#Genetic and #antigenic characterisation of #influenza A(#H3N2) viruses isolated in #Yokohama during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetic and antigenic characterisation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in Yokohama during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons

Chiharu Kawakami1, Seiya Yamayoshi2, Miki Akimoto3, Kazuya Nakamura3, Hideka Miura3, Seiichiro Fujisaki3, David J. Pattinson4,Kohei Shimizu1, Hiroki Ozawa1, Tomoko Momoki1, Miwako Saikusa1, Atsuhiro Yasuhara2, Shuzo Usuku1, Ichiro Okubo1, Takahiro Toyozawa5,Shigeo Sugita6, Derek J. Smith4, Shinji Watanabe3, Yoshihiro Kawaoka2,7,8

Affiliations: 1 Yokohama City Institute of Public Health, Yokohama, Japan; 2 Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3 Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; 4 Center for Pathogen Evolution, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 5 Yokohama City Public Health Center, Yokohama, Japan; 6 Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, Tochigi, Japan; 7 Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA; 8 Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence:  Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Citation style for this article: Kawakami Chiharu, Yamayoshi Seiya, Akimoto Miki, Nakamura Kazuya, Miura Hideka, Fujisaki Seiichiro, Pattinson David J., Shimizu Kohei,Ozawa Hiroki, Momoki Tomoko, Saikusa Miwako, Yasuhara Atsuhiro, Usuku Shuzo, Okubo Ichiro, Toyozawa Takahiro, Sugita Shigeo, Smith Derek J., Watanabe Shinji,Kawaoka Yoshihiro. Genetic and antigenic characterisation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in Yokohama during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(6):pii=1800467. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.6.1800467

Received: 22 Aug 2018;   Accepted: 25 Nov 2018

 

Abstract

Background:

Influenza A(H3N2) virus rapidly evolves to evade human immune responses, resulting in changes in the antigenicity of haemagglutinin (HA). Therefore, continuous genetic and antigenic analyses of A(H3N2) virus are necessary to detect antigenic mutants as quickly as possible.

Aim:

We attempted to phylogenetically and antigenically capture the epidemic trend of A(H3N2) virus infection in Yokohama, Japan during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons.

Methods:

We determined the HA sequences of A(H3N2) viruses detected in Yokohama, Japan during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons to identify amino acid substitutions and the loss or gain of potential N-glycosylation sites in HA, both of which potentially affect the antigenicity of HA. We also examined the antigenicity of isolates using ferret antisera obtained from experimentally infected ferrets.

Results:

Influenza A(H3N2) viruses belonging to six clades (clades 3C.2A1, 3C.2A1a, 3C.2A1b, 3C.2A2, 3C.2A3 and 3C.2A4) were detected during the 2016/17 influenza season, whereas viruses belonging to two clades (clades 3C.2A1b and 3C.2A2) dominated during the 2017/18 influenza season. The isolates in clades 3C.2A1a and 3C.2A3 lost one N-linked glycosylation site in HA relative to other clades. Antigenic analysis revealed antigenic differences among clades, especially clade 3C.2A2 and 3C.2A4 viruses, which showed distinct antigenic differences from each other and from other clades in the antigenic map.

Conclusion:

Multiple clades, some of which differed antigenically from others, co-circulated in Yokohama, Japan during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 influenza seasons.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H3N2; Japan.

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Characterization of a novel #reassortant #H7N3 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus isolated from a #poultry #meat product taken on a passenger flight to #Japan (J Vet Med Sci., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Vet Med Sci. 2019 Jan 24. doi: 10.1292/jvms.18-0628. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of a novel reassortant H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated from a poultry meat product taken on a passenger flight to Japan.

Shibata A1, Harada R1, Okamatsu M2, Matsuno K2,3, Arita T4, Suzuki Y4, Shirakura M4, Odagiri T4, Takemae N5, Uchida Y5, Saito T5, Sakoda Y2,3, Osaka H1.

Author information: 1 Exotic Disease Inspection Division, Laboratory Department, Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University. 3 Global Station for Zoonosis Control, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University. 4 Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases. 5 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO).

 

Abstract

A new reassortant H7N3 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a duck meat product that was illegally taken on board a passenger flight from China to Japan in March 2018. Sequencing analysis revealed that the H7N3 isolate, A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE30-1/2018 (Dk/HE30-1) (H7N3), was a reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) that contained the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of Chinese H7N9 HPAIV. Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) possessed a novel polybasic sequence motif PEVPKRRRTAR/GLF at the HA cleavage site that has never previously been reported in H7 HPAIVs. The HA antigenicity of Dk/HE30-1 (H7N3) slightly differed from that of H7N9 HPAIVs previously reported. These findings will help further our knowledge of the circulation and genetic evolution of emerging AIVs in endemic areas.

KEYWORDS: H7N3 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; reassortant virus

PMID: 30674734 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.18-0628

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N3; H7N9; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Japan; China.

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Detection of #influenza A(#H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor #baloxavir in #Japan, December 2018 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018

Emi Takashita1, Chiharu Kawakami2, Hiroko Morita1, Rie Ogawa1, Seiichiro Fujisaki1, Masayuki Shirakura1, Hideka Miura1, Kazuya Nakamura1, Noriko Kishida1, Tomoko Kuwahara1, Keiko Mitamura3, Takashi Abe4, Masataka Ichikawa5, Masahiko Yamazaki6, Shinji Watanabe1, Takato Odagiri1, on behalf of the Influenza Virus Surveillance Group of Japan7

Affiliations: 1 Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; 2 Yokohama City Institute of Public Health, Kanagawa, Japan; 3 Eiju General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 4 Abe Children’s Clinic, Kanagawa, Japan; 5 Ichikawa Children’s Clinic, Kanagawa, Japan; 6 Zama Children’s Clinic, Kanagawa, Japan; 7 The members of the group are listed at the end of the article

Correspondence: Takato Odagiritodagirinih.go.jp

Citation style for this article: Takashita Emi, Kawakami Chiharu, Morita Hiroko, Ogawa Rie, Fujisaki Seiichiro, Shirakura Masayuki, Miura Hideka, Nakamura Kazuya, Kishida Noriko, Kuwahara Tomoko, Mitamura Keiko, Abe Takashi, Ichikawa Masataka, Yamazaki Masahiko, Watanabe Shinji, Odagiri Takato, on behalf of the Influenza Virus Surveillance Group of Japan. Detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses exhibiting reduced susceptibility to the novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir in Japan, December 2018. Euro Surveill. 2019;24(3):pii=1800698. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.3.1800698

Received: 21 Dec 2018;   Accepted: 16 Jan 2019

 

Abstract

The novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor baloxavir marboxil was approved for the treatment of influenza virus infection in Japan in February 2018. Two influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic subunit (PA) were detected in baloxavir-treated children in December 2018. This mutation is known to confer reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, and the two mutant viruses exhibited 76- and 120-fold reduced susceptibility to baloxavir.

© This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H3N2; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Baloxavir.

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Consecutive #influenza #surveillance of #neuraminidase #mutations and neuraminidase inhibitor #resistance in #Japan (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Dec 11. doi: 10.1111/irv.12624. [Epub ahead of print]

Consecutive influenza surveillance of neuraminidase mutations and neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in Japan.

Chong Y1, Matsumoto S2, Kang D2,3, Ikematsu H4.

Author information: 1 Medicine and Biosystemic Science, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan. 2 Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. 3 Department of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. 4 Japan Physicians Association, Influenza Study Group, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The large consumption of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) for the treatment of influenza virus infections places Japan at risk of becoming the epicenter of the global spread of NAI-resistant viruses.

OBJECTIVE:

To clarify NA amino acid mutations of epidemic influenza viruses in Japan and their related NAI resistance METHODS: A total of 1791 samples, including 396 A/H1N1pdm09, 1117 A/H3N2, and 278 B isolates, were collected to determine of their 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values by NAIs (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) during the Japanese seasons from 2011-12 to 2016-17. Then, 380 samples including 49 A/H1N1pdm09, 251 A/H3N2, and 80 B isolates, were sequenced for the entire NA genes.

RESULTS:

NAI-resistant A/H1N1pdm09 viruses were detected at a frequency of 1.3% (5/396 isolates) in the epidemic seasons. None of the A/H3N2 and B viruses developed resistance to any of the four NAIs during the six seasons. Only five and 13 AA mutations were detected in the NA catalytic sites of A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses, respectively. No mutations were observed in the catalytic sites of B viruses. Four of the five mutations in the catalytic sites of A/H1N1pdm09 consisted of H275Y, which was related to high resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir. Most (10/13) of the catalytic site mutations in A/H3N2 were associated with MDCK-passaged induction (D151G/N). Finally, no mutations related to substantial NAI resistance were detected in the A/H3N2 and B viruses examined.

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that the NA catalytic sites of influenza viruses are well preserved. Even in Japan, no spread of NAI-resistant viruses has been observed, and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses carrying H275Y remain limited.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Influenza; mutation; neuraminidase; neuraminidase inhibitor; resistance

PMID: 30548432 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12624

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Peramivir; Laninamivir; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Seasonal Influenza.

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#Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic #H5N6 #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds in the Izumi plain, #Japan during the 2016/17 winter season (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13087. [Epub ahead of print]

Phylogenetic variations of highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Izumi plain, Japan during the 2016/17 winter season.

Ozawa M1,2,3, Matsuu A2,3, Khalil AMA1,3, Nishi N1, Tokorozaki K4, Masatani T2,3, Horie M2,3, Okuya K1, Ueno K1, Kuwahara M5, Toda S4.

Author information: 1 Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 2 Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Kagoshima, Japan. 3 United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Yamaguchi, Japan. 4 Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee, Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan. 5 Matsuoka Research Institute for Science, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

During the 2016/2017 winter season, we isolated 33 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of H5N6 subtype and three low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) from debilitated or dead wild birds, duck feces, and environmental water samples collected in the Izumi plain, an overwintering site for migratory birds in Japan. Genetic analyses of the H5N6 HPAIV isolates revealed previously unreported phylogenetic variations in the PB2, PB1, PA, and NS gene segments and allowed us to propose two novel genotypes for the contemporary H5N6 HPAIVs. In addition, analysis of the four gene segments identified close phylogenetic relationships between our three LPAIV isolates and the contemporary H5N6 HPAIV isolates. Our results implied the co-circulation and co-evolution of HPAIVs and LPAIVs within the same wild bird populations, thereby highlighting the importance of avian influenza surveillance targeting not only for HPAIVs, but also for LPAIVs.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N6 subtype; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; phylogenetic variations

PMID: 30499632 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13087

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Wild Birds; Japan.

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Duration of #fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of #laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 #Japanese #influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons (J Infect Chemother., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect Chemother. 2018 Sep;24(9):718-724. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Duration of fever and other symptoms after the inhalation of laninamivir octanoate hydrate in the 2016/17 Japanese influenza season; comparison with the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons.

Ikematsu H1, Kawai N2, Iwaki N2, Kashiwagi S2, Ishikawa Y3, Yamaguchi H3, Shiosakai K3.

Author information: 1 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: ikematsu@gray.plala.or.jp. 2 Japan Physicians Association, Tokyo, Japan. 3 Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

 

Abstract

The duration of fever and symptoms after laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) inhalation were investigated in the Japanese 2016/17 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons. A total of 1278 patients were evaluated for the duration of fever and symptoms in the six studied seasons. In the 2016/17 season, the influenza types/subtypes of the patients were 6 A (H1N1)pdm09 (2.9%), 183 A (H3N2) (87.6%), and 20 B (9.6%). The respective median durations of fever for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B were 38.0, 33.0, and 38.5 h, without significant difference (p = 0.9201), and the median durations of symptoms were 86.5, 73.0, and 99.0 h, with significant difference (p = 0.0342). The median durations of fever and symptoms after laninamivir inhalation were quite consistent for the six studied seasons for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, without any significant differences. The percentage of patients with unresolved fever patients displayed a similar pattern through the six studied seasons for all these virus types. There was no significant difference in the duration of fever or symptoms between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages in the 2016/17 season and those of the previous studied seasons. Over the seasons tested, ten adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported from 1341 patients. The most frequent ADR was diarrhea and all ADRs were self-resolving and not serious. These results indicate the continuing clinical effectiveness of laninamivir against influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B, with no safety issues.

KEYWORDS: Fever; Influenza; Laninamivir; Neuraminidase inhibitor; Symptom

PMID: 29861186 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiac.2018.04.013 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free full text

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; Antivirals; Laninamivir; Japan.

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The #tragic #legacy of the #Sennan #asbestos #disaster (Lancet Resp Med., summary)

[Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

SPOTLIGHT|FILM|ONLINE FIRST

The tragic legacy of the Sennan asbestos disaster

Talha Khan Burki

Published: October 23, 2018 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(18)30450-8

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For 100 years or so, stretching back to the Meiji dynasty, textiles were the only industry in the tiny town of Sennan, in Osaka, Japan. Asbestos, imported from elsewhere, was interwoven with cotton to create sturdy, fireproof garments. It was tough work, exhausting, and fiddly. But workers did not need an education; they did not even need to be literate. The small factories scattered across the area known as the asbestos village offered jobs to impoverished Japanese nationals and Korean immigrants.

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Published: October 23, 2018

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Environmental pollution; Japan; Asbestos; Toxic chemicals.

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