#Zoonotic #Pathogens in the #American #Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Pathogens in the American Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution

Francisco Ramírez-Pizarro, Carolina Silva-de la Fuente, Claudio Hernández-Orellana, Juana López, Verónica Madrid, Ítalo Fernández, Nicolás Martín, Daniel González-Acuña, Daniel Sandoval, René Ortega, and Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque

Published Online: 17 Jul 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2445



The American mink, Neovison vison, is an invasive species in Chile. Its impact on native fauna and public health has not been studied in depth in the country. In this study, we searched for gastrointestinal parasites, including helminths and zoonotic Cryptosporidium sp., the presence of Trichinella sp. in muscle, and the renal carriage of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in minks caught on Navarino Island, “Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena” Region, and Maullín and Ancud, “Los Lagos” Region, Chile. A total of 58, 15, and 21 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for Trichinellasp. (artificial digestion of muscle). A total of 36, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for pathogenic Leptospira species (molecular detection of LipL32 gen fragment in renal tissue) infection. Finally, 45, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were analyzed to detect gastrointestinal parasites (by optical inspection of the digestive tract for helminths, and by both Ziehl-Neelsen stain and molecular detection of small subunit-ribosomal DNA for Cryptosporidium species). Trichinella larvae were not observed. Pathogenic Leptospirasp. was detected in 22 samples: 15 from Navarino Island, 3 from Maullín, and 4 from Ancud. Two nematodes, belonging to Ascaridinae (subfamily) and Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., were found in samples of two minks from Navarino Island. Oocysts and DNA of Cryptosporidium sp. were detected in three fecal samples from Navarino Island. Further studies could determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the potential impact of the zoonotic Leptospira sp. on the human population of the Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud districts. The enemy release theory could explain the low helminth species richness in the minks. In addition, we did not find evidence of parasite transmission from native fauna.

Keywords: Southern America; Wildlife; Zoonoses.



Severe #bornavirus #encephalitis presenting as #GBS (Acta Neuropathol., summary)

[Source: Acta Neuropathologica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Severe bornavirus-encephalitis presenting as Guillain–Barré-syndrome

Authors: Roland Coras, Klaus Korn, Stefanie Kuerten, Hagen B. Huttner, Armin Ensser

Correspondence / First Online: 05 April 2019


The underlying cause of encephalitis and other inflammatory diseases of the human central nervous system remains unclear in a substantial number of cases. Not infrequently, these cases are then assigned an “autoimmune” or “probably infectious” etiology. Two species of bornaviruses are currently unequivocally associated with encephalitis in mammals including humans. Mammalian 2 orthobornavirus (variegated squirrel bornavirus, VSBV) was identified as the cause of encephalitis in breeders of imported squirrels [2]; Mammalian 1 orthobornavirus (BoDV-1 and -2) is the agent of zoonotic borna disease, an encephalitic disease characterized by disturbances of behavior and movements in warm-blooded animals [4] that is most often diagnosed in horses and sheep. Recently, we detected BoDV-1 as the cause of fatal encephalitis in a previously healthy young man [3], and it was found in a cluster of encephalitic disease in organ recipients that received organs of a single donor from southern Bavaria [6…



Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02005-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.




We like to thank Dr. Sybille M. Herzog, Gießen, Germany, for providing the Bo18 antibody and Doris Jungnickl, Brigitte Scholz, and Andrea Hilpert for excellent technical assistance. Research was done with internal funds, and in part by programme overhead financing related to Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Grant EN423/5-1 to Dr. Ensser.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Keywords: Orthobornavirus; Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus; Zoonoses; Encephalitis; GBS.


Can #Bats Serve as #Reservoirs for #Arboviruses (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Mar 3;11(3). pii: E215. doi: 10.3390/v11030215.

Can Bats Serve as Reservoirs for Arboviruses?

Fagre AC1, Kading RC2.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. anna.fagre@colostate.edu. 2 Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. rebekah.kading@colostate.edu.



Bats are known to harbor and transmit many emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which are extremely pathogenic in humans but do not cause overt pathology in their bat reservoir hosts: henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra), filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg), and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). Direct transmission cycles are often implicated in these outbreaks, with virus shed in bat feces, urine, and saliva. An additional mode of virus transmission between bats and humans requiring further exploration is the spread of disease via arthropod vectors. Despite the shared ecological niches that bats fill with many hematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges, etc.) known to play a role in the transmission of medically important arboviruses, knowledge surrounding the potential for bats to act as reservoirs for arboviruses is limited. To this end, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken examining the current understanding and potential for bats to act as reservoirs for viruses transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. Serosurveillance and viral isolation from either free-ranging or captive bats are described in relation to four arboviral groups (Bunyavirales, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Togaviridae). Further, ecological associations between bats and hematophagous viral vectors are characterized (e.g. bat bloodmeals in mosquitoes, ingestion of mosquitoes by bats, etc). Lastly, knowledge gaps related to hematophagous ectoparasites (bat bugs and bed bugs (Cimicidae) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae)), in addition to future directions for characterization of bat-vector-virus relationships are described.

KEYWORDS: arboviruses; bats; reservoir; wildlife; zoonoses

PMID: 30832426 DOI: 10.3390/v11030215

Keywords: Arbovirus; Bats; Zoonoses.


#Zoonotic #diseases from #birds to #humans in #Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated #risk factors (Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 26. doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Zoonotic diseases from birds to humans in Vietnam: possible diseases and their associated risk factors.

Nga VT1, Ngoc TU2, Minh LB3, Ngoc VTN4, Pham VH5, Nghia LL4, Son NLH6, Van Pham TH7, Bac ND8, Tien TV9, Tuan NNM10, Tao Y11, Show PL12, Chu DT13,14.

Author information: 1 Institute for Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 03 QuangTrung, Danang, Vietnam. 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 3 NTT Hi-tech Institute, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh St., Ward 13, District 4, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 4 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 5 AI Lab, Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. phamvanhuy@tdt.edu.vn. 6 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. 7 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi, Vietnam. 8 Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 9 103 Military Hospital, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. 10 Hung Vuong University, Viet Tri, Phu Tho, Vietnam. 11 College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. 12 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, JalanBroga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 13 School of Odonto Stomatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com. 14 Faculty of Biology, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam. chudinhtoi.hnue@gmail.com.



In recent decades, exceeding 60% of infectious cases in human beings are originated from pathogenic agents related to feral or companion animals. This figure continues to swiftly increase due to excessive exposure between human and contaminated hosts by means of applying unhygienic farming practices throughout society. In Asia countries-renowned for lax regulation towards animal-trading markets-have experienced tremendous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases every year. Meanwhile, various epidemic surges were first reported in the residential area of China-one of the largest distributor of all animal products on the planet. Some noticeable illnesses comprising of A/H5N1 or H7N9-known as avian influenza which transmitted from poultry and also wild birds-have caused inevitable disquiet among inhabitants. Indeed, poultry farming industry in China has witnessed dynamic evolution for the past two decades, both in quantity and degree of output per individual. Together with this pervasive expansion, zoonotic diseases from poultry have incessantly emerged as a latent threat to the surrounding residents in entire Asia and also European countries. Without strict exporting legislation, Vietnam is now facing the serious problem in terms of poultry distribution between the two countries’ border. Even though several disease investigations have been conducted by many researchers, the disease epidemiology or transmission methods among people remained blurred and need to be further elucidated. In this paper, our aim is to provide a laconic review of common zoonotic diseases spread in Vietnam, outstanding cases and several factors predisposing to this alarming situation.

KEYWORDS: Birds; Human; Review; Risk factors; Vietnam; Zoonotic diseases

PMID: 30806904 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Avian Influenza; Zoonoses; Poultry; Vietnam.


#OneHealth #insights to prevent the next #HxNy viral #outbreak: learning from the #epidemiology of #H7N9 (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 11;19(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3752-6.

One health insights to prevent the next HxNy viral outbreak: learning from the epidemiology of H7N9.

Zheng Z1, Lu Y2, Short KR3,4, Lu J5,6,7.

Author information: 1 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. 2 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, 1 University Place, Rensselaer, NY, 12144, USA. 3 School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, QLD, St Lucia, 4072, Australia. 4 Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, QLD, St Lucia, 4072, Australia. 5 School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn. 6 Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn. 7 One Health Center of Excellence for Research &Training, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. lujiahai@mail.sysu.edu.cn.




With an increased incidence of viral zoonoses, there is an impetus to strengthen collaborations between public health, agricultural and environmental departments. This interdisciplinary cooperation, also known as the ‘One Health’ approach, has received significant support from various stakeholders. However, current efforts and policies still fall short of those needed for an effective One Health approach towards disease control and prevention. The avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus outbreak in China serves as an ideal case study to emphasise this point.


Here, we present the features and epidemiology of human infections with H7N9 influenza virus. At the early stages of the H7N9 epidemic, there was limited virus surveillance and limited prevention measures implemented in live poultry markets. As a result, zoonotic infections with H7N9 influenza viruses continued to enlarge in both numbers and geographic distribution. It was only after the number of human infections with H7N9 influenza virus spiked in the 5th wave of the epidemic that inter-departmental alliances were formed. This resulted in the rapid control of the number of human infections. We therefore further discuss the barriers that prevented the implementation of an effective One Health approach in China and what this means for other emerging, zoonotic viral diseases. Effective implementation of evidence-based disease management approaches in China will result in substantial health and economic gains. The continual threat of avian influenza, as well as other emerging zoonotic viral infections, emphasizes the need to remove the barriers that prevent the effective implementation of One Health policies in disease management.

KEYWORDS: Disease management; H7N9; Influenza virus; One health; Zoonosis

PMID: 30744562 PMCID: PMC6371560 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3752-6 Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Zoonoses.


#Human #Seroprevalence to 11 #Zoonotic #Pathogens in the #US #Arctic, #Alaska (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Human Seroprevalence to 11 Zoonotic Pathogens in the U.S. Arctic, Alaska

Karen M. Miernyk, Dana Bruden, Alan J. Parkinson, Debby Hurlburt, Joseph Klejka, James Berner, Robyn A. Stoddard, Sukwan Handali, Patricia P. Wilkins, Gilbert J. Kersh, Kelly Fitzpatrick, Mike A. Drebot, Jeffrey W. Priest, Ryan Pappert, Jeannine M. Petersen, Eyasu Teshale, Thomas W. Hennessy, and Michael G. Bruce

Published Online: 21 Feb 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2390




Due to their close relationship with the environment, Alaskans are at risk for zoonotic pathogen infection. One way to assess a population’s disease burden is to determine the seroprevalence of pathogens of interest. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of 11 zoonotic pathogens in people living in Alaska.


In a 2007 avian influenza exposure study, we recruited persons with varying wild bird exposures. Using sera from this study, we tested for antibodies to Cryptosporidium spp., Echinococcus spp., Giardia intestinalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, California serogroup bunyaviruses, and hepatitis E virus (HEV).


Eight hundred eighty-seven persons had sera tested, including 454 subsistence bird hunters and family members, 160 sport bird hunters, 77 avian wildlife biologists, and 196 persons with no wild bird exposure. A subset (n = 481) of sera was tested for California serogroup bunyaviruses. We detected antibodies to 10/11 pathogens. Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp. (29%), California serotype bunyaviruses (27%), and G. intestinalis (19%) was the most common; 63% (301/481) of sera had antibodies to at least one pathogen. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, Cryptosporidiumspp. seropositivity was higher in females (35.7% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.01) and G. intestinalis seropositivity was higher in males (21.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.02). Alaska Native persons were more likely than non-Native persons to be seropositive to C. burnetii(11.7% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.005) and less likely to be seropositive to HEV (0.4% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.01). Seropositivity to Cryptosporidium spp., C. burnetii, HEV, and Echinococcus granulosus was associated with increasing age (p ≤ 0.01 for all) as was seropositivity to ≥1 pathogen (p < 0.0001).


Seropositivity to zoonotic pathogens is common among Alaskans with the highest to Cryptosporidium spp., California serogroup bunyaviruses, and G. intestinalis. This study provides a baseline for use in assessing seroprevalence changes over time.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Seroprevalence; USA; Alaska.


#Orthobunyavirus spike architecture and recognition by neutralizing #antibodies (Nat Commun., abstract)

[Source: Nature Communications, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 20 February 2019

Orthobunyavirus spike architecture and recognition by neutralizing antibodies

Jan Hellert, Andrea Aebischer, Kerstin Wernike, Ahmed Haouz, Emiliana Brocchi, Sven Reiche, Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Martin Beer & Félix A. Rey

Nature Communications, volume 10, Article number: 879 (2019)



Orthobunyaviruses (OBVs) form a distinct genus of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses that can cause severe disease upon zoonotic transmission to humans. Antigenic drift or genome segment re-assortment have in the past resulted in new pathogenic OBVs, making them potential candidates for causing emerging zoonoses in the future. Low-resolution electron cryo-tomography studies have shown that OBV particles feature prominent trimeric spikes, but their molecular organization remained unknown. Here we report X-ray crystallography studies of four different OBVs showing that the spikes are formed by an N-terminal extension of the fusion glycoprotein Gc. Using Schmallenberg virus, a recently emerged OBV, we also show that the projecting spike is the major target of the neutralizing antibody response, and provide X-ray structures in complex with two protecting antibodies. We further show that immunization of mice with the spike domains elicits virtually sterilizing immunity, providing fundamental knowledge essential in the preparation for potential newly emerging OBV zoonoses.

Keywords: Orthobunyavirus; Zoonoses.