#Prevalence and #Phylogenetics of #H9N2 in Backyard and Commercial #Poultry in #Pakistan (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Dec;62(4):416-424. doi: 10.1637/11690-062117-ResNote.1.

Prevalence and Phylogenetics of H9n2 in Backyard and Commercial Poultry in Pakistan.

Ali M1, Yaqub T2, Mukhtar N3, Imran M4, Ghafoor A5, Shahid MF1, Yaqub S1, Smith GJD6,7, Su YCF6, Naeem M8.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 2 Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan, tahiryaqub@uvas.edu.pk. 3 Primary and Secondary, Health Care Department, Government of Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. 4 Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 5 University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 6 Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, 169857 Singapore. 7 Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710. 8 Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Surveillance of H9N2 is currently focused on areas central to the commercial poultry industry. This study determined the prevalence of H9N2 virus in commercial and backyard poultry flocks in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Oral and tracheal swabs were collected from commercial and backyard poultry from January 2015 through June 2016. Antisera against H5, H7, H9, and Newcastle disease viruses were used for virus identification. Molecular confirmation was made by reverse transcription PCR. Avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 were not detected. The H9N2 virus was isolated in 5.7% of 905 tested flocks (5-10 birds/flock). Prevalence in commercial and backyard poultry was 6.7% of 687 flocks and 2.7% of 218 flocks, respectively. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase-gene-based phylogenetic analysis of commercial and backyard poultry isolates showed 100% homology. Within sublineage B2 of Pakistan, identity among most recent isolates (2015) was 100%, compared to 75%-99% identity with previously isolated viruses (2010-12), indicating continued virus evolution. Most of the previously reported and currently studied viruses were isolated near the Pakistan-India border. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pakistani and Indian isolates were closely related, indicating that avian influenza virus transmission may occur across this border.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; Punjab; commercial poultry; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase; phylogenetic analysis; prevalence

PMID: 31119926 DOI: 10.1637/11690-062117-ResNote.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Pakistan; India.

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#Environmental #Sampling #Survey of #H5N2 Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken #Farms in #Minnesota and #Iowa (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Dec;62(4):373-380. doi: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1.

Environmental Sampling Survey of H5N2 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza-Infected Layer Chicken Farms in Minnesota and Iowa.

Lopez KM1, Nezworski J2, Rendahl A1, Culhane M1, Flores-Figueroa C3, Muñoz-Aguayo J3, Halvorson DA1, Johnson R1, Goldsmith T1, Cardona CJ4.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108. 2 Blue House Veterinary, 145 West Yellowstone Trail, Buffalo, MN 55314. 3 Mid-Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, 1802 18th St. Northeast, Willmar, MN 56201. 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, ccardona@umn.edu.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Respiratory secretions, feces, feathers, and eggs of avian influenza-infected hens provide ample sources of virus which heavily contaminate barn and farm environments during a disease outbreak. Environmental sampling surveys were conducted in the Midwestern United States on affected farms during the 2015 H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to assess the degree of viral contamination. A total of 930 samples were obtained from various sites inside and outside layer barns housing infected birds and tested with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The distribution and load of viral RNA in barns in which most birds were dead at the onset of depopulation efforts (high-mortality barns) were compared with those of barns in which birds were euthanatized before excess mortality occurred (normal-mortality barns). A statistically significant difference was seen between cycle threshold (Ct) values for samples taken of fans, feed troughs, barn floors, barn walls, cages, manure-associated locations, barn doors, egg belts, and the exterior of high-mortality vs. normal-mortality barns. In high-mortality barns, sample sites were found to be the most to least contaminated in the following order: cages, manure-associated locations, barn floors, egg belts, feed troughs, barn doors, barn walls, fans, exterior, and egg processing. Significant changes in Ct values over time following HPAI detection in a barn and depopulation of birds on an infected farm were observed for the manure-associated, barn floor, barn wall, and fan sampling sites. These results show that high mortality in a flock as a result of HPAI will increase contamination of the farm environment. The results also suggest optimal sampling locations for detection of virus; however, the persistence of RNA on highmortality farms may delay the determination that adequate sanitization has been performed for restocking to take place.

KEYWORDS: barn; contamination; disinfection; egg layers; environmental sampling; highly pathogenic avian influenza; virus

PMID: 31119921 DOI: 10.1637/11891-050418-Reg.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; Poultry; USA; Minnesota; Iowa.

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#Genetic and #biological characteristics of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H1N8 in #environments related to live #poultry #markets in #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 22;19(1):458. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z.

Genetic and biological characteristics of avian influenza virus subtype H1N8 in environments related to live poultry markets in China.

Zhang Y1, Dong J1, Bo H1, Dong L1, Zou S1, Li X1, Shu Y1,2, Wang D3.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. 2 Present Address: Public Health School (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. dayanwang@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, slaughterhouses, and poultry farms. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza virus have been identified based on environmental surveillance, and an H1N8 virus was isolated from the drinking water of a live poultry market.

METHODS:

Virus isolation was performed by inoculating influenza A-positive specimens into embryonated chicken eggs. Next-generation sequencing was used for whole-genome sequencing. A solid-phase binding assay was performed to test the virus receptor binding specificity. Trypsin dependence plaque formation assays and intravenous pathogenicity index tests were used to evaluate virus pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Different cell lines were chosen for comparison of virus replication capacity.

RESULTS:

According to the phylogenetic trees, the whole gene segments of the virus named A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) were of Eurasian lineage. The HA, NA, PB1, and M genes showed the highest homology with those of H1N8 or H1N2 subtype viruses isolated from local domestic ducks, while the PB2, PA, NP and NS genes showed high similarity with the genes of H7N9 viruses detected in 2017 and 2018 in the same province. This virus presented an avian receptor binding preference. The plaque formation assay showed that it was a trypsin-dependent virus. The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chickens was 0.02. The growth kinetics of the A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) virus in different cell lines were similar to those of a human-origin virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), but lower than those of the control avian-origin and swine-origin viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H1N8 virus was identified in avian influenza-related environments in China for the first time and may have served as a gene carrier involved in the evolution of the H7N9 virus in poultry. This work further emphasizes the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance, especially in live poultry markets (LPMs). Active surveillance of avian influenza in LPMs is a major pillar supporting avian influenza control and response.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H1N8 subtype; Live poultry market

PMID: 31117981 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China; Reassortant strain; H1N1; H1N2; H7N9.

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#Virulence of three #European highly pathogenic #H7N1 and #H7N7 #avian #influenza viruses in Pekin and Muscovy #ducks (BMC Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Vet Res. 2019 May 10;15(1):142. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-1899-4.

Virulence of three European highly pathogenic H7N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses in Pekin and Muscovy ducks.

Scheibner D1, Blaurock C1, Mettenleiter TC1, Abdelwhab EM2.

Author information: 1 Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany. 2 Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany. sayed.abdel-whab@fli.de.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is paucity of data on the virulence of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) H7 in ducks compared to HPAIV H5. Here, the virulence of HPAIV H7N1 (designated H7N1-FPV34 and H7N1-It99) and H7N7 (designated H7N7-FPV27) was assessed in Pekin and/or Muscovy ducklings after intrachoanal (IC) or intramuscular (IM) infection.

RESULTS:

The morbidity rate ranged from 60 to 100% and mortality rate from 20 to 80% depending on the duck species, virus strain and/or challenge route. All Muscovy ducklings inoculated IC with H7N7-FPV27 or H7N1-FPV34 exhibited mild to severe clinical signs resulting in the death of 2/10 and 8/10 ducklings, respectively. Also, 2/10 and 6/9 of inoculated Muscovy ducklings died after IC or IM infection with H7N1-It99, respectively. Moreover, 5/10 Pekin ducklings inoculated IC or IM with H7N1-It99 died. The level of virus detected in the oropharyngeal swabs was higher than in the cloacal swabs.

CONCLUSION:

Taken together, HPAIV H7 cause mortality and morbidity in Muscovy and Pekin ducklings. The severity of disease in Muscovy ducklings depended on the virus strain and/or route of infection. Preferential replication of the virus in the respiratory tract compared to the gut merits further investigation.

KEYWORDS: Ducks; H7N1; H7N7; HPAIV; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Muscovy duck; Pekin duck; Virulence

PMID: 31077209 PMCID: PMC6511205 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-1899-4 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N1; H7N7; Poultry; Animal models.

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The live #poultry #trade and the spread of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza: #Regional differences between #Europe, West #Africa, and Southeast #Asia (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PLoS One. 2018 Dec 19;13(12):e0208197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208197. eCollection 2018.

The live poultry trade and the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza: Regional differences between Europe, West Africa, and Southeast Asia.

Wu T1, Perrings C1.

Author information: 1 School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States of America.

 

Abstract

In the past two decades, avian influenzas have posed an increasing international threat to human and livestock health. In particular, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has spread across Asia, Africa, and Europe, leading to the deaths of millions of poultry and hundreds of people. The two main means of international spread are through migratory birds and the live poultry trade. We focus on the role played by the live poultry trade in the spread of H5N1 across three regions widely infected by the disease, which also correspond to three major trade blocs: the European Union (EU), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Across all three regions, we found per-capita GDP (a proxy for modernization, general biosecurity, and value-at-risk) to be risk reducing. A more specific biosecurity measure-general surveillance-was also found to be mitigating at the all-regions level. However, there were important inter-regional differences. For the EU and ASEAN, intra-bloc live poultry imports were risk reducing while extra-bloc imports were risk increasing; for ECOWAS the reverse was true. This is likely due to the fact that while the EU and ASEAN have long-standing biosecurity standards and stringent enforcement (pursuant to the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures), ECOWAS suffered from a lack of uniform standards and lax enforcement.

PMID: 30566454 PMCID: PMC6300203 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208197 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Worldwide.

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The re-emergence of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9 viruses in #human[s] in mainland #China, 2019 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019

Deshan Yu1,2, Guofeng Xiang1,3, Wenfei Zhu1,4, Xia Lei1,5, Baodi Li2, Yao Meng4, Lei Yang4, Hongyan Jiao6,Xiyan Li4, Weijuan Huang4, Hejiang Wei4, Yanping Zhang7, Yan Hai5, Hui Zhang2, Hua Yue5, Shumei Zou4, Xiang Zhao4, Chao Li7, Deng Ao6,Ye Zhang4, Minju Tan4, Jia Liu4, Xuemei Zhang6, George F. Gao4,7, Lei Meng2,8, Dayan Wang4,8

Affiliations: 1 These authors contributed equally in this study as first authors; 2 Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou China; 3 Jiuquan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiuquan, China; 4 National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health Commission, Beijing, China; 5 Inner Mongolia Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hohehot, China; 6 Alasan League Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Alasan, China; 7 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; 8 These authors contributed equally as last authors in this study

Correspondence:  Dayan Wang

Citation style for this article: Yu Deshan, Xiang Guofeng, Zhu Wenfei, Lei Xia, Li Baodi, Meng Yao, Yang Lei, Jiao Hongyan, Li Xiyan, Huang Weijuan, Wei Hejiang,Zhang Yanping, Hai Yan, Zhang Hui, Yue Hua, Zou Shumei, Zhao Xiang, Li Chao, Ao Deng, Zhang Ye, Tan Minju, Liu Jia, Zhang Xuemei, Gao George F., Meng Lei,Wang Dayan. The re-emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9 viruses in humans in mainland China, 2019. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(21):pii=1900273. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.21.1900273

Received: 06 May 2019;   Accepted: 23 May 2019

 

Abstract

After no reported human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 for over a year, a case with severe disease occurred in late March 2019. Among HPAI H7N9 viral sequences, those recovered from the case and from environmental samples of a poultry slaughtering stall near their home formed a distinct clade from 2017 viral sequences. Several mutations possibly associated to antigenic drift occurred in the haemagglutinin gene, potentially warranting update of H7N9 vaccine strains.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Gansu; Inner Mongolia; China.

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#PB2 and #hemagglutinin #mutations confer a #virulent phenotype on an #H1N2 #avian #influenza virus in mice (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2019 May 20. doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04283-0. [Epub ahead of print]

PB2 and hemagglutinin mutations confer a virulent phenotype on an H1N2 avian influenza virus in mice.

Yu Z1, Ren Z2, Zhao Y3, Cheng K4, Sun W3, Zhang X3, Wu J5, He H6, Xia X7, Gao Y8.

Author information: 1 Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Jiaoxiao road, Jinan, 250023, Shandong, China. zhijun0215@gmail.com. 2 Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China. 3 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Jiaoxiao road, Jinan, 250023, Shandong, China. 6 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China. 7 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. xiaxzh@cae.cn. 8 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. gaoyuwei@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

We previously obtained mouse-adapted variants of H1N2 avian influenza virus that contained PB2-L134H, PB2-I647L, PB2-D701N, HA-G228S, and M1-D231N mutations. Here, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on viral pathogenicity in a mammalian model. By evaluating the virulence of mouse-adapted H1N2 variants at different generations, we found that the PB2-D701N and HA-G228S mutations both contribute to the virulence of this virus in mammals. Furthermore, we found that the PB2-D701N and HA-G228S mutations both enhance the ability of the virus to replicate in vivo and in vitro and that the PB2-D701N substitution results in an expansion of viral tissue tropism. These results suggest that the PB2-D701N mutation and the HA-G228S mutation are the major mammalian determinants of H1N2 virus. These results help us to understand more about the mechanisms by which influenza viruses adapt to mammals, and monitoring of these mutations can be used in continuous influenza surveillance to assess the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus variants.

PMID: 31111259 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-019-04283-0

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H1N2; Reassortant strain; Animal models.

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