Prevalence of #Wēnzhōu virus in small #mammals in #Yunnan Province, #China (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Prevalence of Wēnzhōu virus in small mammals in Yunnan Province, China

Jinxia Wang , Xinglou Yang , Haizhou Liu, Li Wang, Jihua Zhou, Xi Han, Yan Zhu, Weihong Yang, Hong Pan, Yunzhi Zhang , Zhengli Shi

Published: February 15, 2019 / DOI: / This is an uncorrected proof.




Mammarenaviruses are associated with human hemorrhagic fever diseases in Africa and America. Recently, a rodent mammarenavirus, Wēnzhōu virus (WENV) and related viruses, have been reported in China, Cambodia, and Thailand. Moreover, in Cambodia, these viruses were suspected to be associated with human disease. In China, Yunnan Province is famous for its abundant animal and plant diversity and is adjacent to several South-eastern Asia countries. Therefore, it is necessary to know whether WENV-related viruses, or other mammarenaviruses, are prevalent in this province.

Methodology/Principal findings

Small mammals were trapped, euthanized, and sampled. Mammarenavirus RNA was detected using a nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantified by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 1040 small mammals belonging to 13 genera and 26 species were trapped in Yunnan Province. WENV-related mammarenaviruses were detected in 41 rodent liver samples, mainly in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and oriental house rats (R. tanezumi).Viral nucleocapsid protein was detected in liver sections by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Full-length-genomes were amplified by RT-PCR and used for phylogenetic analysis with the MEGA package. Recombination analysis was performed using the SimPlot and Recombination Detection Program.


WENV related viruses circulated in small mammals in Yunnan Province. Whole genome sequence analysis of five selected viral strains showed that these viruses are closely related to WENVs discovered in Asia and form an independent branch in the phylogenetic tree in the WENV clade. Paying attention to investigate the influence of these viruses to public health is essential in the epidemic regions.


Author summary

Rodents are natural reservoirs of mammarenavirus. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), isolated in Asian countries during the 1990s, has a worldwide distribution and was the first mammarenavirus isolated. In 2014, a second mammarenavirus, Wēnzhōu virus (WENV), was identified in rodents in Zhejiang Province of China and later in Guangdong, Shandong, and Hainan Provinces. Most importantly, WENV or related viruses were reported in Thailand and Cambodia. In Cambodia, the isolated virus was associated with human respiratory diseases. In this study, we detected WENV or related viruses in Yunnan Province and found a high prevalence in rats of two species (Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete L and S segments of five strains showed that these viruses form an independent phylogenetic branch in WENV clade most closely related to WENVs found in China and Cambodia. Considering the wide spread distribution of rats and altered distribution patterns due to ecological changes, we propose that these viruses may have a wider prevalence and be found in countries from South-eastern Asia to China. Given that WENV may be associated with human diseases, it is necessary to improve surveillances of these viruses in their natural reservoirs and in humans.


Citation: Wang J, Yang X, Liu H, Wang L, Zhou J, Han X, et al. (2019) Prevalence of Wēnzhōu virus in small mammals in Yunnan Province, China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(2): e0007049.

Editor: Townsend Peterson, The University of Kansas, UNITED STATES

Received: April 29, 2018; Accepted: December 4, 2018; Published: February 15, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81874274 and 81660558), a Scientific and Technological Basis Special Project grant (2013FY113500) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of PR China, Yunnan health training project of high level talents (L-2017027). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Mammarenavirus; LCMV; Wenzhou virus; Human; Wildlife; Yunnan; China.



#Human #Monkeypox in #SierraLeone after 44-Year Absence of Reported Cases (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Research Letter

Human Monkeypox in Sierra Leone after 44-Year Absence of Reported Cases

Mary G. Reynolds  , Nadia Wauquier, Yu Li, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar, Lansana D. Kanneh, Benjamin Monroe, Jacob Maikere, Gbessay Saffa, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Joseph Fair, Darin S. Carroll, Amara Jambai, Foday Dafae, Sheik Humarr Khan, and Lina M. Moses

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (M.G. Reynolds, Y. Li, P.S. Satheshkumar, B. Monroe, D.S. Carroll); MRIGlobal–Global Health Surveillance and Diagnostics, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA (N. Wauquier); Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone (L.D. Kanneh, S.H. Khan); Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium (J. Maikere); Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Bo, Sierra Leone (G. Saffa); Center of Excellence for Emerging Zoonotic and Animal Diseases, Manhattan, Kansas, USA (J.-P. Gonzalez); Texas A&M University Agrilife Research, College Station, Texas, USA (J. Fair); Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone (A. Jambai, F. Dafae, S.H. Khan); Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA (L.M. Moses)



We note the reemergence of human monkeypox in Sierra Leone following a 44-year absence of reported disease. The persons affected were an 11-month-old boy and, several years later, a 35-year-old man. The reappearance of monkeypox in this country suggests a need for renewed vigilance and awareness of the disease and its manifestations.

Keywords: Monkeypox; Human; Sierra Leone.


Estimating #Risk to #Responders Exposed to #Avian #Influenza A #H5 and #H7 Viruses in #Poultry, #USA, 2014–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 5—May 2019 / Dispatch

Estimating Risk to Responders Exposed to Avian Influenza A H5 and H7 Viruses in Poultry, United States, 2014–2017

Sonja J. Olsen  , Jane A. Rooney, Lenee Blanton, Melissa A. Rolfes, Deborah I. Nelson, Thomas M. Gomez, Steven A. Karli, Susan C. Trock, and Alicia M. Fry

Author affiliations: Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.J. Olsen); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (S.J. Olsen, L. Blanton, M.A. Rolfes, S.C. Trock, A.M. Fry); US Department of Agriculture, Riverdale, Maryland, USA (J.A. Rooney, D.I. Nelson); US Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa, USA (T.M. Gomez, S.A. Karli)



In the United States, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 and H7 virus infections in poultry have raised concern about the risk for infections in humans. We reviewed the data collected during 2014–2017 and found no human infections among 4,555 exposed responders who were wearing protection.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5; H7; Poultry; Human; USA.


#Human-Origin #Influenza A(#H3N2) #Reassortant Viruses in #Swine, Southeast #Mexico (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 4—April 2019 / Research

Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico

Martha I. Nelson  , Carine Souza, Nídia S. Trovão, Andres Diaz, Ignacio Mena, Albert Rovira, Amy L. Vincent, Montserrat Torremorell, Douglas Marthaler1, and Marie R. Culhane

Author affiliations: National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (M.I. Nelson, N.S. Trovão); National Animal Disease Center, Ames, Iowa, USA (C. Souza, A.L. Vincent); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA (N.S. Trovão, I. Mena); University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA (A. Diaz, A. Rovira, M. Torremorell, D. Marthaler, M.R. Culhane)



The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine in Mexico complicates control efforts in animals and presents a threat to humans, as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for vaccine development, we sequenced the genomes of 59 viruses and performed antigenic cartography on strains from 5 regions. We found that genetic and antigenic diversity were particularly high in southeast Mexico because of repeated introductions of viruses from humans and swine in other regions in Mexico. We identified novel reassortant H3N2 viruses with genome segments derived from 2 different viruses that were independently introduced from humans into swine: pandemic H1N1 viruses and seasonal H3N2 viruses. The Mexico swine viruses are antigenically distinct from US swine lineages. Protection against these viruses is unlikely to be afforded by US virus vaccines and would require development of new vaccines specifically targeting these diverse strains.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; Reassortant Strain; Pigs; Human; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Mexico.


A case-crossover #analysis of the #impact of #weather on #primary cases of #MERS (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 4;19(1):113. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3729-5.

A case-crossover analysis of the impact of weather on primary cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome.

Gardner EG1, Kelton D1, Poljak Z1, Van Kerkhove M2, von Dobschuetz S3, Greer AL4.

Author information: 1 Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. 2 World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 3 Animal Health Service – FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy. 4 Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.




Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is endemic in dromedary camels in the Arabian Peninsula, and zoonotic transmission to people is a sporadic event. In the absence of epidemiological data on the reservoir species, patterns of zoonotic transmission have largely been approximated from primary human cases. This study aimed to identify meteorological factors that may increase the risk of primary MERS infections in humans.


A case-crossover design was used to identify associations between primary MERS cases and preceding weather conditions within the 2-week incubation period in Saudi Arabia using univariable conditional logistic regression. Cases with symptom onset between January 2015 – December 2017 were obtained from a publicly available line list of human MERS cases maintained by the World Health Organization. The complete case dataset (N = 1191) was reduced to approximate the cases most likely to represent spillover transmission from camels (N = 446). Data from meteorological stations closest to the largest city in each province were used to calculate the daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature (οC), relative humidity (%), wind speed (m/s), and visibility (m). Weather variables were categorized according to strata; temperature and humidity into tertiles, and visibility and wind speed into halves.


Lowest temperature (Odds Ratio = 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.04-1.56) and humidity (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.10-1.65) were associated with increased cases 8-10 days later. High visibility was associated with an increased number of cases 7 days later (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.01-1.57), while wind speed also showed statistically significant associations with cases 5-6 days later.


Results suggest that primary MERS human cases in Saudi Arabia are more likely to occur when conditions are relatively cold and dry. This is similar to seasonal patterns that have been described for other respiratory diseases in temperate climates. It was hypothesized that low visibility would be positively associated with primary cases of MERS, however the opposite relationship was seen. This may reflect behavioural changes in different weather conditions. This analysis provides key initial evidence of an environmental component contributing to the development of primary MERS-CoV infections.

KEYWORDS: Case-crossover; MERS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome; Veterinary public health

PMID: 30717685 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3729-5

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Human.


#Clinical indices and #mortality of hospitalized #avian #influenza A (#H7N9) patients in #Guangdong, #China (Chin Med J (Engl.), abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Chin Med J (Engl). 2019 Feb 5;132(3):302-310. doi: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000043.

Clinical indices and mortality of hospitalized avian influenza A (H7N9) patients in Guangdong, China.

Yang Y1, Li X1, Birkhead GS2, Zheng Z1, Lu JH1,3,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China. 2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University at Albany, NY 12222, USA. 3 Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China. 4 One Health Center of Excellence for Research & Training, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.




Six epidemic waves of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China with high mortality. However, study on quantitative relationship between clinical indices in ill persons and H7N9 outcome (fatal and non-fatal) is still unclear. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect laboratory-confirmed cases with H7N9 viral infection from 2013 to 2015 in 23 hospitals across 13 cities in Guangdong Province, China.


Multivariable logistic regression model and classification tree model analyses were used to detect the threshold of selected clinical indices and risk factors for H7N9 death. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and analyses were used to compare survival and death distributions and differences between indices. A total of 143 cases with 90 survivors and 53 deaths were investigated.


Average age (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.036, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.016-1.057), interval days between dates of onset and confirmation (OR = 1.078, 95% CI = 1.004-1.157), interval days between onset and oseltamivir treatment (OR = 5.923, 95% CI = 1.877-18.687), body temperature (BT) (OR = 3.612, 95% CI = 1.914-6.815), white blood cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.212, 95% CI = 1.092-1.346) were significantly associated with H7N9 death after adjusting for confounders. The chance of death from H7N9 infection was 80.0% if BT was over 38.1 °C, and chance of death is 67.4% if WBC count was higher than 9.5 (10/L). Only 27.1% of patients who began oseltamivir treatment less than 9.5 days after disease onset died, compared to 68.8% of those who started treatment more than 15.5 days after onset.


The intervals between date of onset and confirmation of diagnosis, between date of onset to oseltamivir treatment, age, BT and WBC are found to be the best predictors of H7N9 mortality.

PMID: 30681496 DOI: 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000043

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.


#Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a young #child infected with #avian #influenza A (#H9N2) virus in #China (J Int Med Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Int Med Res. 2018 Aug;46(8):3462-3467. doi: 10.1177/0300060518779959. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a young child infected with avian influenza A (H9N2) virus in China.

Liu R1, Zhao B2, Li Y1, Zhang X1, Chen S1, Chen T1.

Author information: 1 Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People’s Republic of China.



Three cases of the avian influenza A (H9N2) virus have been documented in Changsha, which is a large city that has nine districts and a population of 7.04 million in central South China. Among these patients, one was a girl and two were boys. The ages of the patients were 9 months, 2 years, and 15 years. Two cases of H9N2 were detected in September, 2015 and one was detected in 2017. Two patients were children who had not reached the age for kindergarten and one was a student. These three cases were all mild and were detected in a sentinel hospital of the Chinese Influenza Surveillance System. We describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the youngest patient with H9N2 in 2017 and the surveillance results of the H9N2 virus in live poultry markets in Changsha. From January 2014 to December 2017, 4212 samples were collected in live poultry markets in Changsha, among which 25.81% (1087/4212) were H9N2-positive. Public health concerns should be addressed for emerging H9N2 virus infection, and more strategies should be performed before this virus mutates to be more transmissible and highly pathogenic.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H9N2; children; mild case; poultry; public health

PMID: 29896990 PMCID: PMC6134662 DOI: 10.1177/0300060518779959 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China.