#Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and #aerosol transmission of #Influenza D virus in #cattle (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and aerosol transmission of Influenza D virus in cattle

Elias Salem, Sara Hägglund, Hervé Cassard, Tifenn Corre, Katarina Näslund, Charlotte Foret, David Gauthier, Anne Pinard, Maxence Delverdier, Siamak Zohari, Jean-François Valarcher,Mariette Ducatez, Gilles Meyer

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01853-18



The recently discovered influenza D virus (IDV) of the Orthomyxoviridae family has been detected in swine and ruminants with a worldwide distribution. Cattle are considered to be the primary host and reservoir and previous studies suggested a tropism of IDV for the upper respiratory tract and a putative role in the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex. This study aimed to characterize the pathogenicity of IDV in naive calves, as well as the ability of this virus to transmit by air. Eight naive calves were infected by aerosol with a recent French isolate, D/bovine/France/5920/2014. Results show that IDV replicates not only in the upper but also the lower respiratory tracts (LRT), inducing moderate bronchopneumonia with restricted lesions of interstitial pneumonia. Inoculation was followed by IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses. Study of the innate immune response in the LRT of IDV infected calves indicated the overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and of chemokines CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4, but without overexpression of genes involved in the type I interferon pathway. Finally, virological examination of three aerosol-sentinel animals, housed 3 meters apart from inoculated calves, and IDV detection in air samples collected in different areas showed that IDV can be airborne transmitted and infect naïve contact calves on short distances. This study suggests that IDV is a respiratory virus with moderate pathogenicity and probably a high level of transmission. It consequently can be considered as predisposing or co-factor of respiratory disease.



Influenza D virus (IDV), a new Genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family, has a broad geographical distribution and can infect several animal species. Cattle are so far considered as the primary host for IDV, but the pathogenicity and the prevalence of this virus is still unclear. We demonstrated that under experimental conditions (in a controlled environment and in the absence of co-infecting pathogens), IDV is able to cause mild to moderate disease and targets both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The virus can transmit by direct as well as aerosol contacts. While this study evidenced overexpression of pathogen recognition receptors and chemokines in the lower respiratory tract, IDV-specific IgG1 production as early as 10 days post challenge, and likely both Th1 and Th2 responses, further studies are warranted to better understand the immune responses triggered by IDV and its role as part of the Bovine Respiratory Disease complex.

Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Influenza D; Cattle; Bovine respiratory disease complex.



Emergence of #EVD68 clade D1, #France, August to November 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emergence of enterovirus D68 clade D1, France, August to November 2018

Antonin Bal1,2,3,4, Marina Sabatier1,2,3, Thierry Wirth5,6, Marianne Coste-Burel7, Mouna Lazrek8, Karl Stefic9,10, Karen Brengel-Pesce4, Florence Morfin2,3, Bruno Lina1,2,3, Isabelle Schuffenecker1,2, Laurence Josset1,2,3

Affiliations: 1 Centre National de Référence des Enterovirus et Parechovirus, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 2 Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; 3 Université Lyon 1, Faculté de Médecine Lyon Est, CIRI, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Virpath, Lyon, France; 4 Laboratoire Commun de Recherche Hospices Civils de Lyon-bioMerieux, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Bénite, France; 5 Laboratoire Biologie Intégrative des Populations, Evolution Moléculaire, EPHE, PSL Université, Paris, France; 6 Institut Systématique, Evolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), EPHE, MNHN, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France; 7 Laboratoire de Virologie, UIC9 CIC infectieux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France; 8 Laboratoire de Virologie, EA3610, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Université de Lille, Lille, France; 9 INSERM U1259, Université de Tours, Tours, France; 10 Laboratoire de Virologie and CNR VIH-Laboratoire Associé, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Tours, Tours, France

Correspondence: Laurence Jossetlaurence.jossetchu-lyon.fr

Citation style for this article: Bal Antonin, Sabatier Marina, Wirth Thierry, Coste-Burel Marianne, Lazrek Mouna, Stefic Karl, Brengel-Pesce Karen, Morfin Florence, Lina Bruno, Schuffenecker Isabelle, Josset Laurence. Emergence of enterovirus D68 clade D1, France, August to November 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(3):pii=1800699. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800699

Received: 26 Dec 2018;   Accepted: 16 Jan 2019



We report a seasonal increase of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) cases in France, with 54 cases detected between 19 August and 14 November 2018. Molecular typing revealed that 20 of 32 of the isolates belonged to clade D1, only sporadically detected before in France. Median age of D1-cases was 42 years, 10 developed severe respiratory signs and one had neurological complications. The 2018-D1 viruses showed a genetic divergence of 3.34 % with D1 viruses identified previously.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Enterovirus; EV-D68; France.


Role of #Backyard #Flocks in Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A(#H5N8) Clade, #France, 2016–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 3—March 2019 / Dispatch

Role of Backyard Flocks in Transmission Dynamics of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Clade, France, 2016–2017

Marie Souvestre, Claire Guinat, Eric Niqueux, Luc Robertet, Guillaume Croville, Mathilde Paul, Audrey Schmitz, Anne Bronner, Nicolas Eterradossi, and Jean-Luc Guérin

Author affiliations: Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France (M. Souvestre, C. Guinat, L. Robertet, G. Croville, M. Paul, J.-L. Guérin); Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire, Ploufragan, France (E. Niqueux, A. Schmitz, N. Eterradossi); Direction Générale de l’Alimentation, Paris, France (A. Bronner)



Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade spread in France during 2016–2017. We assessed the biosecurity and avian influenza virus infection status of 70 backyard flocks near H5N8-infected commercial farms. One flock was seropositive for clade Backyard flocks linked to commercial farms had elevated risk for H5 infection.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; France.


#Puumala #Hantavirus Genotypes in #Humans, #France, 2012–2016 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 1—January 2019 / Dispatch

Puumala Hantavirus Genotypes in Humans, France, 2012–2016

Jean-Marc Reynes1  , Damien Carli, Damien Thomas2, and Guillaume Castel

Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France (J.-M. Reynes, D. Carli, D. Thomas); CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Université Montpellier, Montpellier, France (G. Castel)



The analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of 77 Puumala hantavirus strains detected in human samples in France between 2012–2016 showed that all belonged to the Central European lineage. We observed 2 main clusters, geographically structured; one included strains with the Q64 signature and the other strains with the R64 signature.

Keywords: Hantavirus; Puumala virus; Human; France.


#Pandemics past, present, and future (Lancet Resp Med., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Pandemics past, present, and future

Talha Khan Burki

Published: November 29, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30505-8


South London lad Albert Edward McKenzie joined the Royal Navy in April, 1915. He was sixteen years old. The Great War had been raging for seven months. The Western Front was already criss-crossed by a dense arrangement of dugouts that would barely shift over the coming years. Millions would die in defence of the waterlogged trenches; small parcels of muddy terrain were exchanged at the cost of inconceivable carnage. Behind the front, in the overcrowded British encampment at Etaples, France, a different kind of carnage might have been incubating—many experts now believe that it was here that the circulating H1N1 virus acquired the mutation it needed to allow it to transmit from human to human.



This article is available free of charge.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; H1N1; Spanish Flu.


The #shift in #rabies #epidemiology in #France: time to adjust rabies post-exposure #risk #assessment (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The shift in rabies epidemiology in France: time to adjust rabies post-exposure risk assessment

Perrine Parize1, Laurent Dacheux1, Florence Larrous1, Hervé Bourhy1, the French network of antirabies clinics2

Affiliations: 1 Institut Pasteur, Unit Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, National Reference Center for Rabies and WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, Paris, France; 2 The members of the network are listed at the end of the article

Correspondence:  Perrine Parize

Citation style for this article: Parize Perrine, Dacheux Laurent, Larrous Florence, Bourhy Hervé, the French network of antirabies clinics. The shift in rabies epidemiology in France: time to adjust rabies post-exposure risk assessment. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(39):pii=1700548. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.39.1700548

Received: 02 Aug 2017;   Accepted: 11 Feb 2018



The epidemiology of rabies in France and western Europe has changed during the past 22 years. In France, rabies in non-flying terrestrial mammals was declared to be eliminated in 2001, and the risk of rabies is now limited to contact with bats, rabid animals illegally imported from rabies-enzootic countries and traveller exposure in enzootic areas. We analysed the epidemiology of rabies in France from 1995 to 2016, describing and analysing data on human rabies surveillance as well as data on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) collected from the network of French antirabies clinics. Over the study period, seven individuals were diagnosed with rabies in France, all of whom were infected outside mainland France. PEP data analysis revealed an expected overall decrease in PEP administration for individuals exposed in mainland France, but there was still overuse of anti-rabies drugs, given the very low epidemiological risk. On the other hand, a significant increase in PEP delivered to individuals exposed abroad was evidenced. These epidemiological trends indicate that clear guidelines should be provided to support physicians’ efforts to adjust rabies risk assessment to the evolution of the epidemiological situation.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Rabies; Human; France; Post-exposure prophylaxis.


Spatio-temporal #distribution and #evolution of the A #H1N1pdm09 virus in #pigs in #France from 2009 to 2017: identification of a potential swine-specific lineage (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Spatio-temporal distribution and evolution of the A/H1N1 2009 pandemic virus in pigs in France from 2009 to 2017: identification of a potential swine-specific lineage

Amélie Chastagner, Séverine Hervé, Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Edouard Hirchaud, Dinah Henritzi, Véronique Béven, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Yannick Blanchard,Gaëlle Simon

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00988-18



The H1N1 influenza virus responsible for the most recent pandemic in 2009 (H1N1pdm) has spread to swine populations worldwide while it replaced the previous seasonal H1N1 virus in humans. In France, surveillance of swine influenza A viruses in pig herds with respiratory outbreaks led to the detection of 44 H1N1pdm strains between 2009 and 2017, regardless of the season, and findings were not correlated to pig density. From these isolates, 17 whole genome sequences were obtained as well as 6 additional HA/NA sequences, in order to perform spatial and temporal analyses of the genetic diversity, and to compare evolutionary patterns of H1N1pdm in pigs to patterns for human strains. Following mutation accumulation and fixation over time, phylogenetic analyses revealed for the first time the divergence of a swine-specific genogroup within the H1N1pdm lineage. The divergence is thought to have occurred around 2011, although this was only demonstrated through strains isolated in 2015-2016 in the southern half of France. To date, these H1N1pdm swine strains have not been related to any increased virulence in swine herds and have not exhibited any antigenic drift as compared to seasonal human strains. However, further monitoring is encouraged as diverging evolutionary patterns in these two species, i.e. swine and humans, may lead to the emergence of viruses with a potentially higher risk for both animal and human health.



Pigs are a ‘mixing vessel’ for influenza A viruses (IAVs) because of their ability to be infected by avian and human IAVs, and their propensity to facilitate viral genomic reassortment events. Also, as IAVs may evolve differently in swine and humans, pigs can become a reservoir for old human strains against which the human population has become immunologically naïve. Thus, viruses from the novel swine-specific H1N1pdm genogroup may continue to diverge from seasonal H1N1pdm strains and/or from other H1N1pdm viruses infecting pigs and lead to the emergence of viruses that would not be covered by human vaccines and/or swine vaccines based on antigens closely related to the original H1N1pdm virus. This discovery confirms the importance of encouraging swine IAV monitoring because H1N1pdm swine viruses could carry an increased risk for both human and swine health in the future, as a whole H1N1pdm or gene provider in subsequent reassortant viruses.

Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; France.