SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING #GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND #MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A #INFLUENZA VIRUSES (J Wildl Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF LAUGHING GULLS (LEUCOPHAEUS ATRICILLA) AND MALLARDS (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS) TO RUDDY TURNSTONE (ARENARIA INTERPRES MORINELLA) ORIGIN TYPE A INFLUENZA VIRUSES.

Bahnson CS1, Poulson RL1, Hollander LP1, Bradley JAC1, Stallknecht DE1.

Author information: 1 Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 589 D. W. Brooks Drive, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Population Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, USA.

 

Abstract

Delaware Bay, USA is the only documented location where influenza A virus (IAV) is consistently detected in a shorebird species, the Ruddy Turnstone (RUTU; Arenaria interpres morinella). Although IAV in shorebirds has been well studied at this site for decades, the importance of other species in the avian community as potential sources for the IAVs that infect RUTUs each spring remains unclear. We determined the susceptibility of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Laughing gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), to IAVs isolated from RUTUs in order to gain insight into the potential host range of these viruses. Captive-reared gulls were challenged with RUTU-origin H6N1, H10N7, H11N9, H12N4, and H13N6 IAV, as well as Mallard-origin H6N1 and H11N9. We challenged captive-reared Mallards with the same viruses, except for H13N6. At a biologically plausible challenge dose (104 50% embryo infective doses/0.1 mL), one of five gulls challenged with both H6N1 IAVs shed virus. The remaining gulls were resistant to infection with all viruses. In contrast, all Mallards were infected and shed virus. The H12N4 Mallard challenge group was an exception with no birds infected. These results indicated that Mallards are permissive to infection with viruses originating from a shorebird host and that interspecies transmission could occur. In contrast, host adaptation of IAVs to RUTUs may compromise their ability to be transmitted back to gulls.

KEYWORDS: Delaware Bay; Laughing gull; Mallard; Ruddy Turnstone; influenza A virus

PMID: 31532732

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Wild Birds; H6N1; H10N7; H11N9; H12N4; H13N6; USA.

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Effect of #closure of live #poultry #markets in #China on #prevention and control of #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #influenza: a case study of four cities in #Jiangsu Province (J Public Health Policy, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Public Health Policy. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of closure of live poultry markets in China on prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza: a case study of four cities in Jiangsu Province.

Ma J1, Yang N1, Gu H2, Bai L1, Sun J1, Gu S1, Gu J3.

Author information: 1 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. 2 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. ghai1008@nju.edu.cn. 3 Nanjing Foreign Language School Xianlin Campus, Nanjing, China.

 

Abstract

As of August 2017, China had encountered five seasonal epidemics of H7N9 avian influenza. To prevent people from contracting H7N9 avian influenza, most cities closed live poultry markets (LPMs) to cut off the source of H7N9 virus. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of LPMs closure on reducing zoonotic transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and to make specific recommendations on the duration of closing the LPMs. Results show that the closure of LPMs can effectively control the spread of H7N9 avian influenza and reduce the incidence of human infection with H7N9. If cases of H7N9 avian influenza continue to occur, LPMs should close for at least 3-4 weeks in susceptible areas to control the spread of infection.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H7N9; Incidence; Live poultry market; Zoonotic transmission

PMID: 31527787 DOI: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Live Poultry Markets; Jiangsu; China.

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Where #backyard #poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for #avian #influenza #prevention in #Bangladesh (BMC Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2018 Aug 3;18(1):969. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5819-5.

Where backyard poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for avian influenza prevention in Bangladesh.

Rimi NA1, Sultana R2,3, Ishtiak-Ahmed K2,4, Haider N2,5, Azziz-Baumgartner E6, Nahar N2, Luby SP2,6,7.

Author information: 1 Program for Emerging Infections (PEI), Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), icddr, b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh. nadiarimi@icddrb.org. 2 Program for Emerging Infections (PEI), Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), icddr, b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh. 3 Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 4 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 5 Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA. 7 Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In Bangladesh, backyard poultry raisers lack awareness of avian influenza and infrequently follow government recommendations for its prevention. Identifying where poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry might help the government better plan how to disseminate avian influenza prevention and control recommendations.

METHODS:

In order to identify where backyard poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry, we conducted in-depth and informal interviews: 70 with backyard poultry raisers and six with local poultry healthcare providers in two villages, and five with government veterinary professionals at the sub-district and union levels in two districts during June-August 2009.

RESULTS:

Most (86% [60/70]) raisers sought care for their backyard poultry locally, 14% used home remedies only and none sought care from government veterinary professionals. The local poultry care providers provided advice and medications (n = 6). Four local care providers had shops in the village market where raisers sought healthcare for their poultry and the remaining two visited rural households to provide poultry healthcare services. Five of the six local care providers did not have formal training in veterinary medicine. Local care providers either did not know about avian influenza or considered avian influenza to be a disease common among commercial but not backyard poultry. The government professionals had degrees in veterinary medicine and experience with avian influenza and its prevention. They had their offices at the sub-district or union level and lacked staffing to reach the backyard raisers at the village level.

CONCLUSIONS:

The local poultry care providers provided front line healthcare to backyard poultry in villages and were a potential source of information for the rural raisers. Integration of these local poultry care providers in the government’s avian influenza control programs is a potentially useful approach to increase poultry raisers’ and local poultry care providers’ awareness about avian influenza.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Backyard poultry raiser; Bangladesh; Informal care provider, poultry care provider, poultry disease; Perception

PMID: 30075714 PMCID: PMC6090748 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5819-5 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Human; Public Health; Bangladesh.

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#Rapid #evolution of #Mexican #H7N3 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in #poultry (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Rapid evolution of Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry

Sungsu Youk , Dong-Hun Lee , Helena L. Ferreira, Claudio L. Afonso, Angel E. Absalon, David E. Swayne, David L. Suarez, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood

Published: September 12, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222457

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 has been circulating in poultry in Mexico since 2012 and vaccination has been used to control the disease. In this study, eight Mexican H7N3 HPAI viruses from 2015–2017 were isolated and fully sequenced. No evidence of reassortment was detected with other avian influenza (AI) viruses, but phylogenetic analyses show divergence of all eight gene segments into three genetic clusters by 2015, with 94.94 to 98.78 percent nucleotide homology of the HA genes when compared to the index virus from 2012. The HA protein of viruses from each cluster showed a different number of basic amino acids (n = 5–7) in the cleavage site, and six different patterns at the predicted N-glycosylation sites. Comparison of the sequences of the Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI viruses and American ancestral wild bird AI viruses to characterize the virus evolutionary dynamics showed that the nucleotide substitution rates in PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, and NS genes greatly increased once the virus was introduced into poultry. The global nonsynonymous and synonymous ratios imply strong purifying selection driving the evolution of the virus. Forty-nine positively selected sites out of 171 nonsynonymous mutations were identified in the Mexican H7N3 HPAI viruses, including 7 amino acid changes observed in higher proportion in North American poultry origin AI viruses isolates than in wild bird-origin viruses. Continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of the H7N3 HPAI virus is important for better understanding of the virus evolutionary dynamics and further improving control measures including vaccination.

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Citation: Youk S, Lee D-H, Ferreira HL, Afonso CL, Absalon AE, Swayne DE, et al. (2019) Rapid evolution of Mexican H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222457. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222457

Editor: Maria Serena Beato, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, ITALY

Received: April 24, 2019; Accepted: August 29, 2019; Published: September 12, 2019

This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This research was supported by the ARS Project 6040-32000-066-00D, 6040-32000-072-00D and CRIP (Center of Research in Influenza Pathogenesis) an NIAID funded Center of Excellence in Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS, contract HHSN272201400008C). D-H. Lee is partially supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service CRIS project no. 6040-32000-066-51S. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDA or NIH. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N3; Poultry; Mexico.

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#Platelet count and #mortality of #H7N9 infected patients in #Guangdong, #China (Platelets., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Platelets. 2019 Sep 11:1-4. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639. [Epub ahead of print]

Platelet count and mortality of H7N9 infected patients in Guangdong, China.

Chen Y1,2, Yang Y1, Cheng J2, Lu J1, Hu W2.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , China. 2 School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane , Australia.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a serve zoonosis with a high mortality rate. Timely and effective diagnosis and early warning is crucial for the clinical treatment of H7N9 patients. The previous studies indicated that thrombocytopenia was associated with the prognosis of influenza cases, but the related evidence of platelet change within the course of the disease remains largely insufficient. A total of 130 laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases and their corresponding medical records from August 2013 to March 2015 were collected from 23 hospitals of 13 cities in Guangdong, China. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the outcome of H7N9 cases and their average platelet count (PC) including maximum, minimum, range, admission and discharge/death of the PC value. Furthermore, we built a classification and regression tree (CART) model to predict the fatality rate which varied with average PC. There was a 7% chance for a mortality from H7N9 if PC was over 207.0 × 10^9/L, while there was a 46.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was between 123.9 × 10^9/L and 207.0 × 10^9/L, and 81.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was less than 123.9 × 10^9/L. This study demonstrates that using platelet count to predict the fatality of H7N9 is significant, and lower platelet counts of H7N9 patients were associated with higher risk of mortality of H7N9 patients, which may need to be taken into consideration when planning clinical treatment.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza A (H7N9); CART; platelet count; predicting death

PMID: 31509040 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.

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#Mutations in the #H7 HA and #PB1 genes of #avian #influenza a viruses increase viral #pathogenicity and contact #transmission in guinea pigs (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):1324-1336. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1663131.

Mutations in the H7 HA and PB1 genes of avian influenza a viruses increase viral pathogenicity and contact transmission in guinea pigs.

Dreier C1,2, Resa-Infante P3,4, Thiele S1, Stanelle-Bertram S1, Walendy-Gnirß K1, Speiseder T1, Preuss A1, Müller Z1, Klenk HD5, Stech J6, Gabriel G1,3.

Author information: 1 Viral Zoonosis -One Health, Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology , Hamburg , Germany. 2 Current address: University of Ulm , Ulm , Germany . 3 Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine , Hannover , Germany. 4 Current address: IrsiCaixa AIDS Research Institute , Barcelona , Spain . 5 Institute for Virology, Philipps University of Marburg , Marburg , Germany. 6 Institute for Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute , Greifswald, Germany.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A viruses (AIV) of the H7 subtype continue to evolve posing a pandemic threat. However, molecular markers of H7N7 AIV pathogenicity and transmission in mammals remain poorly understood. In this study, we performed a systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis by comparing an H7N7 highly pathogenic AIV and its ferret adapted variant. Passaging an H7N7 AIV in ferrets led to six mutations in genes encoding the viral polymerase complex and the viral surface proteins. Here, we show that mutations in the H7 hemagglutinin gene cause increased pathogenicity in mice. Contact transmission between guinea pigs required additional mutations in the gene encoding the polymerase subunit PB1. Thus, particular vigilance is required with respect to HA and PB1 mutations as predictive molecular markers to assess the pandemic risk posed by emerging H7 avian influenza viruses.

KEYWORDS: H7 avian influenza A viruses; HA and PB1 gene mutations; guinea pigs; pathogenicity; transmission

PMID: 31503518 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1663131

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N7; Animal models.

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Delayed #peak of #human #infections and ongoing #reassortment of #H7N9 #avian #influenza virus in the newly affected western #Chineses provinces during Wave Five (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 6. pii: S1201-9712(19)30363-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Delayed peak of human infections and ongoing reassortment of H7N9 avian influenza virus in the newly affected western Chineses provinces during Wave Five.

Li J1, Chen C2, Wei J3, Huang H2, Peng Y2, Bi Y3, Liu Y4, Yang Y5.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China. 2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China. 3 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. 4 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Medical School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address: yingxialiu@hotmail.com. 5 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address: yyszth2018@163.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Eight additional provinces in western China reported human infections for the first time during the fifth wave of human H7N9 infections. Our study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and virological characteristics of this outbreak.

METHODS:

The epidemiological data of H7N9 cases from the newly affected western Chinese provinces were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, full-length genome sequences of H7N9 virus were downloaded from GenBank and GISAID databases, and phylogenetic, genotyping and genetic analyses were conducted.

RESULTS:

The peak of human infections in the newly affected western Chinese provinces was delayed by 4 months compared to the eastern China, and both low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 infected cases were found. The LP- and HP-H7N9 virus belonged to 10 different genotypes (including 4 new genotypes), of which G11 and G3 were the dominant genotypes, respectively. Almost all of these viruses originated from eastern and southern China, and were most possibly imported from neighboring provinces. Genetic characteristics of the circulating viruses were similar with the viruses from previously affected provinces during Wave Five.

CONCLUSION:

A delayed peak of human infections was observed in the newly affected western Chinese provinces, and reassortment has been ongoing since the introduction of H7N9 viruses. Our study highlights the importance of continued surveillance of the circulation and evolution of H7N9 virus in western China.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; Reassortment; Wave Five; Western dissemination; avian influenza virus (AIV)

PMID: 31499209 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Reassortant strain.

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