[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
Monoclonal antibodies for the S2 subunit of spike of SARS-CoV-1 cross-react with the newly-emerged SARS-CoV-2
Zhiqiang Zheng1,2 , Vanessa Marthe Monteil3,4 , Sebastian Maurer-Stroh5,6,7 , Chow Wenn Yew8 , Carol Leong8 , Nur Khairiah Mohd-Ismail1,2 , Suganya Cheyyatraivendran Arularasu1,2 , Vincent Tak Kwong Chow1 , Raymond Tzer Pin Lin7,9 , Ali Mirazimi3,4,10 , Wanjin Hong8 , Yee-Joo Tan1,2,8
Affiliations: 1 Infectious Diseases programme, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System (NUHS), National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2 Immunology programme, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System (NUHS), National University of Singapore, Singapore; 3 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; 4 Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; 5 Bioinformatics Institute (BII), A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore; 6 Department of Biological Sciences (DBS), National University of Singapore, Singapore; 7 National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL), National Centre for Infectious Diseases (NCID), Singapore; 8 Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Singapore; 9 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System (NUHS), National University of Singapore, Singapore; 10 National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden
Correspondence: Yee-Joo Tan
Citation style for this article: Zheng Zhiqiang , Monteil Vanessa Marthe , Maurer-Stroh Sebastian , Yew Chow Wenn , Leong Carol , Mohd-Ismail Nur Khairiah , Cheyyatraivendran Arularasu Suganya , Chow Vincent Tak Kwong , Lin Raymond Tzer Pin , Mirazimi Ali , Hong Wanjin , Tan Yee-Joo . Monoclonal antibodies for the S2 subunit of spike of SARS-CoV-1 cross-react with the newly-emerged SARS-CoV-2. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(28):pii=2000291. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.28.2000291
Received: 12 Mar 2020; Accepted: 11 Jun 2020
A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which emerged at the end of 2019 and causes COVID-19, has resulted in worldwide human infections. While genetically distinct, SARS-CoV-1, the aetiological agent responsible for an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002–2003, utilises the same host cell receptor as SARS-CoV-2 for entry: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Parts of the SARS-CoV-1 spike glycoprotein (S protein), which interacts with ACE2, appear conserved in SARS-CoV-2.
The cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated against the S protein of SARS-CoV-1 was assessed.
The SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequence was aligned to those of SARS-CoV-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and common-cold coronaviruses. Abilities of mAbs generated against SARS-CoV-1 S protein to bind SARS-CoV-2 or its S protein were tested with SARS-CoV-2 infected cells as well as cells expressing either the full length protein or a fragment of its S2 subunit. Quantitative ELISA was also performed to compare binding of mAbs to recombinant S protein.
An immunogenic domain in the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-1 S protein is highly conserved in SARS-CoV-2 but not in MERS and human common-cold coronaviruses. Four murine mAbs raised against this immunogenic fragment could recognise SARS-CoV-2 S protein expressed in mammalian cell lines. In particular, mAb 1A9 was demonstrated to detect S protein in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and is suitable for use in a sandwich ELISA format.
The cross-reactive mAbs may serve as useful tools for SARS-CoV-2 research and for the development of diagnostic assays for COVID-19.
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Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; SARS-CoV; Monoclonal antibodies.