#Developing #Covid19 #Vaccines at #Pandemic Speed (N Engl J Med., summary)

[Source: The New England Journal of Medicine, full page: (LINKLINK). Summary, edited.]

Developing Covid-19 Vaccines at Pandemic Speed

Nicole Lurie, M.D., M.S.P.H., Melanie Saville, M.D., Richard Hatchett, M.D., and Jane Halton, A.O., P.S.M.

___

The need to rapidly develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 comes at a time of explosion in basic scientific understanding, including in areas such as genomics and structural biology, that is supporting a new era in vaccine development. Over the past decade, the scientific community and the vaccine industry have been asked to respond urgently to epidemics of H1N1 influenza, Ebola, Zika, and now SARS-CoV-2. An H1N1 influenza vaccine was developed relatively rapidly, largely because influenza-vaccine technology was well developed and key regulators had previously decided that vaccines made using egg- and cell-based platforms could be licensed under the rules used for a strain change. Although a monovalent H1N1 vaccine was not available before the pandemic peaked in the Northern Hemisphere, it was available soon afterward as a stand-alone vaccine and was ultimately incorporated into commercially available seasonal influenza vaccines.

(…)

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines.

—–

#SARS-CoV-2 #vaccines: #status #report (Cell, abstract)

[Source: Cell Press, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal pre-proof | DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2020.03.007

This is a PDF file of an accepted peer-reviewed article but is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting, and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors that could affect the content may be discovered, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

© 2020 The Author(s).

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: status report

Fatima Amanat 1,2 and Florian Krammer2

1 Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 2 Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA

 

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, first emerged in late 2019 in China. It has since  infected more than 170,000 individuals and caused more than 6500 deaths globally. Here we discuss therapeutic and prophylactic interventions for SARS-CoV-2 with  a focus on vaccine development and its challenges. Vaccines are being rapidly developed but will likely come too late to have an impact on the first wave of a potential pandemic. Nevertheless, important lessons can be learned for the development of vaccines against rapidly emerging viruses. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be essential to reducing morbidity and mortality if the virus establishes itself in the population.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines.

—–

Evaluation of the #immune #response of a #H7N9 candidate #vaccine virus derived from the fifth wave A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (Antiviral Res., abstract)

[Source: Antiviral Research, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Antiviral Research | Volume 177, May 2020, 104776

Evaluation of the immune response of a H7N9 candidate vaccine virus derived from the fifth wave A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016

Ji Dong a1, Peihai Chen bc1, Yang Wang a1, Yunhua Lv a, Ji Xiao a, Qinming Li a, Zhixia Li c, Beiwu Zhang c, Xuefeng Niu a, Chufang Li a, Weiqi Pan a, Ling Chen a

{a} State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; {b} Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, China; {c} State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

Received 28 October 2019, Revised 4 February 2020, Accepted 16 March 2020, Available online 19 March 2020.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104776

 

Highlights

  • Systemically evaluated the immune response to H7N9 CVV A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (GD/16) in mice and rhesus macaques.
  • GD/16 elicited robust neutralizing and IgG antibodies, but poor hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers.
  • Receptor binding avidity should be considered in interpretation of HI data for evaluation of influenza antigenic variation.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic influenza H7N9 viruses that emerged in the fifth wave of H7N9 outbreak pose a risk to human health. The World Health Organization has updated the candidate vaccine viruses for H7N9 viruses recently. In this study, we evaluated the immune response to an updated H7N9 candidate vaccine virus, which derived from the highly pathogenic A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016 (GD/16) in mice and rhesus macaques. GD/16 vaccination elicited robust neutralizing, virus-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies and effective protection, but poor hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers. Furthermore, mouse and rhesus macaque serum raised against the previous H7N9 CVV A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH/13) were tested for its cross-reactivity to GD/16 virus. We found that although AH/13-immune serum has poor hemagglutination inhibition reactivity against GD/16 virus, AH/13 elicit efficient cross-neutralizing antibodies and in vivo protection against GD/16. Further studies showed that the hemagglutinin of GD/16 has strong receptor binding avidity, which might be associated with the decreased hemagglutination inhibition assay sensitivity. This study underscores the point that receptor binding avidity should be taken into account when performing quantitative interpretation of hemagglutination inhibition data. A combination of multiple serological assays is required for accurate vaccine evaluation and antigenic analysis of influenza viruses.

Keywords: H7N9 influenza Virus – Vaccine – Immune response – Cross-reactivity – Haemagglutination inhibition – Receptor binding avidity

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Vaccines.

—–

The #Outbreak of #SARS-CoV-2 #Pneumonia Calls for Viral #Vaccines (npj Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

NPJ Vaccines, 5, 18 2020 Mar 6 eCollection 2020

The Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Calls for Viral Vaccines

Weilong Shang 1, Yi Yang 1, Yifan Rao 1, Xiancai Rao 1

Affiliation: 1 Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), 400038 Chongqing, China.

PMID: 32194995 PMCID: PMC7060195 DOI: 10.1038/s41541-020-0170-0

 

Abstract

The outbreak of 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly in China, and has developed to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, no specific antiviral treatments or vaccines are available yet. This work aims to share strategies and candidate antigens to develop safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: Infection; Microbiology; Pathogenesis; Vaccines.

© The Author(s) 2020.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines.

——

The #outbreak of #SARS-CoV-2 #pneumonia calls for viral #vaccines (npj Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: npj Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia calls for viral vaccines

Weilong Shang, Yi Yang, Yifan Rao & Xiancai Rao

npj Vaccines volume 5, Article number: 18 (2020)

 

Abstract

The outbreak of 2019-novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly in China, and has developed to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, no specific antiviral treatments or vaccines are available yet. This work aims to share strategies and candidate antigens to develop safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines.

——

Preliminary #Identification of Potential #Vaccine #Targets for the #COVID19 #Coronavirus (#SARS-CoV-2) Based on SARS-CoV Immunological Studies (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses, 12 (3) 2020 Feb 25

Preliminary Identification of Potential Vaccine Targets for the COVID-19 Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Based on SARS-CoV Immunological Studies

Syed Faraz Ahmed 1, Ahmed A Quadeer 1, Matthew R McKay 1 2

Affiliations: 1 Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China. 2 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

PMID: 32106567 DOI: 10.3390/v12030254

 

Abstract

The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19 outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an imminent need to better understand this new virus and to develop ways to control its spread. In this study, we sought to gain insights for vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 by considering the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, which caused the outbreak in 2003, and leveraging existing immunological studies of SARS-CoV. By screening the experimentally-determined SARS-CoV-derived B cell and T cell epitopes in the immunogenic structural proteins of SARS-CoV, we identified a set of B cell and T cell epitopes derived from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins that map identically to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. As no mutation has been observed in these identified epitopes among the 120 available SARS-CoV-2 sequences (as of 21 February 2020), immune targeting of these epitopes may potentially offer protection against this novel virus. For the T cell epitopes, we performed a population coverage analysis of the associated MHC alleles and proposed a set of epitopes that is estimated to provide broad coverage globally, as well as in China. Our findings provide a screened set of epitopes that can help guide experimental efforts towards the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: 2019 novel coronavirus; 2019-nCoV; B cell epitopes; COVID-19; Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; SARS-CoV; SARS-CoV-2; T cell epitopes; vaccine.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccines.

——