#Review analysis and impact of co-circulating #H5N1 and #H9N2 #avian #influenza viruses in #Bangladesh (Epidemiol Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Jul;146(10):1259-1266. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818001292. Epub 2018 May 21.

Review analysis and impact of co-circulating H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.

Parvin R1, Begum JA1, Nooruzzaman M1, Chowdhury EH1, Islam MR1, Vahlenkamp TW2.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathology,Faculty of Veterinary Science,Bangladesh Agricultural University,Mymensingh 2202,Bangladesh. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Center of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Virology, University of Leipzig,An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103 Leipzig,Germany.

 

Abstract

Almost the full range of 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been detected either in waterfowl, land-based poultry or in the environment in Bangladesh. AIV infections in Bangladesh affected a wide range of host species of terrestrial poultry. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 and low pathogenic AI H9N2 were found to co-circulate and be well entrenched in the poultry population, which has caused serious damage to the poultry industry since 2007. By reviewing the available scientific literature, the overall situation of AIVs in Bangladesh is discussed. All Bangladeshi (BD) H5N1 and H9N2 AIV sequences available at GenBank were downloaded along with other representative sequences to analyse the genetic diversity among the circulating AIVs in Bangladesh and to compare with the global situation. Three different H5N1 clades, 2.2.2, 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4.2, have been detected in Bangladesh. Only 2.3.2.1a is still present. The BD LP H9N2 viruses mostly belonged to the H9 G1 lineage but segregated into many branches, and some of these shared internal genes with HP viruses of subtypes H7N3 and H5N1. However, these reassortment events might have taken place before introduction to Bangladesh. Currently, H9N2 viruses continue to evolve their HA cleavage, receptor binding and glycosylation sites. Multiple mutations in the HA gene associated with adaptation to mammalian hosts were also observed. Strict biosecurity at farms and gradual phasing out of live-bird markets could be the key measures to better control AIVs, whereas stamping out is not a practicable option in Bangladesh. Vaccination also could be an additional tool, which however, requires careful planning. Continuous monitoring of AIVs through systematic surveillance and genetic characterisation of the viruses remains a hallmark of AI control.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Bangladesh; H5N1; H9N2; co-circulation; genetic evolution

PMID: 29781424 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268818001292 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H7N3; H9N2; Poultry; Wild Birds; Bangladesh.

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Estimating #Risk to #Responders Exposed to #Avian #Influenza A #H5 and #H7 Viruses in #Poultry, #USA, 2014–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Dispatch

Estimating Risk to Responders Exposed to Avian Influenza A H5 and H7 Viruses in Poultry, United States, 2014–2017

Sonja J. Olsen  , Jane A. Rooney, Lenee Blanton, Melissa A. Rolfes, Deborah I. Nelson, Thomas M. Gomez, Steven A. Karli, Susan C. Trock, and Alicia M. Fry

Author affiliations: Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.J. Olsen); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.J. Olsen, L. Blanton, M.A. Rolfes, S.C. Trock, A.M. Fry); US Department of Agriculture, Riverdale, Maryland, USA (J.A. Rooney, D.I. Nelson); US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA (T.M. Gomez, S.A. Karli)

 

Abstract

In the United States, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 and H7 virus infections in poultry have raised concern about the risk for infections in humans. We reviewed the data collected during 2014–2017 and found no human infections among 4,555 exposed responders who were wearing protection.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5; H7; Poultry; Human; USA.

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Spatial #clustering of #pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of #avian #influenza #H5N1 in #poultry in #Nigeria in 2006-2007 (Vet Ital., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Ital. 2018 Mar 31;54(1):13-20. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.870.4301.3.

Spatial clustering of pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria in 2006-2007.

Ekong PS1, Cardona CJ, Bryssinckx W, Ikechukwu-Eneh C, Lombin LH, Carpenter TE.

Author information: 1 Epidemiology Section, National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 1, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 spread throughout Nigeria between 2006 and 2007. Bird samples collected across the country were submitted through the free-of-charge (FOC) program to the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (NVRI-Vom) laboratory. The present article describes the spatial distributions and evaluated clustering of the FOC submissions from poultry farms at the global, local, and focal levels between 2006 and 2007 epidemic in Nigeria. Spatial statistics evaluating clustering of the FOC submissions were implemented using the Moran’s I test, the purely spatial cluster analysis with the SaTScan Poisson model, and the Bithell’s linear score test. A significant global clustering of the FOC submissions was observed. Significant local clusters of submissions were observed in the North-East, North-Central, and South-West zones. There was significant decline in FOC submissions with increasing distance from NVRI-Vom. These results indicated that the geographic area of influence of the FOC submission program in Nigeria was limited to regions closer to the diagnostic laboratory. This work provides a detailed insight into the surveillance activities during the HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria, and should assist policy-makers and field veterinarians to improve the effectiveness of national eradication plans in the face of any outbreak of animal diseases.

PMID: 29631310 DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.870.4301.3 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Nigeria.

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#Economic factors influencing #zoonotic disease #dynamics: demand for #poultry meat and seasonal #transmission of #avian #influenza in #Vietnam (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2017 Jul 19;7(1):5905. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06244-6.

Economic factors influencing zoonotic disease dynamics: demand for poultry meat and seasonal transmission of avian influenza in Vietnam.

Delabouglise A1,2, Choisy M3,4, Phan TD5, Antoine-Moussiaux N6, Peyre M7, Vu TD5, Pfeiffer DU8,9, Fournié G8.

Author information: 1 Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL97TA, United Kingdom. alexis.delabouglise@gmail.com. 2 AGIRs-Animal and Integrated Risk Management Research Unit, CIRAD-Agricultural Research Center for International Development, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, Montpellier, France. alexis.delabouglise@gmail.com. 3 Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 78 Giai Phong, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam. 4 MIVEGEC, University of Montpellier, CNRS 5290, IRD 224, 911 Avenue Agropolis, 64501, Montpellier cedex 5, 34394, France. 5 Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Rural Development, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Ngo Xuan Quang Street, Trau Quy, Gia Lam, Hanoi, Vietnam. 6 FARAH-Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health, University of Liège, Avenue de Cureghem 7A-7D, Liège, 4000, Belgium. 7 AGIRs-Animal and Integrated Risk Management Research Unit, CIRAD-Agricultural Research Center for International Development, Campus International de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex 5, 34398, Montpellier, France. 8 Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL97TA, United Kingdom. 9 School of Veterinary Medicine, City University of Hong Kong, 31 To Yuen Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

 

Abstract

While climate is often presented as a key factor influencing the seasonality of diseases, the importance of anthropogenic factors is less commonly evaluated. Using a combination of methods – wavelet analysis, economic analysis, statistical and disease transmission modelling – we aimed to explore the influence of climatic and economic factors on the seasonality of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the domestic poultry population of Vietnam. We found that while climatic variables are associated with seasonal variation in the incidence of avian influenza outbreaks in the North of the country, this is not the case in the Centre and the South. In contrast, temporal patterns of H5N1 incidence are similar across these 3 regions: periods of high H5N1 incidence coincide with Lunar New Year festival, occurring in January-February, in the 3 climatic regions for 5 out of the 8 study years. Yet, daily poultry meat consumption drastically increases during Lunar New Year festival throughout the country. To meet this rise in demand, poultry production and trade are expected to peak around the festival period, promoting viral spread, which we demonstrated using a stochastic disease transmission model. This study illustrates the way in which economic factors may influence the dynamics of livestock pathogens.

PMID: 28724978 PMCID: PMC5517570 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06244-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Society; Vietnam.

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#Surveillance for #avian #influenza viruses in #wildbirds at live #bird #markets, #Egypt, 2014-2016 (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Feb 3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12634. [Epub ahead of print]

Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds at live bird markets, Egypt, 2014-2016.

Kayed AS1, Kandeil A1, Gomaa MR1, El-Shesheny R1,2, Mahmoud S1, Hegazi N3, Fayez M3, Sheta B4, McKenzie PP2, Webby RJ2, Kayali G5,6, Ali MA1.

Author information: 1 Environmental Research Division, Water Pollution Research Department, Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, National Research Centre (NRC), Giza, Egypt. 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. 3 Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Microbiology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. 4 Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Damietta University, New Damietta, Egypt. 5 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, Texas. 6 Human Link, Baabda, Lebanon.

 

Abstract

AIM:

Egypt is the habitat for a large number of bird species and serves as a vital stopover for millions of migratory birds during their annual migration between the Palearctic and Afrotropical ecozones. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) is critical to assessing risks for potential spreading of these viruses among domestic poultry. Surveillance for AIV among hunted and captured wild birds in Egypt was conducted in order to understand the characteristics of circulating viruses.

METHODS:

Sampling of wild bird species occurred in two locations along the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt in the period from 2014 to 2016. A total of 1316 samples (cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs) were collected from 20 different species of hunted or captured resident and migratory birds sold at live bird markets. Viruses were propagated then sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis and receptor binding affinities were studied.

RESULTS:

Eighteen AIVs (1.37%) were isolated from migratory Anseriformes at live bird markets. Further characterization of the viral isolates identified five hemagglutinin (H3, H5, H7, H9, and H10) and five neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N6, and N9) subtypes, which were related to isolates reported in the Eurasian region. Two of the 18 isolates were highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses related to clade 2.2.1, while three isolates were G1-like H9N2 viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data show significant diversity of AIVs in Anserifromes sold at live bird markets in Egypt. This allows for genetic exchanges between imported and enzootic viruses and put the exposed humans at a higher risk of infection.

© 2019 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PMID: 30714323 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12634

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Wild Birds; Poultry; Live Birds Markets; Egypt.

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Experimental #infection of racing #pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with highly pathogenic Clade 2.3.4.4 sub-group B #H5N8 #avian #influenza virus (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Dec;227:127-132. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.10.028. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Experimental infection of racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with highly pathogenic Clade 2.3.4.4 sub-group B H5N8 avian influenza virus.

Abolnik C1, Stutchbury S2, Hartman MJ3.

Author information: 1 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, 0110, South Africa. Electronic address: celia.abolnik@up.ac.za. 2 Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, 0110, South Africa. 3 Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110, South Africa.

 

Abstract

Reported mass mortalities in wild pigeons and doves during the 2017/2018 Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in South Africa necessitated an investigation of healthy racing pigeons for their susceptibility and ability to transmit a Clade 2.3.4.4 sub-group B virus of South African origin. Pigeons challenged with medium (104.5 EID50) and high doses (106 EID50) but not a low dose (103 EID50) of virus, shed virus in low levels of <103 EID50/ml from the oropharynx and cloaca for up to eight days, with peak shedding around 4 days post challenge. Challenged pigeons were able to transmit the virus to contact pigeons, but not contact chickens. Neither pigeons nor chickens presented clinical disease, and only two pigeons in the group that received the high challenge dose developed influenza A-virus specific antibodies. The levels of virus shed by the racing pigeons were well below the published bird infectious dose 50 values for most poultry, especially chickens, therefore the risk that racing pigeons could act as propagators and disseminators through excretion of Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5N8 strains remains negligible.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Chickens; Clade 2.3.4.4; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Pigeons

PMID: 30473343 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.10.028 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; South Africa.

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A 113-amino-acid #truncation at the #NS1 C-terminus is a determinant for viral #replication of #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus in vitro and in vivo (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2018 Nov;225:6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.09.004. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

A 113-amino-acid truncation at the NS1 C-terminus is a determinant for viral replication of H5N6 avian influenza virus in vitro and in vivo.

Cui X1, Ji Y1, Wang Z1, Du Y1, Guo H1, Wang L1, Chen H2, Zhu Q3.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, PR China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, 150069, PR China. 3 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, PR China. Electronic address: zhuqiyun@caas.cn.

 

Abstract

Virulence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV) is determined by multiple genes and their encoded proteins. In particular, the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of viruses is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in type I interferon (IFN) antagonism, pathogenicity, and determining viral host range. Naturally-occurring truncation or mutation of NS1 during virus evolution attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study, we rescued an H5N6 AIV harboring a 113-amino-acid (aa) truncated NS1 at the C-terminus that had previously naturally occurred in an H3N8 equine influenza virus (designated as rHN109 NS1/112). The replication and pathogenicity of the rescued and parental viruses were then assessed in vitro in cells and in vivo in chickens and mice. Replication of rHN109 NS1/112 virus was significantly attenuated in various cells compared to its parental virus. The attenuation of rHN109 NS1/112 virus was subsequently clarified by investigating the effects on IFN and apoptosis signaling pathways via multiple experiments. The results indicated that the 113-aa truncation of NS1 impairs viral inhibition of IFN production and enhances cellular apoptosis in avian and mammalian cells. Animal studies further indicated that replication of the rHN109 NS1/112 virus is remarkably attenuated in chickens. The results of this study improve our understanding of C-terminal region function for NS1 proteins of influenza viruses.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Apoptosis; H5N6 AIV; Interferon; NS1; Replication

PMID: 30322535 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.09.004 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Poultry.

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