Treatment of Highly Pathogenic #H7N9 Virus-Infected Mice with #Baloxavir Marboxil (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 15;11(11). pii: E1066. doi: 10.3390/v11111066.

Treatment of Highly Pathogenic H7N9 Virus-Infected Mice with Baloxavir Marboxil.

Kiso M1, Yamayoshi S1, Furusawa Y1, Imai M1, Kawaoka Y1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. 2 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. 3 Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

 

Abstract

Viral neuraminidase inhibitors show limited efficacy in mice infected with H7N9 influenza A viruses isolated from humans. Although baloxavir marboxil protected mice from lethal challenge infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 virus isolated from a human, its efficacy in mice infected with a recent highly pathogenic version of H7N9 human isolates is unknown. Here, we examined the efficacy of baloxavir marboxil in mice infected with a highly pathogenic human H7N9 virus, A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016. Treatment of infected mice with a single 1.5 mg/kg dose of baloxavir marboxil protected mice from the highly pathogenic human H7N9 virus infection as effectively as oseltamivir treatment at 50 mg/kg twice a day for five days. Daily treatment for five days at 15 or 50 mg/kg of baloxavir marboxil showed superior therapeutic efficacy, largely preventing virus replication in respiratory organs. These results indicate that baloxavir marboxil is a valuable candidate treatment for human patients suffering from highly pathogenic H7N9 virus infection.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; baloxavir marboxil; highly pathogenic; influenza

PMID: 31731678 DOI: 10.3390/v11111066

Keywords: Antivirals; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Baloxavir Marboxil; Animal models.

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A study of the relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza A #H5N6 and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 PMCID: PMC6719373 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; Fujian; China.

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#Seroprevalence and #risk factors of #avian #influenza #H9 virus among #poultry #professionals in #Rawalpindi, #Pakistan (J Infect Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Public Health. 2019 Jul – Aug;12(4):482-485. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Seroprevalence and risk factors of avian influenza H9 virus among poultry professionals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Tahir MF1, Abbas MA2, Ghafoor T3, Dil S4, Shahid MA5, Bullo MMH6, Ain QU7, Ranjha MA8, Khan MA9, Naseem MT10.

Author information: 1 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: drmftahir@gmail.com. 2 National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan. 5 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 6 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Federal General Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. 7 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Veterinary Research Institute, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 8 National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 9 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 10 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories. Potential participants were randomly approached and gave written consent to participate. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and serum samples were processed to detect H9 antibodies using the haemagglutination inhibition test.

RESULTS:

Of the 419 participants, 406 (96.9%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 36.4 (SD 10.86) years. A total of 332 participants agreed to a blood test, 167 of whom were positive for A(H9) antibodies, giving an overall seroprevalence of 50.3%. Laboratory staff had the highest seroprevalence (100%) and veterinarians the lowest (38.5%). Vaccinators, butchers and farm workers had a seroprevalence of 83.3%, 52.4% and 45.5% respectively. Personals who used facemasks had significantly lower (P<0.002) seroprevalence (29.6%) than those who never used them (90.6%). Similarly, those who always used gloves and washed their hands with soap had a seroprevalence of 32.8% compared with 89.0% in those who never took these precautions. Of the participants who handled antigens, 92.3% were seropositive.

CONCLUSION:

Laboratory staff and vaccinators are exposed to viral cultures and influenza vaccines respectively which may explain their high seroprevalence.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Pakistan; Poultry; Seroprevalence

PMID: 30578143 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Serology; Seroprevalence; Pakistan.

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Comparative Virological and Pathogenic Characteristics of #Avian #Influenza #H5N8 Viruses Detected in #WildBirds and Domestic #Poultry in #Egypt during the Winter of 2016/2017 (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Oct 27;11(11). pii: E990. doi: 10.3390/v11110990.

Comparative Virological and Pathogenic Characteristics of Avian Influenza H5N8 Viruses Detected in Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry in Egypt during the Winter of 2016/2017.

Moatasim Y1, Kandeil A1, Aboulhoda BE2, El-Shesheny R1,3, Alkhazindar M4, AbdElSalam ET4, Kutkat O1, Kamel MN1, El Taweel AN1, Mostafa A1, Hicks JT5, Abd Elghaffar SK6, Kayali G7,8, Ali MA1.

Author information: 1 Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Virus, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt. 2 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt. 3 St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. 4 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613, Egypt. 5 Center for Ecology of Infectious Disease, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. 6 Pathology and Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit 71526, Egypt. 7 Human Link, Hazmieh 1109, Lebanon. 8 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

 

Abstract

The surveillance and virological characterization of H5N8 avian influenza viruses are important in order to assess their zoonotic potential. The genetic analyses of the Egyptian H5N8 viruses isolated through active surveillance in wild birds and domestic poultry in the winter of 2016/2017 showed multiple introductions of reassortant viruses. In this study, we investigated and compared the growth kinetics, infectivity, and pathogenicity of the three reassortant forms of H5N8 viruses detected in wild birds and domestic poultry in Egypt during the first introduction wave in the winter of 2016/2017. Three representative H5N8 viruses (abbreviated as 813, 871, and 13666) were selected. The 871/H5N8 virus showed enhanced growth properties in vitro in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A549 cells. Interestingly, all viruses replicated well in mice without prior adaptation. Infected C57BL/6 mice showed 20% mortality for 813/H5N8 and 60% mortality for 871/H5N8 and 13666/H5N8, which could be attributed to the genetic differences among the viruses. Studies on the pathogenicity in experimentally infected ducks revealed a range of pathogenic effects, with mortality rate ranging from 0% for 813/H5N8 and 13666/H5N8 to 28% for 871/H5N8. No significant differences were observed among the three compared viruses in infected chickens. Overall, different H5N8 viruses had variable biological characteristics, indicating a continuous need for surveillance and virus characterization efforts.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; H5N8; avian influenza virus; pathogenicity

PMID: 31717865 DOI: 10.3390/v11110990

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Poultry; Egypt.

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Molecular Characterization of a Novel #Avian #Influenza A #H2N9 Strain Isolated from Wild #Duck in #Korea in 2018 (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 10;11(11). pii: E1046. doi: 10.3390/v11111046.

Molecular Characterization of a Novel Avian Influenza A (H2N9) Strain Isolated from Wild Duck in Korea in 2018.

Yeo SJ1, Than DD1, Park HS2, Sung HW3, Park H1.

Author information: 1 Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea. 2 GnCBio Inc, 4F, Yegan Plaza, 36, Banseok-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34069, Korea. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

 

Abstract

A novel avian influenza virus (A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018) (H2N9) was isolated from wild birds in South Korea in 2018, and phylogenetic and molecular analyses were conducted on complete gene sequences obtained by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) virus belonged to the Eurasian countries, whereas other internal genes (polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein (M), and non-structural protein (NS)) belonged to the East Asian countries. A monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, E627 in the PB2 gene, and no deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) isolate was a typical low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI). Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (98.34%) is to that of A/duck/Mongolia/482/2015 (H2N3), and amino acid sequence of NA was closely related to that of A/duck/Bangladesh/8987/2010 (H10N9) (96.45%). In contrast, internal genes showed homology higher than 98% compared to those of other isolates derived from duck and wild birds of China or Japan in 2016-2018. The newly isolated A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) strain is the first reported avian influenza virus in Korea, and may have evolved from multiple genotypes in wild birds and ducks in Mongolia, China, and Japan.

KEYWORDS: H2N9; Korea; novel avian influenza virus isolate; wild duck

PMID: 31717636 DOI: 10.3390/v11111046

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H2N9; Reassortant strain; H2N3; H10N9; Wild Birds; S. Korea.

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Comparative #Pathogenicity and #Transmissibility of the #H7N9 Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Virus and the H7N9 LPAI Virus in #Chickens (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 10;11(11). pii: E1047. doi: 10.3390/v11111047.

Comparative Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of the H7N9 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and the H7N9 Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens.

Yu H1, Zhang K1, Ye X1, Wang W1, Wu W1, Wang X1, Guan Y1, He Z1, Wang Y2, Jiao P1.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510642, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China.

 

Abstract

There were five outbreaks of H7N9 influenza virus in humans in China since it emerged in 2013, infecting >1000 people. The H7N9 low pathogenic influenza virus was inserted into four amino acids in the HA protein cleavage site to mutate into the H7N9 highly pathogenic virus. This emerging virus caused 15 outbreaks in chickens from the end of 2016 to date. Two H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) strains, A/chicken/Guangdong/A46/2013 (LPAIV) and A/chicken/Guangdong/Q29/2017 (HPAIV), were selected to compare the pathogenicity and transmissibility between H7N9 LPAIVs and HPAIVs in chickens. We inoculated 3- to 4-week-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with 6 log10EID50/0.1 mL viruses via the ocular-nasal route and co-housed four chickens in each group. The inoculated chicken mortality rate in the A46 and Q29 groups was 1/5 and 5/5, respectively. Q29 virus replication was more efficient compared to the A46 virus in inoculated chickens. Infected chickens initiated viral shedding to naïve contact chickens through respiratory and digestive routes. Both viruses transmitted between chickens by naïve contact, but the Q29 virus had a higher pathogenicity in contact chickens than the A46 virus. Compared with early H7N9 LPAIVs, the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the emerging H7N9 HPAIV was stronger in chickens, indicating that H7N9 influenza virus may continue to threaten human and poultry health.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; avian influenza virus; chickens; pathogenicity; transmissibility

PMID: 31717632 DOI: 10.3390/v11111047

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry.

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#Genetic, Molecular, and #Pathogenic Characterization of the #H9N2 #Avian #Influenza Viruses Currently Circulating in South #China (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 8;11(11). pii: E1040. doi: 10.3390/v11111040.

Genetic, Molecular, and Pathogenic Characterization of the H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Currently Circulating in South China.

Sun H1, Lin J1, Liu Z1, Yu Y1, Wu M1, Li S1, Liu Y1, Feng Y1, Wu Y1, Li M1, Jiao P1, Luo K1, Liao M1.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

 

Abstract

The prevalence and variation of the H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) pose a threat to public health. A total of eight viruses isolated from farmed poultry in South China during 2017-2018 were selected as representative strains for further systematic study. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these prevalent viruses belong to the Y280-like lineage and that the internal genes are highly similar to those of recently circulating human H7N9 viruses. The receptor-binding assay showed that most of the H9N2 isolates preferentially bound to the human-like receptor, increasing the risk of them crossing the species barrier and causing human infection. Our in vitro, multi-step growth curve results indicate these viruses can effectively replicate in mammalian cells. Infection in mice showed that three viruses effectively replicated in the lung of mice. Infection in swine revealed that the viruses readily replicated in the upper respiratory tract of pig and effectively induced viral shedding. Our findings suggested that the H9N2 AIVs circulating in poultry recently acquired an enhanced ability to transmit from avian to mammalians, including humans. Based on our findings, we propose that it is essential to strengthen the efforts to surveil and test the pathogenicity of H9N2 AIVs.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; influenza A virus; pathogenicity; pigs; receptor; replication

PMID: 31717393 DOI: 10.3390/v11111040

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry.

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