#Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds in the Izumi plain, #Japan during the 2016/17 winter season (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13087. [Epub ahead of print]

Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan during the 2016/17 winter season.

Ozawa M1,2,3, Matsuu A2,3, Khalil AMA1,3, Nishi N1, Tokorozaki K4, Masatani T2,3, Horie M2,3, Okuya K1, Ueno K1, Kuwahara M5, Toda S4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 2 Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 3 United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan. 4 Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan. 5 Matsuoka Research Institute for Science, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck feces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Our results implied the co-circulation and co-evolution of HPAIVs and LPAIVs within the same wild bird populations, thereby highlighting the importance of avian influenza surveillance targeting not only for HPAIVs, but also for LPAIVs.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; phylogenetic variations

PMID: 30499632 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13087

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Japan.

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Duration of #fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of #laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 #Japanese #influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons (J Infect Chemother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Chemother. 2018 Sep;24(9):718-724. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 Japanese influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons.

Ikematsu H1, Kawai N2, Iwaki N2, Kashiwagi S2, Ishikawa Y3, Yamaguchi H3, Shiosakai K3.

Author information: 1 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: ikematsu@gray.plala.or.jp. 2 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. 3 Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

The duration of fever and symptoms after laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) inhalation were investigated in the Japanese 2016/17 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons. A total of 1278 patients were evaluated for the duration of fever and symptoms in the six studied seasons. In the 2016/17 season, the influenza types/subtypes of the patients were 6 A (H1N1)pdm09 (2.9%), 183 A (H3N2) (87.6%), and 20 B (9.6%). The respective median durations of fever for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B were 38.0, 33.0, and 38.5 h, without significant difference (p = 0.9201), and the median durations of symptoms were 86.5, 73.0, and 99.0 h, with significant difference (p = 0.0342). The median durations of fever and symptoms after laninamivir inhalation were quite consistent for the six studied seasons for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, without any significant differences. The percentage of patients with unresolved fever patients displayed a similar pattern through the six studied seasons for all these virus types. There was no significant difference in the duration of fever or symptoms between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages in the 2016/17 season and those of the previous studied seasons. Over the seasons tested, ten adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported from 1341 patients. The most frequent ADR was diarrhea and all ADRs were self-resolving and not serious. These results indicate the continuing clinical effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, with no safety issues.

KEYWORDS: Fever; Influenza; Laninamivir; Neuraminidase inhibitor; Symptom

PMID: 29861186 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free full text

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Antivirals; Laninamivir; Japan.

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The #tragic #legacy of the #Sennan #asbestos #disaster (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

SPOTLIGHT|FILM|ONLINE FIRST

The tragic legacy of the Sennan asbestos disaster

Talha Khan Burki

Published: October 23, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30450-8

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For 100 years or so, stretching back to the Meiji dynasty, textiles were the only industry in the tiny town of Sennan, in Osaka, Japan. Asbestos, imported from elsewhere, was interwoven with cotton to create sturdy, fireproof garments. It was tough work, exhausting, and fiddly. But workers did not need an education; they did not even need to be literate. The small factories scattered across the area known as the asbestos village offered jobs to impoverished Japanese nationals and Korean immigrants.

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Published: October 23, 2018

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Japan; Asbestos; Toxic chemicals.

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Repeated #detection of #H7N9 #avian #influenza viruses in raw #poultry #meat illegally brought to #Japan by international #flight passengers (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2018 Aug 20;524:10-17. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.08.001. [Epub ahead of print]

Repeated detection of H7N9 avian influenza viruses in raw poultry meat illegally brought to Japan by international flight passengers.

Shibata A1, Okamatsu M2, Sumiyoshi R1, Matsuno K3, Wang ZJ4, Kida H5, Osaka H1, Sakoda Y6.

Author information: 1 Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokoname, Aichi 479-0881, Japan. 2 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan. 3 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. 4 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Training Program for Asian Veterinarians, Japan Veterinary Medical Association, Tokyo 107-0062, Japan. 5 Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan; Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. 6 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan; Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan. Electronic address: sakoda@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp.

 

Abstract

H7N9 highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV and LPAIV, respectively) have been isolated from duck meat products that were brought illegally into Japan by flight passengers in their hand luggage. These H7N9 virus isolates were phylogenetically closely related to those prevailing in China. Antigenic analysis revealed that the hemagglutinin of the H7N9 HPAIV isolate was slightly different from those of the H7N9 LPAIV and older H7 strains. These meat products contaminated with AIVs repeatedly brought into Japan lead to increased risks of poultry and public health. Continuous border disease control based on the detection and culling of infected poultry and meat products is, thus, essential for the prevention of introduction and spread of AIVs.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H7N9 subtype; Influenza A virus; Zoonoses

PMID: 30138834 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2018.08.001

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; Poultry; China; Japan.

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Comparison of #ECMO #outcome for #influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in #Japan between 2009 and 2016 (J Intensive Care, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Intensive Care. 2018 Jul 11;6:38. doi: 10.1186/s40560-018-0306-8. eCollection 2018.

Comparison of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation outcome for influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in Japan between 2009 and 2016.

Ohshimo S1, Shime N1, Nakagawa S2, Nishida O3, Takeda S4; Committee of the Japan ECMO project.

Author information: 1 Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8551 Japan. 2 Department of Critical Care and Anesthesia, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. 3 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan. 4 Kawaguchi Cardiovascular and Respiratory Hospital, Saitama, Japan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since the 2009 pandemic influenza, we have nationally established a committee of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) project. This project involves adequate respiratory management for severe respiratory failure using ECMO. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between changes in respiratory management using ECMO in Japan and outcomes of patients with influenza-associated acute respiratory failure between 2009 and 2016.

METHODS:

We investigated the incidence, severity, characteristics, and prognosis of influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in 2016 by web-based surveillance. The correlations between clinical characteristics, ventilator settings, ECMO settings, and prognosis were evaluated.

RESULTS:

A total of 14 patients were managed with ECMO in 2016. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score between 2009 and 2016. The maximum sequential organ failure assessment score and highest positive end-expiratory pressure were lower in 2016 than in 2009 (p = 0.03 and p = 0.015, respectively). Baseline and lowest partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2) ratios were higher in 2016 than in 2009 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.002, respectively). The types of consoles, circuits, oxygenators, centrifugal pumps, and cannulas were significantly changed between 2016 and 2009 (p = 0.006, p = 0.003, p = 0.004, p < 0.001, respectively). Duration of the use of each circuit was significantly longer in 2016 than in 2009 (8.5 vs. 4.0 days; p = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that the use of ECMO in 2016 was an independent predictor of better overall survival in patients with influenza-associated acute respiratory failure (hazard ratio, 7.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-33.3; p = 0.021).

CONCLUSIONS:

Respiratory management for influenza-associated acute respiratory failure using ECMO was significantly changed in 2016 compared with 2009 in Japan. The outcome of ECMO use had improved in 2016 compared with the outcome in 2009 in patients with influenza-associated acute respiratory failure.

KEYWORDS: Acute respiratory distress syndrome; Complication; Mechanical ventilation; Prognosis; Survival

PMID: 30009033 PMCID: PMC6042359 DOI: 10.1186/s40560-018-0306-8

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; ARDS; ECMO; Japan.

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The effect of #neuraminidase #inhibitors on #household #transmission in Japanese patients with #influenza A and B infection: a prospective, observational study (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Jul 10. doi: 10.1111/irv.12590. [Epub ahead of print]

The effect of neuraminidase inhibitors on household transmission in Japanese patients with influenza A and B infection: a prospective, observational study.

Hirotsu N1, Saisho Y2, Hasegawa T2.

Author information: 1 Hirotsu Clinic, Kawasaki, Japan. 2 Shionogi& Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The relative ability of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) to reduce household influenza transmission when given to index patients is not established.

OBJECTIVES:

To compare daily secondary infection rates (SIR) of influenza A (A/H1pdm and A/H3) and B in households of index patients treated with oseltamivir, zanamivir, laninamivir, or peramivir.

PATIENTS/METHODS:

This Japanese, single-center, prospective, observational study (UMIN-CTR: UMIN000024650) enrolled index patients with confirmed influenza who were treated with an NAI during 6 influenza seasons (2010-2016). Secondary infection patients were household members diagnosed with the same influenza subtype 1-7 days after onset in the index patient. Daily SIR was calculated using a modified Reed-Frost model. The rate of household members with secondary infection and proportion of households with any secondary infection were also calculated.

RESULTS:

Index patients with influenza A (n=1146) or B (n=661) were enrolled (~3400 total index and secondary patients). Daily SIR for all virus subtypes was highest when oseltamivir was used (eg, unadjusted estimate: type A, 1.47% vs 0.71%-1.13%; type B, 1.30% vs 0.59%-0.88%). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in daily SIR between NAIs for influenza type A, type B, and subtype A/H3; eg, for type A, SIR was significantly higher with oseltamivir than with peramivir or zanamivir. The rate of household members with secondary infection and proportion of households with any secondary infection also varied between NAIs.

CONCLUSIONS:

NAIs differed in their ability to reduce household influenza transmission; transmission was highest with oseltamivir. Physicians may consider effects on household transmission when deciding which NAI to prescribe.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Household secondary infection; Influenza transmission; Laninamivir; Oseltamivir; Peramivir; Zanamivir

PMID: 29989680 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12590

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; B; Antivirals; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Peramivir; Laninamivir.

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Duration of #fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of #laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 #Japanese #influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons (J Infect Chemother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Chemother. 2018 May 31. pii: S1341-321X(18)30123-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013. [Epub ahead of print]

Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 Japanese influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons.

Ikematsu H1, Kawai N2, Iwaki N2, Kashiwagi S2, Ishikawa Y3, Yamaguchi H3, Shiosakai K3.

Author information: 1 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: ikematsu@gray.plala.or.jp. 2 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. 3 Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

The duration of fever and symptoms after laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) inhalation were investigated in the Japanese 2016/17 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons. A total of 1278 patients were evaluated for the duration of fever and symptoms in the six studied seasons. In the 2016/17 season, the influenza types/subtypes of the patients were 6 A (H1N1)pdm09 (2.9%), 183 A (H3N2) (87.6%), and 20 B (9.6%). The respective median durations of fever for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B were 38.0, 33.0, and 38.5 h, without significant difference (p = 0.9201), and the median durations of symptoms were 86.5, 73.0, and 99.0 h, with significant difference (p = 0.0342). The median durations of fever and symptoms after laninamivir inhalation were quite consistent for the six studied seasons for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, without any significant differences. The percentage of patients with unresolved fever patients displayed a similar pattern through the six studied seasons for all these virus types. There was no significant difference in the duration of fever or symptoms between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages in the 2016/17 season and those of the previous studied seasons. Over the seasons tested, ten adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported from 1341 patients. The most frequent ADR was diarrhea and all ADRs were self-resolving and not serious. These results indicate the continuing clinical effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, with no safety issues.

KEYWORDS: Fever; Influenza; Laninamivir; Neuraminidase inhibitor; Symptom

PMID: 29861186 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013

Keywords: Seasonal InfluenzA; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; B; Japan; Antivirals; Laninamivir.

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