Bactrian #camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome #coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) after experimental #infection (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):717-723. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1618687.

Bactrian camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after experimental infection.

Adney DR1, Letko M2, Ragan IK1, Scott D2, van Doremalen N2, Bowen RA1, Munster VJ2.

Author information: 1 a Department of Biomedical Sciences , Colorado State University , Fort Collins , CO , USA. 2 b Rocky Mountain Laboratories , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Hamilton , MT , USA.

 

Abstract

In 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged. To date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. Epidemiological investigations identified dromedary camels as the source of MERS-CoV zoonotic transmission and evidence of MERS-CoV circulation has been observed throughout the original range of distribution. Other new-world camelids, alpacas and llamas, are also susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Currently, it is unknown whether Bactrian camels are susceptible to infection. The distribution of Bactrian camels overlaps partly with that of the dromedary camel in west and central Asia. The receptor for MERS-CoV, DPP4, of the Bactrian camel was 98.3% identical to the dromedary camel DPP4, and 100% identical for the 14 residues which interact with the MERS-CoV spike receptor. Upon intranasal inoculation with 107 plaque-forming units of MERS-CoV, animals developed a transient, primarily upper respiratory tract infection. Clinical signs of the MERS-CoV infection were benign, but shedding of large quantities of MERS-CoV from the URT was observed. These data are similar to infections reported with dromedary camel infections and indicate that Bactrians are susceptible to MERS-CoV and given their overlapping range are at risk of introduction and establishment of MERS-CoV within the Bactrian camel populations.

KEYWORDS: Bactrian camel; MERS-CoV; dromedary camel; natural reservoir; virus shedding

PMID: 31119984 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1618687

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Camels: Animal models.

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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome #Coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) in #Oman: Current Situation and Going Forward (Oman Med J., summary)

[Source: Oman Medical Journal, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Oman: Current Situation and Going Forward

Salah T. Al Awaidy1* and Faryal Khamis2

1 Office of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman; 2 Department of Infectious Diseases, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman

Article history: Received: 10 March 2019 – Accepted: 28 March 2019 – Online: DOI 10.5001/omj.2019.36

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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic viral respiratory illness caused by a novel betacoronavirus, which was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012.1 Since, MERS-CoV cases have been reported across the Arabian Peninsula, with occasional cases exported among travelers to other continents.2

(…)

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Oman.

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Comparative Analysis of Eleven #Healthcare-Associated #Outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome #Coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) from 2015 to 2017 (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2019 May 14;9(1):7385. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43586-9.

Comparative Analysis of Eleven Healthcare-Associated Outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (Mers-Cov) from 2015 to 2017.

Bernard-Stoecklin S1,2, Nikolay B3, Assiri A4, Bin Saeed AA5,6, Ben Embarek PK7, El Bushra H5, Ki M8, Malik MR9, Fontanet A10,11,12, Cauchemez S3, Van Kerkhove MD13,14.

Author information: 1 Formerly Outbreak Investigation Task Force, Centre for Global Health, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France. 2 Direction of infectious diseases, Santé publique France, Saint-Maurice, 94410, France. 3 Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, Institut Pasteur, UMR2000, CNRS, 75015, Paris, France. 4 Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 5 Formerly Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 6 Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 7 International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) Management, Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 8 Department of Cancer Control and Policy, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea. 9 Infectious Hazard Management Unit, Department of Health Emergencies, World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt. 10 Emerging Diseases Epidemiology Unit, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France. 11 Centre for Global Health, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France. 12 Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France. 13 Formerly Outbreak Investigation Task Force, Centre for Global Health, Institut Pasteur, 75015, Paris, France. vankerkhovem@who.int. 14 Infectious Hazards Management, Health Emergencies Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. vankerkhovem@who.int.

 

Abstract

Since its emergence in 2012, 2,260 cases and 803 deaths due to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported to the World Health Organization. Most cases were due to transmission in healthcare settings, sometimes causing large outbreaks. We analyzed epidemiologic and clinical data of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases from eleven healthcare-associated outbreaks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea between 2015-2017. We quantified key epidemiological differences between outbreaks. Twenty-five percent (n = 105/422) of MERS cases who acquired infection in a hospital setting were healthcare personnel. In multivariate analyses, age ≥65 (OR 4.8, 95%CI: 2.6-8.7) and the presence of underlying comorbidities (OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.7) were associated with increased mortality whereas working as healthcare personnel was protective (OR 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.34). At the start of these outbreaks, the reproduction number ranged from 1.0 to 5.7; it dropped below 1 within 2 to 6 weeks. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of MERS HCA-outbreaks. Our results highlight heterogeneities in the epidemiological profile of healthcare-associated outbreaks. The limitations of our study stress the urgent need for standardized data collection for high-threat respiratory pathogens, such as MERS-CoV.

PMID: 31089148 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-43586-9

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Nosocomial Outbreaks.

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Middle East Respiratory Syndrome #Coronavirus (#MERS-CoV): #Infection, Immunological Response, and #Vaccine Development (J Immunol Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Immunol Res. 2019 Apr 7;2019:6491738. doi: 10.1155/2019/6491738. eCollection 2019.

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): Infection, Immunological Response, and Vaccine Development.

Mubarak A1, Alturaiki W2, Hemida MG3,4.

Author information: 1 Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. 2 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia. 3 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. 4 Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafresheikh University, Egypt.

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) first emerged in late 2012. Since its emergence, a total of 2279 patients from 27 countries have been infected across the globe according to a World Health Organization (WHO) report (Feb. 12th, 2019). Approximately 806 patients have died. The virus uses its spike proteins as adhesive factors that are proinflammatory for host entry through a specific receptor called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4). This receptor is considered a key factor in the signaling and activation of the acquired and innate immune responses in infected patients. Using potent antigens in combination with strong adjuvants may effectively trigger the activation of specific MERS-CoV cellular responses as well as the production of neutralizing antibodies. Unfortunately, to date, there is no effective approved treatment or vaccine for MERS-CoV. Thus, there are urgent needs for the development of novel MERS-CoV therapies as well as vaccines to help minimize the spread of the virus from infected patients, thereby mitigating the risk of any potential pandemics. Our main goals are to highlight and describe the current knowledge of both the innate and adaptive immune responses to MERS-CoV and the current state of MERS-CoV vaccine development. We believe this study will increase our understanding of the mechanisms that enhance the MERS-CoV immune response and subsequently contribute to the control of MERS-CoV infections.

PMID: 31089478 PMCID: PMC6476043 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6491738

Keywords: MERS-CoV.

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Current #epidemiological #status of #MERS #coronavirus in the #world from 1.1.2017 to 17.1.2018: a cross-sectional study (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 27;19(1):351. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3987-2.

Current epidemiological status of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the world from 1.1.2017 to 17.1.2018: a cross-sectional study.

Mobaraki K1, Ahmadzadeh J2.

Author information: 1 Epidemiologist in Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Resalat Street, Urmia, Iran. 2 Epidemiologist in Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Resalat Street, Urmia, Iran. ahmadzadeh.j@umsu.ac.ir.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is considered to be responsible for a new viral epidemic and an emergent threat to global health security. This study describes the current epidemiological status of MERS-CoV in the world.

METHODS:

Epidemiological analysis was performed on data derived from all MERS-CoV cases recorded in the disease outbreak news on WHO website between 1.1.2017 and 17.1.2018. Demographic and clinical information as well as potential contacts and probable risk factors for mortality were extracted based on laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases.

RESULTS:

A total of 229 MERS-CoV cases, including 70 deaths (30.5%), were recorded in the disease outbreak news on world health organization website over the study period. Based on available details in this study, the case fatality rate in both genders was 30.5% (70/229) [32.1% (55/171) for males and 25.8% (15/58) for females]. The disease occurrence was higher among men [171 cases (74.7%)] than women [58 cases (25.3%)]. Variables such as comorbidities and exposure to MERS-CoV cases were significantly associated with mortality in people affected with MERS-CoV infections, and adjusted odds ratio estimates were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.16, 7.03) and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.35, 8.20), respectively. All age groups had an equal chance of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS:

In today’s “global village”, there is probability of MERS-CoV epidemic at any time and in any place without prior notice. Thus, health systems in all countries should implement better triage systems for potentially imported cases of MERS-CoV to prevent large epidemics.

KEYWORDS: Case fatality rate; Descriptive epidemiology; Disease outbreak; Emerging diseases; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

PMID: 31029095 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-3987-2

Keywords: MERS-CoV.

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Lack of #MERS #Coronavirus #Transmission in #Rabbits (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Apr 24;11(4). pii: E381. doi: 10.3390/v11040381.

Lack of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission in Rabbits.

Widagdo W1, Okba NMA2, Richard M3, de Meulder D4, Bestebroer TM5, Lexmond P6, Farag EABA7, Al-Hajri M8, Stittelaar KJ9, de Waal L10, van Amerongen G11, van den Brand JMA12, Haagmans BL13, Herfst S14.

Author information: 1 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. w.widagdo@erasmusmc.nl. 2 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. n.okba@erasmusmc.nl. 3 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. m.richard@erasmusmc.nl. 4 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. d.demeulder@erasmusmc.nl. 5 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. t.bestebroer@erasmusmc.nl. 6 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. p.lexmond@erasmusmc.nl. 7 Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar, PO Box. 42. eabdfarag@MOPH.GOV.QA. 8 Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar, PO Box. 42. malhajri1@MOPH.GOV.QA. 9 Viroclinics Biosciences BV, Rotterdam 3029 AK, The Netherlands. stittelaar@viroclinics.com. 10 Viroclinics Biosciences BV, Rotterdam 3029 AK, The Netherlands. dewaal@viroclinics.com. 11 Viroclinics Biosciences BV, Rotterdam 3029 AK, The Netherlands. amerongen@viroclinics.com. 12 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. j.m.a.vandenbrand@uu.nl. 13 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. b.haagmans@erasmusmc.nl. 14 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. s.herfst@erasmusmc.nl.

 

Abstract

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission from dromedaries to humans has resulted in major outbreaks in the Middle East. Although some other livestock animal species have been shown to be susceptible to MERS-CoV, it is not fully understood why the spread of the virus in these animal species has not been observed in the field. In this study, we used rabbits to further characterize the transmission potential of MERS-CoV. In line with the presence of MERS-CoV receptor in the rabbit nasal epithelium, high levels of viral RNA were shed from the nose following virus inoculation. However, unlike MERS-CoV-infected dromedaries, these rabbits did not develop clinical manifestations including nasal discharge and did shed only limited amounts of infectious virus from the nose. Consistently, no transmission by contact or airborne routes was observed in rabbits. Our data indicate that despite relatively high viral RNA levels produced, low levels of infectious virus are excreted in the upper respiratory tract of rabbits as compared to dromedary camels, thus resulting in a lack of viral transmission.

KEYWORDS: MERS-coronavirus; rabbits; transmission

PMID: 31022948 DOI: 10.3390/v11040381

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Animal models.

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Immunogenicity of Different Forms of #MERS S #Glycoprotein (Acta Naturae, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Acta Naturae. 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):38-47.

Immunogenicity of Different Forms of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome S Glycoprotein.

Ozharovskaia TA1, Zubkova OV1, Dolzhikova IV1, Gromova AS1, Grousova DM1, Tukhvatulin AI1, Popova O1, Shcheblyakov DV1, Scherbinin DN1, Dzharullaeva AS1, Erokhova AS1, Shmarov MM1, Loginova SY2, Borisevich SV2, Naroditsky BS1, Logunov DY1, Gintsburg AL1.

Author information: 1 Federal Research Centre of Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Honorary Academician N. F. Gamaleya, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Gamaleya Str. 18, 123098, Moscow, Russia. 2 «48 Central Research Institute», Ministry of Defense of Russian Federation, Oktyabrskaya Str. 11, 141306 , Sergiev Posad, Russia.

 

Abstract

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified in 2012 during the first Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. MERS-CoV causes an acute lower-respiratory infection in humans, with a fatality rate of ~35.5%. Currently, there are no registered vaccines or means of therapeutic protection against MERS in the world. The MERS-CoV S glycoprotein plays the most important role in the viral life cycle (virus internalization). The S protein is an immunodominant antigen and the main target for neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, the immunogenicities of five different forms of the MERS-CoV S glycoprotein were compared: the full-length S glycoprotein, the full-length S glycoprotein with the transmembrane domain of the G glycoprotein of VSV (S-G), the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S glycoprotein, the membrane-fused RBD (the RBD fused with the transmembrane domain of the VSV G glycoprotein (RBD-G)), and the RBD fused with Fc of human IgG1 (RBD-Fc). Recombinant vectors based on human adenoviruses type 5 (rAd5) were used as delivery vehicles. Vaccination with all of the developed rAd5 vectors elicited a balanced Th1/Th2 response in mice. The most robust humoral immune response was induced after the animal had been vaccinated with the membrane-fused RBD (rAd5-RBD-G). Only immunization with membrane forms of the glycoprotein (rAd5-S, rAd5-S-G, and rAd5-RBD-G) elicited neutralizing antibodies among all vaccinated animals. The most significant cellular immune response was induced after vaccination of the animals with the full-length S (rAd5-S). These investigations suggest that the full-length S and the membrane form of the RBD (RBD-G) are the most promising vaccine candidates among all the studied forms of S glycoprotein.

KEYWORDS: MERS; MERS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome; adenoviral vector; glycoprotein; immunity

PMID: 31024747

Keywords: MERS-CoV; Vaccines.

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