#Person-to-Person #Transmission of #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Among #Family Members in Eastern #China, 2016 (Disaster Med Public Health Prep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Disaster Med Public Health Prep, 1-6 2020 Mar 27 [Online ahead of print]

Person-to-Person Transmission of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Among Family Members in Eastern China, 2016

Chao Shi # 1, Ping Shi # 1, Xu Yang 1, Jing Bao 2, Yanhua Qian 1, Yuan Shen 1

Affiliations: 1 Departments of Disease Control, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China. 2 Laboratory, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.

Contributed equally.

PMID: 32216856 DOI: 10.1017/dmp.2020.6

 

Abstract

Objective:

Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus are associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets, but the evidence of person-to-person transmission remains limited. This study reports a suspected person-to-person transmission of H7N9 virus, and explores what factors influenced this transmission.

Methods:

We interviewed 2 patients with H7N9 infection and their family members as well as health-care workers. Samples from the patients and environments were tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

Results:

The index patient became ill 5 to 6 days after his last exposure to the poultry bought in the market of Weimiao town. The second patient, the sister of the index patient, who had sustained intensive and unprotected close contact with the index patient, had no exposure to poultry. This study documents that the H7N9 virus was transmitted directly from the index patient to his sister.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that person-to-person transmission may be associated with sustained close contact with the patient during his onset of early stage, when the H7N9 viral shedding increases sharply.

Keywords: infection; influenza A (H7N9) virus; person-to-person transmission.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China.

—–

#Avian #influenza #human #infections at the human-animal interface (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian influenza human infections at the human-animal interface

Damien A M Philippon, Peng Wu, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa105, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa105

Published: 10 March 2020

 

Abstract

Background

Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) are among the most concerning emerging and re-emerging pathogens because of the potential risk in causing an influenza pandemic with catastrophic impact. The recent increase in domestic animals and poultry worldwide was followed by an increase of human AIV outbreaks reported.

Methods

We reviewed the epidemiology of human infections with AIV from the literature including reports from the World Health Organization, extracting information on virus subtype, time, location, age, sex, outcome and exposure.

Results

We described the characteristics of more than 2,500 laboratory-confirmed human infections with AIVs. Human infections with H5N1 and H7N9 were more frequently reported than other subtypes. The risk of death was highest among reported cases infected with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9 and H10N8 infections. Older people and males tended to have a lower risk of infection with most AIV subtypes, except for H7N9. Visiting live poultry markets were mostly reported by H7N9, H5N6 and H10N8 cases, while exposure to sick or dead bird mostly reported by H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7 and H10N7 cases.

Discussion

Understanding the profile of human cases of different AIV subtypes would guide control strategy. Continued monitoring of human infections with AIVs is essential for pandemic preparedness.

avian influenza, human infection, review

Issue Section:  Review

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; H5N1; H5N6; H7N3; H7N7; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8.

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#Seroprevalence of #MERS #Coronavirus in #Dromedaries and Their #Traders in Upper #Egypt (J Infect Dev Ctries., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Dev Ctries, 14 (2), 191-198 2020 Feb 29

Seroprevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus in Dromedaries and Their Traders in Upper Egypt

Amal Sm Sayed 1, Safaa S Malek 2, Mostafa Fn Abushahba 3

Affiliations: 1 Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt. amalsayed73@yahoo.com. 2 Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt. safaamalek80@aun.edu.eg. 3 Department of Zoonoses, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Asyut, Egypt. mateya@aun.edu.eg.

PMID: 32146454 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.10862

 

Abstract

Introduction:

Camel trade in Egypt depends mainly on importation. Seemingly healthy imported camels are responsible for the ingress of serious diseases into Egypt. A striking example of this concerning public health globally is the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) which causes case fatalities of over 34%. Here, we determined the seroepidemiological situation of the MERS-CoV in imported camels and their traders in Upper Egypt.

Methodology:

Sera of sixty-three dromedaries and twenty-eight camel traders were recruited (January 2015-December 2016). The age, gender, and sampling locality of each sampled camel and human were obtained. Semi-quantitative anti-MERS-CoV IgG ELISAs which utilize the purified spike protein domain S1 antigen of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV S1) were used to detect specific IgG antibodies against the virus.

Results:

The data showed that 58.73% of imported camels and 25% of traders had antibodies specific to MERS-CoV. Interestingly, like seroreactive camels, all seropositive humans were apparently healthy without any history of developing severe respiratory disease in the 14 days prior to sampling. Having specific antibodies among the examined camel sera was significantly different (P < 0.0001) in relation to various sampling localities, gender and age groups. In contrast, the seropositivity rate of MERS-CoV IgG in humans did not differ significantly by any of the studied factors.

Conclusions:

The current study provides the first serological evidence of occupational exposure of humans to MERS-CoV in Africa. Additionally, it reports that imported camels could be implicated in introducing MERS-CoV into Egypt. Accordingly, application of strict control measures to camel importation is a priority.

Keywords: Dromedary camels; ELISA; MERS-CoV; zoonosis.

Copyright (c) 2020 Amal Sayed, Safaa Malek, Mostafa Abushahba.

Conflict of interest statement No Conflict of Interest is declared

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels; Human; Egypt; Serology.

——

#Evolutionary #Perspectives on Novel #Coronaviruses Identified in #Pneumonia Cases in #China (Nat Sci Rev., abstract)

[Source: National Science Review, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PERSPECTIVE

Evolutionary Perspectives on Novel Coronaviruses Identified in Pneumonia Cases in China

Xiaoman Wei1,2,3, Xiang Li1,3, Jie Cui1,2,*

1 CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. 2 Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. 3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

*Corresponding author (email: jcui@ips.ac.cn)

 

Abstract

Coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are highly transmissible pathogens, and they can be lethal in humans. Bats are believed to be the original sources of these lethal pathogens. In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases was reported in Wuhan and a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has been linked to the causative agent. Early studies indicated that the new virus was genetically similar to a bat betacoronavirus, providing evidence for bat origin of the third human-infecting coronavirus in less than 20 years. We here highlight the potential for viral spillover from animals to humans and discuss evolutionary mechanisms leading to the outbreaks.

Keywords: Coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; China.

——

A new #coronavirus associated with #human respiratory #disease in #China (Nature, abstract)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article / Open Access / Published: 03 February 2020

This is an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Nature Research are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.

A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China

Fan Wu, Su Zhao, Bin Yu, Yan-Mei Chen, Wen Wang, Zhi-Gang Song, Yi Hu, Zhao-Wu Tao, Jun-Hua Tian, Yuan-Yuan Pei, Ming-Li Yuan, Yu-Ling Zhang, Fa-Hui Dai, Yi Liu, Qi-Min Wang, Jiao-Jiao Zheng, Lin Xu, Edward C. Holmes & Yong-Zhen Zhang

Nature (2020)

 

Abstract

Emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and Zika, present a major threat to public health1–3. Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still the source of considerable uncertainly. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in the city Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Up to 25th of January 2020, at least 1,975 cases have been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on the 12th of December 2019. Epidemiological investigation suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. We studied one patient who was a worker at the market, and who was admitted to Wuhan Central Hospital on 26th of December 2019 experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome including fever, dizziness and cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing4 of a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample identified a novel RNA virus from the family Coronaviridae, designed here as WH-Human-1 coronavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) previously sampled from bats in China. This outbreak highlights the ongoing capacity of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans.

Author information

Author notes

These authors contributed equally: Fan Wu, Su Zhao, Bin Yu, Yan-Mei Chen, Wen Wang, Zhi-Gang Song, Yi Hu

Affiliations

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Fan Wu, Yan-Mei Chen, Zhi-Gang Song, Yuan-Yuan Pei, Yu-Ling Zhang, Fa-Hui Dai, Yi Liu, Qi-Min Wang, Jiao-Jiao Zheng, Lin Xu & Yong-Zhen Zhang); Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430014, China (Su Zhao, Yi Hu, Zhao-Wu Tao & Ming-Li Yuan); Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, Hubei, China (Bin Yu & Jun-Hua Tian); Department of Zoonosis, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing, China (Wen Wang & Yong-Zhen Zhang), Marie Bashir – Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and School of Medical Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Edward C. Holmes

Correspondence to Yong-Zhen Zhang.

 

Rights and permissions

Open Access

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Cite this article: Wu, F., Zhao, S., Yu, B. et al. A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. Nature (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV; Betacoronavirus; Sarbecovirus; China; Human.

——-

A #pneumonia #outbreak associated with a new #coronavirus of probable #bat origin (Nature, abstract)

[Source: Nature, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article / Open Access / Published: 03 February 2020

This is an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Nature Research are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.

A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, […] Zheng-Li Shi

Nature (2020)

 

Abstract

Since the SARS outbreak 18 years ago, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies indicated that some of those bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started from 12 December 2019, has caused 2,050 laboratory-confirmed infections with 56 fatal cases by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at the early stage of the outbreak. They are almost identical to each other and share 79.5% sequence identify to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, it was found that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. The pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. The 2019-nCoV virus was then isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient, which can be neutralized by sera from several patients. Importantly, we have confirmed that this novel CoV uses the same cell entry receptor, ACE2, as SARS-CoV.

Author information

Author notes

These authors contributed equally: Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang

Affiliations

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China (Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Ben Hu, Lei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Hao-Rui Si, Yan Zhu, Bei Li, Jing Chen, Yun Luo, Hua Guo, Ren-Di Jiang, Mei-Qin Liu, Ying Chen, Xu-Rui Shen, Xi Wang, Xiao-Shuang Zheng, Kai Zhao, Quan-Jiao Chen, Fei Deng, Bing Yan, Yan-Yi Wang, Geng-Fu Xiao & Zheng-Li Shi); Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China (Xian-Guang Wang, Chao-Lin Huang & Hui-Dong Chen); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China (Hao-Rui Si, Jing Chen, Yun Luo, Hua Guo, Ren-Di Jiang, Mei-Qin Liu, Ying Chen, Xu-Rui Shen, Xi Wang, Xiao-Shuang Zheng & Kai Zhao); Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China (Lin-Lin Liu & Fa-Xian Zhan)

Correspondence to Zheng-Li Shi.

 

Rights and permissions

Open Access

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Cite this article: Zhou, P., Yang, X., Wang, X. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Bats; Human; China.

——

#Genomic characterisation and #epidemiology of 2019 novel #coronavirus: implications for virus origins and #receptor binding (Lancet, abstract)

[Source: The Lancet, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding

Roujian Lu*, Xiang Zhao*, Juan Li*, Peihua Niu*, Bo Yang*, Honglong Wu*, Wenling Wang, Hao Song, Baoying Huang, Na Zhu, Yuhai Bi, Xuejun Ma, Faxian Zhan, Liang Wang, Tao Hu, Hong Zhou, Zhenhong Hu, Weimin Zhou, Li Zhao, Jing Chen, Yao Meng, Ji Wang, Yang Lin, Jianying Yuan, Zhihao Xie, Jinmin Ma, William J Liu, Dayan Wang, Wenbo Xu, Edward C Holmes, George F Gao, Guizhen Wu¶, Weijun Chen¶, Weifeng Shi¶, Wenjie Tan¶

Published OnlineJanuary 29, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8

*Contributed equally

¶Contributed equally

 

Summary

Background

In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed.

Methods

We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus.

Findings

The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues.

Interpretation

2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation.

Funding

National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Bats; China.

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