A study of the relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza A #H5N6 and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 PMCID: PMC6719373 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; Fujian; China.

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#Seroprevalence and #risk factors of #avian #influenza #H9 virus among #poultry #professionals in #Rawalpindi, #Pakistan (J Infect Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Public Health. 2019 Jul – Aug;12(4):482-485. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Seroprevalence and risk factors of avian influenza H9 virus among poultry professionals in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Tahir MF1, Abbas MA2, Ghafoor T3, Dil S4, Shahid MA5, Bullo MMH6, Ain QU7, Ranjha MA8, Khan MA9, Naseem MT10.

Author information: 1 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan; Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address: drmftahir@gmail.com. 2 National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. 3 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan. 5 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 6 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Federal General Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. 7 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; Veterinary Research Institute, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. 8 National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 9 Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Islamabad, Pakistan; National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 10 Poultry Research Institute, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza H9 is endemic in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and is a serious occupational health hazard to industry workers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza H9 infection in people working with poultry in Rawalpindi, Pakistan and assess the measures they took to protect themselves from infection.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016 to May 2017 of 419 people working with poultry in Rawalpindi Division, including farm workers, vaccinators, field veterinarians, butchers and staff working in diagnostic laboratories. Potential participants were randomly approached and gave written consent to participate. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and serum samples were processed to detect H9 antibodies using the haemagglutination inhibition test.

RESULTS:

Of the 419 participants, 406 (96.9%) were male. The mean age of the participants was 36.4 (SD 10.86) years. A total of 332 participants agreed to a blood test, 167 of whom were positive for A(H9) antibodies, giving an overall seroprevalence of 50.3%. Laboratory staff had the highest seroprevalence (100%) and veterinarians the lowest (38.5%). Vaccinators, butchers and farm workers had a seroprevalence of 83.3%, 52.4% and 45.5% respectively. Personals who used facemasks had significantly lower (P<0.002) seroprevalence (29.6%) than those who never used them (90.6%). Similarly, those who always used gloves and washed their hands with soap had a seroprevalence of 32.8% compared with 89.0% in those who never took these precautions. Of the participants who handled antigens, 92.3% were seropositive.

CONCLUSION:

Laboratory staff and vaccinators are exposed to viral cultures and influenza vaccines respectively which may explain their high seroprevalence.

Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Pakistan; Poultry; Seroprevalence

PMID: 30578143 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2018.11.009 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Serology; Seroprevalence; Pakistan.

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#Animal #Exposure and #Human #Plague, #USA, 1970–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017

Stefanie B. Campbell, Christina A. Nelson, Alison F. Hinckley, and Kiersten J. Kugeler

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

 

Abstract

Since 1970, >50% of patients with plague in the United States had interactions with animals that might have led to infection. Among patients with pneumonic plague, nearly all had animal exposure. Improved understanding of the varied ways in which animal contact might increase risk for infection could enhance prevention messages.

Keywords: Plague; Pneumonic Plague; Human; USA; Zoonoses.

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A live attenuated #H5N2 prime- inactivated #H5N1 boost #vaccination induces #influenza virus #hemagglutinin #stalk specific #antibody responses (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Nov 7. pii: S0264-410X(19)31473-2. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.084. [Epub ahead of print]

A live attenuated H5N2 prime- inactivated H5N1 boost vaccination induces influenza virus hemagglutinin stalk specific antibody responses.

Kongchanagul A1, Samnuan K2, Wirachwong P3, Surichan S3, Puthavathana P4, Pitisuttithum P5, Boonnak K6.

Author information: 1 Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Thailand. 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand. 3 Government Pharmaceutical Organization, Thailand. 4 Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Thailand. 5 Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand; Vaccine Trial Centre, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand. 6 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand. Electronic address: Kobporn.boo@mahidol.ac.th.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The emergence and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) viruses have raised global concerns of a possible human pandemic, spurring efforts towards H5N1 influenza vaccine development and improvements in vaccine administration methods. We previously showed that a prime-boost vaccination strategy induces robust and broadly cross-reactive antibody responses against the hemagglutinin globular head domain. Here, we specifically measure antibodies against the conserved hemagglutinin stem region in serum samples obtained from the prior study to determine whether stalk-reactive antibodies can also be induced by the prime-boost regimen.

METHOD:

Serum samples collected from 60 participants before vaccination and on days 7, 28 and 90 following boosting vaccination were used in this study. 40 participants received two doses of live attenuated H5N2 vaccine (LAIV H5N2) followed by one dose of inactivated H5N1 vaccine a year later, while 20 participants received only the inactivated H5N1 vaccine. We tested these serum samples for stalk-reactive antibodies via enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and microneutralization assays.

RESULTS:

Stalk-specific antibody levels measured by both assays were found to be significantly higher in primed individuals than the unprimed group. ELISA results showed that 22.5, 70.5 and 57.5% of primed participants had a four-fold or more increase in stalk antibody titers on days 7, 28 and 90 following boosting vaccination, respectively; whereas the unprimed group had no increase. Peak geometric mean titers (GMT) for stalk antibodies in the LAIV H5N2 experienced group (24,675 [95% CI; 19,531-31,174]) were significantly higher than those who received only the inactivated H5N1 vaccine (8877 [7140-11,035]; p < 0·0001). Moreover, stalk antibodies displaying neutralizing activity also increased in primed participants, but not in the unprimed group.

CONCLUSION:

Our finding emphasizes the importance of prime-boost vaccination for effectively inducing stalk antibodies, which is an attractive target for developing vaccines that induce stalk reactive antibodies.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Influenza vaccine; Prime-boost vaccination; Stalk antibody

PMID: 31708176 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.10.084

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; Human; Vaccines.

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#Characteristics of #H7N9 #avian #influenza #pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of 17 cases (Inter Med J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Intern Med J. 2019 Nov 10. doi: 10.1111/imj.14685. [Epub ahead of print]

Characteristics of H7N9 avian influenza pneumonia: a retrospective analysis of 17 cases.

Yu WQ1,2, Ji NF1, Ding MD2, Gu CJ3, Ma Y1, Wu ZZ1, Wang YL1, Wu CJ1, Dai GH4, Chen Y4, Jin RR4, Tan YB5, Yang Z6, Zhou DM2, Xian JC2, Xu HT2, Huang M1.

Author information: 1 Department of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China. 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, Taizhou People’s hospital, Taizhou, 225300, China. 3 Department of Pharmacy, Taizhou People’s hospital, Taizhou, 225300, China. 4 Department of Pathology, Taizhou People’s hospital, Taizhou, 225300, China. 5 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taizhou People’s hospital, Taizhou, 225300, China. 6 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Wannan Medical College, No. 22, Wenchang West Road, Yijiang District, Wuhu, Anhui, 241002, China.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

H7N9 avian influenza is an infection of public health concern, in part because of its high mortality rate and pandemic potential.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to describe the clinical features of H7N9 avian influenza and the response to treatment.

METHODS:

Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data, and treatment-related of H7N9-infected patients hospitalized during 2014-2017 were extracted and analyzed.

RESULTS:

A total of 17 H7N9 patients (three females; mean age, 58.4 ± 13.7 years) were identified; of these six died. All patients presented with fever and productive cough; four patients had hemoptysis and 13 had chest distress and/or shortness of breath. Early subnormal white blood cell count and elevation of serum liver enzymes were common. Multilobar patchy shadows, rapid progression to ground-glass opacities, air bronchograms, and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Histopathological examination of lung tissue of three patients who died showed severe alveolar epithelial cell damage, with inflammatory exudation into the alveolar space and hyaline membrane formation; widened alveolar septae, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration; and hyperplasia of pneumocytes. Viral inclusions were found in the lung tissue of two patients. All patients received antiviral drugs (oseltamivir ± peramivir). Four patients carried the rs12252-C/C IFN-induced transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) genotype, while the others had the C/T genotype.

CONCLUSIONS:

H7N9 virus infection causes human influenza-like symptoms, but may rapidly progress to severe pneumonia and even death. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of H7N9 infection in high-risk patients. The presence of the IFITM3 rs12252-C genotype may predict severe illness.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31707755 DOI: 10.1111/imj.14685

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Genetics.

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#MERS #Coronavirus #Seropositivity in #Camel #Handlers and Their #Families, #Pakistan (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Seropositivity in Camel Handlers and Their Families, Pakistan

Jian Zheng1, Sohail Hassan1  , Abdulaziz N. Alagaili, Abeer N. Alshukairi, Nabil M.S. Amor, Nadia Mukhtar, Iqra Maleeha Nazeer, Zarfishan Tahir, Nadeem Akhter, Stanley Perlman  , and Tahir Yaqub

Author affiliations: University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA (J. Zheng, S. Perlman); University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan (S. Hassan, I.M. Nazeer, T. Yaqub); King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alagaili, N.M.S. Amor); King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (A.N. Alshukairi); Government of Punjab, Lahore (N. Mukhtar, Z. Tahir, N. Akhter); The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China (S. Perlman)

 

Abstract

A high percentage of camel handlers in Saudi Arabia are seropositive for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We found that 12/100 camel handlers and their family members in Pakistan, a country with extensive camel MERS-CoV infection, were seropositive, indicating that MERS-CoV infection of these populations extends beyond the Arabian Peninsula.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Serology; Seroprevalence; Human; Camels; Pakistan.

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#MERS-CoV in #Camels but Not Camel Handlers, #Sudan, 2015 and 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research Letter

MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017

Elmoubasher Farag1, Reina S. Sikkema1, Ahmed A. Mohamedani, Erwin de Bruin, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Felicity Chandler, Robert Kohl, Anne van der Linden, Nisreen M.A. Okba, Bart L. Haagmans, Judith M.A. van den Brand, Asia Mohamed Elhaj, Adam D. Abakar, Bakri Y.M. Nour, Ahmed M. Mohamed, Bader Eldeen Alwaseela, Husna Ahmed, Mohd Mohd Alhajri, Marion Koopmans, Chantal Reusken2, and Samira Hamid Abd Elrahman2

Author affiliations: Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar (E. Farag, M.M. Alhajri); Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.S. Sikkema, E. de Bruin, B.B.O. Munnink, F. Chandler, R. Kohl, A. van der Linden, N.M.A. Okba, B.L. Haagmans, M. Koopmans, C. Reusken); University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan (A.A. Mohamedani, S.H.A. Elrahman); Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (J.M.A. van den Brand); Blue Nile National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Wad Medani (A.M. Elhaj, A.D. Abakar, B.Y.M. Nour, A.M. Mohamed, S.H.A. Elrahman); Tamboul Camel Research Centre, Tamboul, Sudan (B.E. Alwaseela, H. Ahmed); National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands (C. Reusken)

 

Abstract

We tested samples collected from camels, camel workers, and other animals in Sudan and Qatar in 2015 and 2017 for evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. MERS-CoV antibodies were abundant in Sudan camels, but we found no evidence of MERS-CoV infection in camel workers, other livestock, or bats.

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Human; Bats; Sudan.

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