2, Bernard Cadiou3, Thierry Travaglini3, Laurence Thirion4, Guillaume Durand4,5, Charles Jeannin3, Grégory L’Ambert3, Gilda Grard4,5, Harold Noël6, Nelly Fournet6, Michelle Auzet-Caillaud2, Christine Zandotti5, Samer Aboukaïs2, Pascal Chaud1, Saby Guedj7, Lakri Hamouda7, Xavier Naudot8, Anne Ovize8, Clément Lazarus9, Henriette de Valk6, Marie-Claire Paty6, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart4,5

Affiliations: 1 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Marseille, France; 2 Regional Health Agency of Provence-Alpes-Côtes d’Azur (ARS Paca), Marseille, France; 3 Entente interdépartementale pour la démoustication du littoral méditerranéen (EID Méditerranée), Montpellier, France; 4 Unité des Virus Emergents (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ – IRD 190 – Inserm 1207 – IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France; 5 Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses, Marseille, France; 6 Santé publique France (French National Public Health Agency), Saint-Maurice, France; 7 Médecin généraliste, Hyères, France; 8 Eurofins Biomnis, Lyon, France; 9 Public Health Emergency Operations Centre, Division of Surveillance and Health Security, Ministry of Health, General Directorate for Health, Health Emergencies Crisis Management Centre, Paris, France

Correspondence:  Harold Noel

Citation style for this article: Giron Sandra, Franke Florian, Decoppet Anne, Cadiou Bernard, Travaglini Thierry, Thirion Laurence, Durand Guillaume, Jeannin Charles, L’Ambert Grégory, Grard Gilda, Noël Harold, Fournet Nelly, Auzet-Caillaud Michelle, Zandotti Christine, Aboukaïs Samer, Chaud Pascal, Guedj Saby, Hamouda Lakri, Naudot Xavier, Ovize Anne, Lazarus Clément, de Valk Henriette, Paty Marie-Claire, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle. Vector-borne transmission of Zika virus in Europe, southern France, August 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(45):pii=1900655. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.45.1900655

Received: 29 Oct 2019;   Accepted: 07 Nov 2019



On 1 October 2019, a locally-acquired Zika virus disease case was laboratory confirmed in Hyères, Var department. Active case finding identified two additional locally-acquired cases living within 90 m, with symptom onset 8 days before the index case. Extensive patient interviews did not yield information supporting transmission through sexual contact or substances of human origin. Vector-borne transmission by local Aedes albopictus mosquitoes is the most likely mode of transmission. Here we describe the public health response.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Zika Virus; France.


#Human #Infection with #Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole #Genome, #France, 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research

Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017

Julien Andreani, Jessica Fongue, Jacques Y. Bou Khalil, Laurene David, Saïd Mougari, Marion Le Bideau, Jonatas Abrahão, Philippe Berbis, and Bernard La Scola

Author affiliations: Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France (J. Andreani, J.Y. Bou Khalil, S. Mougari, M. Le Bideau, B. La Scola); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hôpital Nord, Marseille (J. Fongue, L. David, P. Berbis); Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (J. Abrahão)



Zoonotic transmission of parapoxvirus from animals to humans has been reported; clinical manifestations are skin lesions on the fingers and hands after contact with infected animals. We report a human infection clinically suspected as being ecthyma contagiosum. The patient, a 65-year-old woman, had 3 nodules on her hands. She reported contact with a sheep during the Aïd-el-Fitr festival in France during 2017. We isolated the parapoxvirus orf virus from these nodules by using a nonconventional cell and sequenced the orf genome. We identified a novel orf virus genome and compared it with genomes of other orf viruses. More research is needed on the genus Parapoxvirus to understand worldwide distribution of and infection by orf virus, especially transmission between goats and sheep.

Keywords: Parapoxvirus; Orf virus; Human; France.


#Incidence, characteristics, and #mortality of infective #endocarditis in #France in 2011 (PLOS One, abstract)

[Source: PLOS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Incidence, characteristics, and mortality of infective endocarditis in France in 2011

S. Sunder , L. Grammatico-Guillon  , A. Lemaignen, M. Lacasse, C. Gaborit, D. Boutoille, P. Tattevin, E. Denes, T. Guimard, M. Dupont, L. Fauchier, L. Bernard


Published: October 25, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223857




We assessed the determinants of mortality in infective endocarditis (IE), using the national hospital discharge databases (HDD) in 2011.


IE stays were extracted from the national HDD, with a definition based on IE-related diagnosis codes. This definition has been assessed according to Duke criteria by checking a sample of medical charts of IE giving a predictive positive value of 86.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.7% – 89.5%). The impact of heart valve surgery on survival has been studied if performed during the initial stay, and over the year of follow-up. Risk factors of in-hospital mortality were identified using logistic regression model for the initial stay and Cox Time-dependent model for the 1-year mortality.


The analysis included 6,235 patients. The annual incidence of definite IEs was 63 cases/million residents. Staphylococci and Streptococci were the most common bacteria (44% and 45%, respectively). A valvular surgery was performed in 20% of cases, but substantial variations existed between hospitals. The in-hospital mortality was 21% (ranging 12% to 27% according to the region of patients), associated with age>70, chronic liver disease, renal failure, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa or candida infection and strokes whereas valvular surgery, a native valve IE or intraveinous drug use (right heart IE) were significantly protective for an initial death. The same factors were associated with the one-year mortality, except for valvular surgery which was associated with a 1.4-fold higher risk of death during the year post IE.


We reported a high IE incidence rate. Valvular surgery was considerably less frequent in this study than in the previous published data (near 50%) whereas mortality was similar. Surgery was associated with higher survival if undergone within the initial stay. There were significant regional differences in frequency of surgery but it did not impact mortality.


Citation: Sunder S, Grammatico-Guillon L, Lemaignen A, Lacasse M, Gaborit C, Boutoille D, et al. (2019) Incidence, characteristics, and mortality of infective endocarditis in France in 2011. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223857. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223857

Editor: Dafna Yahav, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, ISRAEL

Received: May 23, 2019; Accepted: September 30, 2019; Published: October 25, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Sunder et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data cannot be shared publicly because of the restricted access of the national health medico-administrative databases. The Database is only allowed and built according to a protocol agreement (+IRB and ethic statement) and the access is secured on a dedicated web platform of the ATIH (Agence Technique de L’information Médicale). The data are available for the researchers in charge of the study only on the platform; analyzes are done on it and no data could be extracted; only the aggregated results and statistics. However, the data underlying the results presented in the study are available from the ATIH (French agency for the medico-administrative health data) after obtaining the authorization. Hence, researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data could apply our algorithm and perform the same analyzes as we did after agreement. Hence, the contact information for a non-author point of contact at the ATIH where interested researchers may request access to the data underlying the results is the following demande_base@atih.sante.fr and the procedure to follow are exposed on their website: https://www.atih.sante.fr/bases-de-donnees/commande-de-bases.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Endocarditis; France.


#Oseltamivir #resistance in #severe #influenza A #H1N1pdm09 #pneumonia and #ARDS: a #French multicenter observational cohort study (Clin Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 20. pii: ciz904. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz904. [Epub ahead of print]

Oseltamivir resistance in severe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a French multicenter observational cohort study.

Behillil S1, May F2,3, Fourati S4, Luyt CE5, Chicheportiche T5, Sonneville R6, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte Y7, Roux D8, Guérin L9, Mayaux J10, Maury E11, Ferré A12, Georger JF13, Voiriot G14, Enouf V1, van der Werf S1, Dessap AM2,3, de Prost N2,3.

Author information: 1 Unité de Génétique Moléculaire des Virus à ARN et Centre National de Référence des Virus des Infections Respiratoires (dont la grippe), Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. 2 Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France. 3 Groupe de Recherche Clinique CARMAS, Université Paris-Est Créteil, IMRB, Créteil,  France. 4 Département de Microbiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France. 5 Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Hôpital de La Pitié Salpétrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 6 Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 7 Service de Réanimation médico-chirurgicale, Hôpital Avicenne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Bobigny, France. 8 Service de réanimation médico-chirurgicale, Hôpital Louis Mourier, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Colombes,  France; IAME, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France. 9 Service de réanimation médicale, Hôpital Bicètre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Le Kremlin-Bicètre, France. 10 Service de Réanimation Médicale et Pneumologie, Hôpital de La Pitié Salpétrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 11 Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 12 Service de Réanimation, Centre hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France. 13 Service de Réanimation, Centre hospitalier Intercommunal de Villeneuve Saint-Georges, Villeneuve Saint-Georges, France. 14 Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.



In a multicenter cohort study including 22 oseltamivir-treated patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 acute respiratory distress syndrome, prevalence of the H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase, responsible for highly reduced sensitivity to oseltamivir, was 23%. Patients infected with the H275Y mutant virus had higher day-28 mortality than others (80% vs 12%; p=0.011).

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

KEYWORDS: Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Oseltamivir; Pneumonia, Viral; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult

PMID: 31538643 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciz904

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Pneumonia; ARDS; France.