Experimental #H1N1pdm09 #infection in #pigs mimics #human seasonal #influenza #infections (PLoS One, abstract)

[Source: PLoS One, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

Experimental H1N1pdm09 infection in pigs mimics human seasonal influenza infections

Theresa Schwaiger, Julia Sehl, Claudia Karte, Alexander Schäfer, Jane Hühr, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Charlotte Schröder, Bernd Köllner, Reiner Ulrich, Ulrike Blohm

Published: September 20, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222943

 

Abstract

Pigs are anatomically, genetically and physiologically comparable to humans and represent a natural host for influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Thus, pigs may represent a relevant biomedical model for human IAV infections. We set out to investigate the systemic as well as the local immune response in pigs upon two subsequent intranasal infections with IAV H1N1pdm09. We detected decreasing numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes after the first infection. The simultaneous increase in the frequencies of proliferating cells correlated with an increase in infiltrating leukocytes in the lung. Enhanced perforin expression in αβ and γδ T cells in the respiratory tract indicated a cytotoxic T cell response restricted to the route of virus entry such as the nose, the lung and the bronchoalveolar lavage. Simultaneously, increasing frequencies of CD8αα expressing αβ T cells were observed rapidly after the first infection, which may have inhibited uncontrolled inflammation in the respiratory tract. Taking together, the results of this study demonstrate that experimental IAV infection in pigs mimics major characteristics of human seasonal IAV infections.

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Citation: Schwaiger T, Sehl J, Karte C, Schäfer A, Hühr J, Mettenleiter TC, et al. (2019) Experimental H1N1pdm09 infection in pigs mimics human seasonal influenza infections. PLoS ONE 14(9): e0222943. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222943

Editor: Balaji Manicassamy, University of Iowa, UNITED STATES

Received: May 28, 2019; Accepted: September 10, 2019; Published: September 20, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Schwaiger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This study was funded by Federal Excellence Initiative of Mecklenburg Western Pomerania and European Social Fund (ESF) Grant KoInfekt (ESF_14-BM-A55-00xx_16) to TCM.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; Human; Pigs; Animal models.

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Effect of #closure of live #poultry #markets in #China on #prevention and control of #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #influenza: a case study of four cities in #Jiangsu Province (J Public Health Policy, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Public Health Policy. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of closure of live poultry markets in China on prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza: a case study of four cities in Jiangsu Province.

Ma J1, Yang N1, Gu H2, Bai L1, Sun J1, Gu S1, Gu J3.

Author information: 1 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. 2 Center for Health Policy and Management Studies, School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China. ghai1008@nju.edu.cn. 3 Nanjing Foreign Language School Xianlin Campus, Nanjing, China.

 

Abstract

As of August 2017, China had encountered five seasonal epidemics of H7N9 avian influenza. To prevent people from contracting H7N9 avian influenza, most cities closed live poultry markets (LPMs) to cut off the source of H7N9 virus. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of LPMs closure on reducing zoonotic transmission of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus and to make specific recommendations on the duration of closing the LPMs. Results show that the closure of LPMs can effectively control the spread of H7N9 avian influenza and reduce the incidence of human infection with H7N9. If cases of H7N9 avian influenza continue to occur, LPMs should close for at least 3-4 weeks in susceptible areas to control the spread of infection.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H7N9; Incidence; Live poultry market; Zoonotic transmission

PMID: 31527787 DOI: 10.1057/s41271-019-00185-2

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; Live Poultry Markets; Jiangsu; China.

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Where #backyard #poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for #avian #influenza #prevention in #Bangladesh (BMC Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Public Health. 2018 Aug 3;18(1):969. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5819-5.

Where backyard poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for avian influenza prevention in Bangladesh.

Rimi NA1, Sultana R2,3, Ishtiak-Ahmed K2,4, Haider N2,5, Azziz-Baumgartner E6, Nahar N2, Luby SP2,6,7.

Author information: 1 Program for Emerging Infections (PEI), Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), icddr, b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh. nadiarimi@icddrb.org. 2 Program for Emerging Infections (PEI), Infectious Diseases Division (IDD), icddr, b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka, 1212, Bangladesh. 3 Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 4 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 5 Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. 6 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA. 7 Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In Bangladesh, backyard poultry raisers lack awareness of avian influenza and infrequently follow government recommendations for its prevention. Identifying where poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry might help the government better plan how to disseminate avian influenza prevention and control recommendations.

METHODS:

In order to identify where backyard poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry, we conducted in-depth and informal interviews: 70 with backyard poultry raisers and six with local poultry healthcare providers in two villages, and five with government veterinary professionals at the sub-district and union levels in two districts during June-August 2009.

RESULTS:

Most (86% [60/70]) raisers sought care for their backyard poultry locally, 14% used home remedies only and none sought care from government veterinary professionals. The local poultry care providers provided advice and medications (n = 6). Four local care providers had shops in the village market where raisers sought healthcare for their poultry and the remaining two visited rural households to provide poultry healthcare services. Five of the six local care providers did not have formal training in veterinary medicine. Local care providers either did not know about avian influenza or considered avian influenza to be a disease common among commercial but not backyard poultry. The government professionals had degrees in veterinary medicine and experience with avian influenza and its prevention. They had their offices at the sub-district or union level and lacked staffing to reach the backyard raisers at the village level.

CONCLUSIONS:

The local poultry care providers provided front line healthcare to backyard poultry in villages and were a potential source of information for the rural raisers. Integration of these local poultry care providers in the government’s avian influenza control programs is a potentially useful approach to increase poultry raisers’ and local poultry care providers’ awareness about avian influenza.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Backyard poultry raiser; Bangladesh; Informal care provider, poultry care provider, poultry disease; Perception

PMID: 30075714 PMCID: PMC6090748 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-5819-5 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Human; Public Health; Bangladesh.

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#Platelet count and #mortality of #H7N9 infected patients in #Guangdong, #China (Platelets., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Platelets. 2019 Sep 11:1-4. doi: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639. [Epub ahead of print]

Platelet count and mortality of H7N9 infected patients in Guangdong, China.

Chen Y1,2, Yang Y1, Cheng J2, Lu J1, Hu W2.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou , China. 2 School of Public Health and Social Work, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology , Brisbane , Australia.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza A (H7N9) is a serve zoonosis with a high mortality rate. Timely and effective diagnosis and early warning is crucial for the clinical treatment of H7N9 patients. The previous studies indicated that thrombocytopenia was associated with the prognosis of influenza cases, but the related evidence of platelet change within the course of the disease remains largely insufficient. A total of 130 laboratory-confirmed H7N9 cases and their corresponding medical records from August 2013 to March 2015 were collected from 23 hospitals of 13 cities in Guangdong, China. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the outcome of H7N9 cases and their average platelet count (PC) including maximum, minimum, range, admission and discharge/death of the PC value. Furthermore, we built a classification and regression tree (CART) model to predict the fatality rate which varied with average PC. There was a 7% chance for a mortality from H7N9 if PC was over 207.0 × 10^9/L, while there was a 46.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was between 123.9 × 10^9/L and 207.0 × 10^9/L, and 81.3% chance of a mortality from H7N9 when PC was less than 123.9 × 10^9/L. This study demonstrates that using platelet count to predict the fatality of H7N9 is significant, and lower platelet counts of H7N9 patients were associated with higher risk of mortality of H7N9 patients, which may need to be taken into consideration when planning clinical treatment.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza A (H7N9); CART; platelet count; predicting death

PMID: 31509040 DOI: 10.1080/09537104.2019.1665639

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Guangdong.

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Delayed #peak of #human #infections and ongoing #reassortment of #H7N9 #avian #influenza virus in the newly affected western #Chineses provinces during Wave Five (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 6. pii: S1201-9712(19)30363-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Delayed peak of human infections and ongoing reassortment of H7N9 avian influenza virus in the newly affected western Chineses provinces during Wave Five.

Li J1, Chen C2, Wei J3, Huang H2, Peng Y2, Bi Y3, Liu Y4, Yang Y5.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China. 2 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China. 3 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. 4 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Medical School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address: yingxialiu@hotmail.com. 5 Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Second Hospital Affiliated to Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518112, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, Institute of Microbiology, Center for Influenza Research and Early-warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address: yyszth2018@163.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Eight additional provinces in western China reported human infections for the first time during the fifth wave of human H7N9 infections. Our study aimed to analyze the epidemiological and virological characteristics of this outbreak.

METHODS:

The epidemiological data of H7N9 cases from the newly affected western Chinese provinces were collected and analyzed. Meanwhile, full-length genome sequences of H7N9 virus were downloaded from GenBank and GISAID databases, and phylogenetic, genotyping and genetic analyses were conducted.

RESULTS:

The peak of human infections in the newly affected western Chinese provinces was delayed by 4 months compared to the eastern China, and both low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 infected cases were found. The LP- and HP-H7N9 virus belonged to 10 different genotypes (including 4 new genotypes), of which G11 and G3 were the dominant genotypes, respectively. Almost all of these viruses originated from eastern and southern China, and were most possibly imported from neighboring provinces. Genetic characteristics of the circulating viruses were similar with the viruses from previously affected provinces during Wave Five.

CONCLUSION:

A delayed peak of human infections was observed in the newly affected western Chinese provinces, and reassortment has been ongoing since the introduction of H7N9 viruses. Our study highlights the importance of continued surveillance of the circulation and evolution of H7N9 virus in western China.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: H7N9; Reassortment; Wave Five; Western dissemination; avian influenza virus (AIV)

PMID: 31499209 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.09.002

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China; Reassortant strain.

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#MERS #Coronavirus and the #OneHealth concept (PeerJ., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

PeerJ. 2019 Aug 22;7:e7556. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7556. eCollection 2019.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and the One Health concept.

Hemida MG1,2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hufuf, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia. 2 Department of Virology, faculty of veterinary medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt.

 

Abstract

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is one of the major threats to the healthcare systems in some countries, especially in the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV is considered an ideal example of the One Health concept. This is due to the animals, especially dromedary camels, play important roles in the transmission and sustainability of the virus, and the virus can be transmitted through aerosols of infected patients into the environment. However, there is some debate regarding the origin of MERS-CoV either from bats or other unknown reservoirs. The dromedary camel is the only identified animal reservoir to date. These animals play important roles in sustaining the virus in certain communities and may act as an amplifier of the virus by secreting it in their body fluids, especially in nasal and rectal discharges. MERS-CoV has been detected in the nasal and rectal secretions of infected camels, and MERS-CoV of this origin has full capacity to infect human airway epithelium in both in vitro and in vivo models. Other evidence confirms the direct transmission of MERS-CoV from camels to humans, though the role of camel meat and milk products has yet to be well studied. Human-to-human transmission is well documented through contact with an active infected patient or some silently infected persons. Furthermore, there are some significant risk factors of individuals in close contact with a positive MERS-CoV patient, including sleeping in the same patient room, removing patient waste (urine, stool, and sputum), and touching respiratory secretions from the index case. Outbreaks within family clusters have been reported, whereby some blood relative patients were infected through their wives in the same house were not infected. Some predisposing genetic factors favor MERS-CoV infection in some patients, which is worth investigating in the near future. The presence of other comorbidities may be another factor. Overall, there are many unknown/confirmed aspects of the virus/human/animal network. Here, the most recent advances in this context are discussed, and the possible reasons behind the emergence and sustainability of MERS-CoV in certain regions are presented. Identification of the exact mechanism of transmission of MERS-CoV from camels to humans and searching for new reservoir/s are of high priority. This will reduce the shedding of the virus into the environment, and thus the risk of human infection can be mitigated.

KEYWORDS: Dromedary camel; Human; MERS-CoV; One Health concept; Reservoir; Transmision; Zoonosis

PMID: 31497405 PMCID: PMC6708572 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7556

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Human; Camels.

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#MRSA in #swine, #farmers and #abattoir #workers in Southern #Italy (Food Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Food Microbiol. 2019 Sep;82:287-293. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

MRSA in swine, farmers and abattoir workers in Southern Italy.

Parisi A1, Caruso M1, Normanno G2, Latorre L1, Miccolupo A1, Fraccalvieri R1, Intini F3, Manginelli T3, Santagada G1.

Author information: 1 Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Apulia and Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, 71121, Foggia, Italy. 2 Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and the Environment (SAFE), Via Napoli 25, University of Foggia, 7121, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address: giovanni.normanno@unifg.it. 3 Azienda Sanitaria Locale Bari, Lungomare Starita 6, 70123, Bari, Italy.

 

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important medical issue, since it causes serious and sometimes fatal infections in humans. Intensively reared swine may serve as reservoirs for MRSA that can infect swine workers, and also consumers (via contaminated meat). In this study, MRSA strains were isolated from 55 of the 85 (64.7%) intensive pig farms surveyed, and prevalence was greater on pig fattening farms than on breeding farms. In addition, we included in the study 63 foreign pigs imported for slaughter. Overall, the prevalence of MRSA in the 418 sampled swine was 59.1%; 12 genotypes were identified among the isolates; ST398 (96.4%) was most prevalent, followed by ST97 (2%), ST9 (0.8%) and ST1 (0.8%). MRSA isolates were also detected in 26 (17.3%) of the 150 operators included in the study; the genotypes detected were ST398 (85%), ST9 (7.6%), ST5 (3.8%) and ST1 (3.8%). All the strains were pvl negative and pia positive. Both swine and human strains displayed a multi-resistance pattern, and almost all were resistant to tetracycline. The results obtained in this study confirm the high prevalence of MRSA in swine reared and slaughtered in Italy, and underline the public health risk linked to the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among intensively reared pigs.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Antimicrobial resistance; Food safety; MRSA; Professional risk; Public health; Swine

PMID: 31027785 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2019.03.003 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Antibiotics; Drugs Resistance; Tetracycline; MRSA; Staphylococcus aureus; Italy; Apulia; Pigs; Human.

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