#Epidemiological and molecular analysis of #avian #influenza A(#H7N9) virus in #Shanghai, #China, 2013-2017 (Infect Drug Resist., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Drug Resist. 2018 Nov 22;11:2411-2424. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S179517. eCollection 2018.

Epidemiological and molecular analysis of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013-2017.

Wang SJ1,2,3, Liu XW1, Shen X1,2, Hua XG1,2, Cui L1,2.

Author information: 1 Department of Animal Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China, lcui@sjtu.edu.cn. 2 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China, lcui@sjtu.edu.cn. 3 Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Republic of Korea.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Human infections with a novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) were reported in Shanghai municipality, China, at the beginning of 2013. High-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged in late February 2017 along with existing low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus, and this has the potential to develop into a pandemic that could be harmful to humans.

METHODS:

To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of H7N9-infected cases from 2013 to 2017 in Shanghai, data on the 59 laboratory-confirmed human cases and 26 bird and environmental contamination cases were collected from the WHO website and Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention System for Animal Health (FAO EMPRES-AH). Full-length sequences of H7N9 viruses that emerged in Shanghai were collected from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data to analyze the evolutionary and genetic features.

RESULTS:

We found that genetically different strains emerged in every epidemic in Shanghai, and most of the circulating H7N9 strains had affinity to human-type receptors, with the characteristics of high-virulence and low-pathogenic influenza viruses. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the Shanghai chicken strains are closely related to the HPAI H7N9 virus A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016, indicating that this viral strain is of avian origin and generated from the LPAI H7N9 viruses in Shanghai. The gradual decrease in H7N9 human infection in Shanghai was probably due to the control measures taken by the Shanghai government and the enhanced public awareness leading to a reduced risk of H7N9 virus infection. However, LPAI H7N9 viruses from poultry and environmental samples were continually detected in Shanghai across the epidemics, increasing the risk of new emerging H7N9 outbreaks.

CONCLUSION:

It is important to consistently obtain sufficient surveillance data and implement prevention measures against H7N9 viruses in Shanghai municipality.

KEYWORDS: H7N9 virus; epidemiology; molecular evolutionary study; phylogenetic tree

PMID: 30538508 PMCID: PMC6254586 DOI: 10.2147/IDR.S179517

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China; Shanghai.

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#Pathogenicity of two novel #human-origin #H7N9 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses in #chickens and #ducks (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2018 Dec 11. doi: 10.1007/s00705-018-4102-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Pathogenicity of two novel human-origin H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.

Tanikawa T1, Uchida Y1, Takemae N1, Tsunekuni R1, Mine J1, Liu MT2, Yang JR2, Shirakura M3, Watanabe S3, Odagiri T3, Saito T4,5.

Author information: 1 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan. 2 Center for Research, Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan. 3 Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama, Tokyo, 208-0011, Japan. 4 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan. taksaito@affrc.go.jp. 5 United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan. taksaito@affrc.go.jp.

 

Abstract

Human infection by low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype was first reported in March 2013 in China. Subsequently, these viruses caused five outbreaks through September 2017. In the fifth outbreak, H7N9 virus possessing a multiple basic amino acid insertion in the cleavage site of hemagglutinin emerged and caused 4% of all human infections in that period. To date, H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been isolated from poultry, mostly chickens, as well as the environment. To evaluate the relative infectivity of these viruses in poultry, chickens and ducks were subjected to experimental infection with two H7N9 HPAIVs isolated from humans, namely A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 and A/Taiwan/1/2017. When chickens were inoculated with the HPAIVs at a dose of 10650% egg infectious dose (EID50), all chickens died within 2-5 days after inoculation, and the viruses replicated in most of the internal organs examined. The 50% lethal doses of A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 and A/Taiwan/1/2017 in chickens were calculated as 103.3 and 104.7 EID50, respectively. Conversely, none of the ducks inoculated with either virus displayed any clinical signs, and less-efficient virus replication and less shedding were observed in ducks compared to chickens. These findings indicate that chickens, but not ducks, are highly permissive hosts for emerging H7N9 HPAIVs.

PMID: 30539262 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-4102-5

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; Human; China.

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#Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) #Model Based on #Poultry Transport #Network in #China (Comput Math Methods Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comput Math Methods Med. 2018 Nov 4;2018:7383170. doi: 10.1155/2018/7383170. eCollection 2018.

Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Model Based on Poultry Transport Network in China.

Zhang J1,2, Jing W1,2, Zhang W3, Jin Z1,2.

Author information: 1 Complex Systems Research Center, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. 2 Shanxi Key Laboratory of Mathematical Techniques and Big Data Analysis on Disease Control and Prevention, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China. 3 Institute of Disease Control and Prevention of PLA, Beijing 100071, China.

 

Abstract

In order to analyze the spread of avian influenza A (H7N9), we construct an avian influenza transmission model from poultry (including poultry farm, backyard poultry farm, live-poultry wholesale market, and wet market) to human according to poultry transport network. We obtain the threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza A (H7N9) and also give the existence and number of the boundary equilibria and endemic equilibria in different conditions. We can see that poultry transport network plays an important role in controlling avian influenza A (H7N9). Finally, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effects of poultry in different places on avian influenza. In order to reduce human infections in China, our results suggest that closing the retail live-poultry market or preventing the poultry of backyard poultry farm into the live-poultry market is feasible in a suitable condition.

PMID: 30532797 PMCID: PMC6247641 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7383170 Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; Human; China; Mathematical models.

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#Phylogeography of #H5N1 #avian #influenza virus in #Indonesia (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Oct;65(5):1339-1347. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12883. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Phylogeography of H5N1 avian influenza virus in Indonesia.

Njoto EN1, Scotch M1,2,3, Bui CM1, Adam DC1, Chughtai AA1, MacIntyre CR1,3,4.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of New South Wales Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 2 Center for Environmental Health Engineering, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. 3 College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona. 4 College of Public Service and Community Solution, Arizona State University, Phoenix, Arizona.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described. The spread is consistent with wild bird flyways and poultry trading routes. H5N1 migration was associated with the regions of high chicken densities and low human development indices. These results can be used to inform more targeted planning of H5N1 control and prevention activities in Indonesia.

KEYWORDS: H5N1 Subtype; Indonesia; Influenza A Virus; One Health; Phylogeography

PMID: 29691995 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12883 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Indonesia; Wild Birds; Poultry; Human.

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Closure of live #bird #markets leads to the spread of #H7N9 #influenza in #China (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China

Yin Li, Youming Wang, Chaojian Shen, Jianlong Huang, Jingli Kang, Baoxu Huang, Fusheng Guo, John Edwards

Published: December 12, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208884

 

Abstract

Following the emergence of H7N9 influenza in March 2013, local animal and public health authorities in China have been closing live bird markets as a measure to try to control the H7N9 influenza epidemic. The role of live bird market (LBM) closure on the spread of N7N9 influenza following the closure of LBMs during March to May 2013 (the first wave) and October 2013 to March 2014 (the second wave) is described in this paper. Different provinces implemented closure actions at different times, and intensive media reports on H7N9 in different provinces started at different times. Local broiler prices dropped dramatically in places with outbreaks and more live chickens were transported to other LBMs in neighboring areas without human cases from infected areas when live bird markets were being closed. There were six clusters of human infection from March to May 2013 and October 2013 to March 2014 and there may have been intensive poultry transportation among cluster areas. These findings provide evidence that the closure of LBMs in early waves of H7N9 influenza had resulted in expansion of H7N9 infection to uninfected areas. This suggests that provincial authorities in inland provinces should be alert to the risks of sudden changes in movement patterns for live birds after LBM closure or increased publicity about LBM closure.

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Citation: Li Y, Wang Y, Shen C, Huang J, Kang J, Huang B, et al. (2018) Closure of live bird markets leads to the spread of H7N9 influenza in China. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0208884. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208884

Editor: Shuo Su, Nanjing Agricultural University, CHINA

Received: February 15, 2018; Accepted: November 27, 2018; Published: December 12, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC1200500). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China; Live birds markets.

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Potential #Pandemic of #H7N9 #Avian #Influenza A Virus in Human (Front Cell Infect Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018 Nov 23;8:414. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00414. eCollection 2018.

Potential Pandemic of H7N9 Avian Influenza A Virus in Human.

Pu Z1, Xiang D2, Li X1, Luo T1, Shen X1, Murphy RW3, Liao M1,4, Shen Y1,4.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. 2 Joint Influenza Research Centre (SUMC/HKU), Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China. 3 Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON, Canada. 4 Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Prevention and Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

 

Abstract

Since 2013, the H7N9 avian influenza A virus (AIV) has caused human infections and to the extent of now surpassing H5N1. This raises an alarm about the potential of H7N9 to become a pandemic problem. Our compilation of the amino acid changes required for AIVs to cross the species-barrier discovers 58 that have very high proportions in both the human- and avian-isolated H7N9 viruses. These changes correspond with sporadic human infections that continue to occur in regions of avian infections. Among the six internal viral genes, amino acid changes do not differ significantly between H9N2 and H7N9, except for V100A in PA, and K526R, D627K, and D701N in PB2. H9N2 AIVs provide internal genes to H7N9. Most of the amino acid changes in H7N9 appear to come directly from H9N2. Seventeen amino acid substitutions appear to have fixed quickly by the 5th wave. Among these, six amino acid sites in HA1 are receptor binding sites, and PB2-A588V was shown to promote the adaptation of AIVs to mammals. The accelerated fixation of mutations may promote the adaptation of H7N9 to human, but need further functional evidence. Although H7N9 AIVs still cannot efficiently transmit between humans, they have the genetic makeup associated with human infections. These viruses must be controlled in poultry to remove the threat of it becoming a human pandemic event.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; avian influenza A virus; genetic marker; host barrier; human infection

PMID: 30533399 PMCID: PMC6265602 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00414

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China.

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#Klebsiella pneumoniae causing #UTIs in companion #animals and #humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes (J Antimicrob Chemother., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Klebsiella pneumoniae causing urinary tract infections in companion animals and humans: population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

Cátia Marques, Juliana Menezes, Adriana Belas, Catarina Aboim, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva, Graça Trigueiro, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, dky499, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky499

Published: 10 December 2018

 

Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Klebsiella spp. isolated from dogs, cats and humans with urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods

Klebsiella spp. from companion animals (n = 27) and humans (n = 77) with UTI were tested by the disc diffusion method against 29 antimicrobials. Resistant/intermediate isolates were tested by PCR for 16 resistance genes. Seven virulence genes were screened for by PCR. All Klebsiella pneumoniae from companion animals and third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant isolates from humans were typed by MLST. All Klebsiella spp. were compared after PFGE XbaI macro-restriction using Dice/UPGMA with 1.5% tolerance.

Results

blaCTX-M-15 was detected in >80% of 3GC-resistant strains. K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineage ST15 predominated in companion animal isolates (60%, n = 15/25). Most companion animal ST15 K. pneumoniae belonged to two PFGE clusters (C4, C5) that also included human strains. Companion animal and human ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae shared a fimH-1/mrkD/entB/ycfM/kfu virulence profile, with a few (n = 4) also harbouring the yersiniabactin siderophore-encoding genes. The hospital-adapted ST11 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was detected in a cat (n = 1) and a human (n = 1); both were MDR, had 81.1% Dice/UPGMA similarity and shared several virulence and resistance genes. Two 3GC-resistant ST348 strains with 86.7% Dice/UPGMA similarity were isolated from a cat and a human.

Conclusions

Companion animals with UTI become infected with high-risk K. pneumoniaeclonal lineages harbouring resistance and virulence genes similar to those detected in strains from humans. The ST15-CTX-M-15 K. pneumoniae clonal lineage was disseminated in companion animals with UTI. Caution must be applied by companion animal caretakers to avoid the spread of K. pneumoniaehigh-risk clonal lineages.

Issue Section: ORIGINAL RESEARCH

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Cephalosporins; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Cats; Human.

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