#Zoonotic #spillover #infections with #Borna disease virus 1 leading to #fatal #human #encephalitis, 1999–2019: an epidemiological investigation (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic spillover infections with Borna disease virus 1 leading to fatal human encephalitis, 1999–2019: an epidemiological investigation

Hans Helmut Niller, MD †, Klemens Angstwurm, MD †, Dennis Rubbenstroth, DVM †, Kore Schlottau, PhD, Arnt Ebinger, MSc, Sebastian Giese, PhD, Silke Wunderlich, MD, Prof Bernhard Banas, MD, Leonie F Forth, PhD, Donata Hoffmann, DVM, Dirk Höper, PhD, Prof Martin Schwemmle, PhD, Prof Dennis Tappe, MD, Prof Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, MD, Daniel Nobach, DVM, Prof Christiane Herden, DVM, Prof Christoph Brochhausen, MD, Natalia Velez-Char, MD, Andreas Mamilos, MD, Kirsten Utpatel, MD, Prof Matthias Evert, MD, Saida Zoubaa, MD, Prof Markus J Riemenschneider, MD, Viktoria Ruf, MD, Prof Jochen Herms, MD, Georg Rieder, MD, Mario Errath, MD, Prof Kaspar Matiasek, DVM, Prof Jürgen Schlegel, MD, Friederike Liesche-Starnecker, MD, Bernhard Neumann, MD, Kornelius Fuchs, MD, Prof Ralf A Linker, MD, Prof Bernd Salzberger, MD, Tobias Freilinger, MD, Lisa Gartner, MD, Prof Jürgen J Wenzel, MD, Prof Udo Reischl, PhD, Prof Wolfgang Jilg, MD, Prof André Gessner, MD, Prof Jonathan Jantsch, MD, Prof Martin Beer, DVM  †, Prof Barbara Schmidt, MD †

Published: January 07, 2020 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30546-8




In 2018–19, Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), the causative agent of Borna disease in horses, sheep, and other domestic mammals, was reported in five human patients with severe to fatal encephalitis in Germany. However, information on case frequencies, clinical courses, and detailed epidemiological analyses are still lacking. We report the occurrence of BoDV-1-associated encephalitis in cases submitted to the Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, Regensburg University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany, and provide a detailed description of newly identified cases of BoDV-1-induced encephalitis.


All brain tissues from 56 encephalitis cases from Bavaria, Germany, of putative viral origin (1999–2019), which had been submitted for virological testing upon request of the attending clinician and stored for stepwise diagnostic procedure, were systematically screened for BoDV-1 RNA. Two additional BoDV-1-positive cases were contributed by other diagnostic centres. Positive results were confirmed by deep sequencing, antigen detection, and determination of BoDV-1-reactive antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical and epidemiological data from infected patients were collected and analysed.


BoDV-1 RNA and bornavirus-reactive antibodies were detected in eight newly analysed encephalitis cases and the first human BoDV-1 isolate was obtained from an unequivocally confirmed human BoDV-1 infection from the endemic area. Six of the eight BoDV-1-positive patients had no record of immunosuppression before the onset of fatal disease, whereas two were immunocompromised after solid organ transplantation. Typical initial symptoms were headache, fever, and confusion, followed by various neurological signs, deep coma, and severe brainstem involvement. Seven of nine patients with fatal encephalitis of unclear cause were BoDV-1 positive within one diagnostic centre. BoDV-1 sequence information and epidemiological analyses indicated independent spillover transmissions most likely from the local wild animal reservoir.


BoDV-1 infection has to be considered as a potentially lethal zoonosis in endemic regions with reported spillover infections in horses and sheep. BoDV-1 infection can result in fatal encephalitis in immunocompromised and apparently healthy people. Consequently, all severe encephalitis cases of unclear cause should be tested for bornaviruses especially in endemic regions.


German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

Keywords: Borna Disease Virus 1; Encephalitis; Human; Germany.


#Animal #Exposure and #Human #Plague, #USA, 1970–2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Dispatch

Animal Exposure and Human Plague, United States, 1970–2017

Stefanie B. Campbell, Christina A. Nelson, Alison F. Hinckley, and Kiersten J. Kugeler

Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA



Since 1970, >50% of patients with plague in the United States had interactions with animals that might have led to infection. Among patients with pneumonic plague, nearly all had animal exposure. Improved understanding of the varied ways in which animal contact might increase risk for infection could enhance prevention messages.

Keywords: Plague; Pneumonic Plague; Human; USA; Zoonoses.


#Zoonotic #Diseases in #Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Diseases in Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions

Salah Al Awaidy and Hilal Al Hashami

Published Online: 5 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2458




This article describes the situation analysis of endemic and emerging zoonoses, and includes prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman. It also suggests possible recommendations toward elimination and risk reduction of emerging zoonoses.


Epidemiologic information has been drawn from official to assess the situation. There has been significant progress in reducing the risk of brucellosis, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Rabies, West Nile fever, Q fever, and cystic hydatid disease have been confined to wildlife or livestock.


There is an increasing threat of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in Oman due to globalization of travel and trade, development activities, and impact of climate change and vector bionomics. Prevention, control, and subsequent elimination of zoonoses on a sustainable basis shall not be possible without intersectoral collaboration between the human and animal health sectors. There are challenges for establishing such strong collaboration and coordination mechanisms in Oman. Institutional and cultural barriers, data and resource sharing, and national capability for rapid and effective investigation of zoonotic infections and emerging zoonoses in humans and animal reservoirs are among others.


In the light of achievements made on the prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman during the past decades, priority zoonoses should be identified for elimination, and continuous efforts should be made to further strengthen a holistic multidisciplinary and multisectorial approach for controlling zoonoses at source. Pivotal interventions would include urgent adoption of “One Health” strategic approach as well as establishment of a robust, integrated surveillance system with a strong laboratory investigation capacity to eliminate priority zoonoses and minimize the risk of entry, establishment, and spread of emerging zoonoses in Oman.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Oman.


#Zoonotic #Pathogens in the #American #Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Pathogens in the American Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution

Francisco Ramírez-Pizarro, Carolina Silva-de la Fuente, Claudio Hernández-Orellana, Juana López, Verónica Madrid, Ítalo Fernández, Nicolás Martín, Daniel González-Acuña, Daniel Sandoval, René Ortega, and Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque

Published Online: 17 Jul 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2445



The American mink, Neovison vison, is an invasive species in Chile. Its impact on native fauna and public health has not been studied in depth in the country. In this study, we searched for gastrointestinal parasites, including helminths and zoonotic Cryptosporidium sp., the presence of Trichinella sp. in muscle, and the renal carriage of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in minks caught on Navarino Island, “Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena” Region, and Maullín and Ancud, “Los Lagos” Region, Chile. A total of 58, 15, and 21 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for Trichinellasp. (artificial digestion of muscle). A total of 36, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for pathogenic Leptospira species (molecular detection of LipL32 gen fragment in renal tissue) infection. Finally, 45, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were analyzed to detect gastrointestinal parasites (by optical inspection of the digestive tract for helminths, and by both Ziehl-Neelsen stain and molecular detection of small subunit-ribosomal DNA for Cryptosporidium species). Trichinella larvae were not observed. Pathogenic Leptospirasp. was detected in 22 samples: 15 from Navarino Island, 3 from Maullín, and 4 from Ancud. Two nematodes, belonging to Ascaridinae (subfamily) and Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., were found in samples of two minks from Navarino Island. Oocysts and DNA of Cryptosporidium sp. were detected in three fecal samples from Navarino Island. Further studies could determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the potential impact of the zoonotic Leptospira sp. on the human population of the Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud districts. The enemy release theory could explain the low helminth species richness in the minks. In addition, we did not find evidence of parasite transmission from native fauna.

Keywords: Southern America; Wildlife; Zoonoses.


Severe #bornavirus #encephalitis presenting as #GBS (Acta Neuropathol., summary)

[Source: Acta Neuropathologica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Severe bornavirus-encephalitis presenting as Guillain–Barré-syndrome

Authors: Roland Coras, Klaus Korn, Stefanie Kuerten, Hagen B. Huttner, Armin Ensser

Correspondence / First Online: 05 April 2019


The underlying cause of encephalitis and other inflammatory diseases of the human central nervous system remains unclear in a substantial number of cases. Not infrequently, these cases are then assigned an “autoimmune” or “probably infectious” etiology. Two species of bornaviruses are currently unequivocally associated with encephalitis in mammals including humans. Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus (variegated squirrel bornavirus, VSBV) was identified as the cause of encephalitis in breeders of imported squirrels [2]; Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (BoDV-1 and -2) is the agent of zoonotic borna disease, an encephalitic disease characterized by disturbances of behavior and movements in warm-blooded animals [4] that is most often diagnosed in horses and sheep. Recently, we detected BoDV-1 as the cause of fatal encephalitis in a previously healthy young man [3], and it was found in a cluster of encephalitic disease in organ recipients that received organs of a single donor from southern Bavaria [6…



Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02005-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.




We like to thank Dr. Sybille M. Herzog, Gießen, Germany, for providing the Bo18 antibody and Doris Jungnickl, Brigitte Scholz, and Andrea Hilpert for excellent technical assistance. Research was done with internal funds, and in part by programme overhead financing related to Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Grant EN423/5-1 to Dr. Ensser.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Keywords: Orthobornavirus; Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus; Zoonoses; Encephalitis; GBS.


Can #Bats Serve as #Reservoirs for #Arboviruses (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Mar 3;11(3). pii: E215. doi: 10.3390/v11030215.

Can Bats Serve as Reservoirs for Arboviruses?

Fagre AC1, Kading RC2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. anna.fagre@colostate.edu. 2 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. rebekah.kading@colostate.edu.



Bats are known to harbor and transmit many emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are extremely pathogenic in humans but do not cause overt pathology in their bat reservoir hosts: henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra), filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg), and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Direct transmission cycles are often implicated in these outbreaks, with virus shed in bat feces, urine, and saliva. An additional mode of virus transmission between bats and humans requiring further exploration is the spread of disease via arthropod vectors. Despite the shared ecological niches that bats fill with many hematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges, etc.) known to play a role in the transmission of medically important arboviruses, knowledge surrounding the potential for bats to act as reservoirs for arboviruses is limited. To this end, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining the current understanding and potential for bats to act as reservoirs for viruses transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Serosurveillance and viral isolation from either free-ranging or captive bats are described in relation to four arboviral groups (Bunyavirales, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae). Further, ecological associations between bats and hematophagous viral vectors are characterized (e.g. bat bloodmeals in mosquitoes, ingestion of mosquitoes by bats, etc). Lastly, knowledge gaps related to hematophagous ectoparasites (bat bugs and bed bugs (Cimicidae) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae)), in addition to future directions for characterization of bat-vector-virus relationships are described.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; bats; reservoir; wildlife; zoonoses

PMID: 30832426 DOI: 10.3390/v11030215

Keywords: Arbovirus; Bats; Zoonoses.


#Zoonotic #diseases from #birds to #humans in #Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated #risk factors (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Zoonotic diseases from birds to humans in Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated risk factors.

Nga VT1, Ngoc TU2, Minh LB3, Ngoc VTN4, Pham VH5, Nghia LL4, Son NLH6, Van Pham TH7, Bac ND8, Tien TV9, Tuan NNM10, Tao Y11, Show PL12, Chu DT13,14.

Author information: 1 Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 QuangTrung, Danang, Vietnam. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 3 NTT Hi-tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh St., Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 4 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 5 AI Lab, Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. phamvanhuy@tdt.edu.vn. 6 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. 7 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi, Vietnam. 8 Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 9 103 Military Hospital, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 10 Hung Vuong University, Viet Tri, Phu Tho, Vietnam. 11 College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. 12 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, JalanBroga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 13 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com. 14 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com.



In recent decades, exceeding 60% of infectious cases in human beings are originated from pathogenic agents related to feral or companion animals. This figure continues to swiftly increase due to excessive exposure between human and contaminated hosts by means of applying unhygienic farming practices throughout society. In Asia countries-renowned for lax regulation towards animal-trading markets-have experienced tremendous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases every year. Meanwhile, various epidemic surges were first reported in the residential area of China-one of the largest distributor of all animal products on the planet. Some noticeable illnesses comprising of A/H5N1 or H7N9-known as avian influenza which transmitted from poultry and also wild birds-have caused inevitable disquiet among inhabitants. Indeed, poultry farming industry in China has witnessed dynamic evolution for the past two decades, both in quantity and degree of output per individual. Together with this pervasive expansion, zoonotic diseases from poultry have incessantly emerged as a latent threat to the surrounding residents in entire Asia and also European countries. Without strict exporting legislation, Vietnam is now facing the serious problem in terms of poultry distribution between the two countries’ border. Even though several disease investigations have been conducted by many researchers, the disease epidemiology or transmission methods among people remained blurred and need to be further elucidated. In this paper, our aim is to provide a laconic review of common zoonotic diseases spread in Vietnam, outstanding cases and several factors predisposing to this alarming situation.

KEYWORDS: Birds; Human; Review; Risk factors; Vietnam; Zoonotic diseases

PMID: 30806904 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Avian Influenza; Zoonoses; Poultry; Vietnam.