Full-length #genome #sequences of the first #H9N2 #avian #influenza viruses isolated in the Northeast of #Algeria (Virol J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virol J. 2020 Jul 17;17(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12985-020-01377-z.

Full-length genome sequences of the first H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated in the Northeast of Algeria

Abdelheq Barberis 1 2, Amine Boudaoud 3, Angelina Gorrill 4, Josianne  Loupias 4, Abdeljelil Ghram 5, Jihene Lachheb 5, Nadir Alloui 3, Mariette F Ducatez 6

Affiliations: 1 Centre de Recherche en Biotechnologie, Nouvelle Ville Ali Mendjeli, El Khroub, Algeria. abdelheqbarberis5@gmail.com. 2 LESPA, Département vétérinaire, ISVSA, Université de Batna, Batna, Algeria. abdelheqbarberis5@gmail.com. 3 LESPA, Département vétérinaire, ISVSA, Université de Batna, Batna, Algeria. 4 IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076, Toulouse cedex, France. 5 Laboratoire d’Epidémiologie et de Microbiologie Vétérinaire, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. 6 IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076, Toulouse cedex, France. mariette.ducatez@envt.fr.

PMID: 32680533 DOI: 10.1186/s12985-020-01377-z




H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following an outbreak associated with high mortality, in broiler flocks. In the present study, we report full-length genome sequences of AIV H9N2, and the detailed phylogeny and molecular genetic analyses.


Ten AIV H9N2 strains, collected in broiler flocks, were amplified in 9-day-old embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Their full-length genomes were successfully sequenced and phylogenetic and molecular characterizations were conducted.


Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolates were monophyletic, grouped within the G-1 lineage and were very close to Moroccan and Algerian strains identified in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The low pathogenicity of the strains was confirmed by the sequence motif (335RSSR/GLF341) at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. An exclusive substitution (T197A) that had not been previously reported for H9N2 viruses; but, conserved in some pandemic H1N1 viruses, was observed. When compared to the G1-like H9N2 prototype, the studied strains showed one less glycosylation site in HA, but 2-3 additional ones in the stalk of the neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein harbored the substitution 234 L, suggesting binding preference to human-like receptors. The NA protein harbored S372A and R403W substitutions, previously detected in H9N2 from Asia and the Middle East, and especially in H2N2 and H3N2 strains that caused human pandemics. Different molecular markers associated with virulence and mammalian infections have been detected in the viral internal proteins. The matrix M2 protein possessed the S31N substitution associated with drug resistance. The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein showed the “GSEV” PDZ ligand (PL) C-terminal motif and no 80-84 deletion.


Characterized Algerian AIV isolates showed mutations that suggest increased zoonotic potential. Additional studies in animal models are required to investigate the pathogenicity of these H9N2 AIV strains. Monitoring their evolution in both migratory and domestic birds is crucial to prevent transmission to humans. Implementation of adequate biosecurity measures that limit the introduction and the propagation of AIV H9N2 in Algerian poultry farm is crucial.

Keywords: Algeria; Avian influenza H9N2; Full-length genome sequencing; Molecular characterization; Phylogenetic analysis.

Keywords: H9N2; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Algeria.


#H9N2 #influenza virus infections in #human #cells require a balance between #NA #sialidase activity and HA #receptor affinity (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

H9N2 influenza virus infections in human cells require a balance between NA sialidase activity and HA receptor affinity

Yasuha Arai, Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Takao Ono, Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Yasuo Suzuki, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yohei Watanabe

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01210-20



Some avian influenza (AI) viruses have a deletion of up to 20-30 amino acids in their NA stalk. This has been associated with changes in virus replication and host range. Currently prevalent H9N2 AI viruses only have a 2 or 3 amino acid deletion, which were detected in G1 and Y280 lineage viruses, respectively. The effect of an NA deletion on the H9N2 phenotype has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we isolated G1 mutants that carried an 8 amino acid deletion in their NA stalk. To systematically analyze the effect of NA stalk length and concomitant (de)glycosylation on G1 replication and host range, we generated G1 viruses with various NA stalk lengths and were either glycosylated or not glycosylated. The stalk length was correlated with NA sialidase activity, using low molecular weight substrates, and with virus elution efficacy from erythrocytes. G1 virus replication in avian cells and eggs was positively correlated with NA stalk length, but was negatively correlated in human cells and mice. NA stalk length modulated G1 virus entry in host cells, with shorter stalks enabling more efficient G1 entry into human cells. However, with an HA with higher α2,6 Sia affinity, the effect of NA stalk length on G1 virus infection was reversed, with shorter NA stalks reducing virus entry into human cells. These results indicated that that a balance between HA binding affinity and NA sialidase activity, modulated by NA stalk length, was required for optimal G1 virus entry into human airway cells.



H9N2 avian influenza (AI) virus, one of the most prevalent AI viruses, has caused repeated poultry and human infections, posing a huge public health risk. The H9N2 virus has diversified into multiple lineages, with the G1 lineage most prevalent worldwide. In this study, we isolated G1 variants carrying an 8 amino acid deletion in their NA stalk, which was, to our knowledge, the longest deletion found in H9N2 viruses in the field. NA stalk length was found to modulate G1 virus entry into host cells, with the effects being species-specific and dependent on the corresponding HA binding affinity. Our results suggested that, in nature, H9N2 G1 viruses balance their HA and NA functions by the NA stalk length, leading to the possible association of host range and virulence in poultry and mammals during the evolution of G1 lineage viruses.

Copyright © 2020 Arai et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Viral pathogenesis.


#Human #H9N2 #Avian #Influenza #Infection: #Epidemiological and #Clinical Characterization of 16 Cases in #China (Virol Sin., summary)

[Source: Virologica Sinica, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Human H9N2 Avian Influenza Infection: Epidemiological and Clinical Characterization of 16 Cases in China

Xuan Dong, Jiasong Xiong, Chaolin Huang, Jie Xiang, Wenjuan Wu, Nanshan Chen, Danning Wen, Chao Tu, Xueli Qiao, Liang Kang, Zhongzi Yao, Dingyu Zhang & Quanjiao Chen

Virologica Sinica (2020)


Dear Editor, The first human infections with avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 were  reported in 1998 (Guo et al. 1999). As of October 18th, 2019, 59 cases of human infection  with H9N2 have been reported globally, including 50 cases in China, three in Bangladesh,  four in Egypt, one in Pakistan and one in Oman (World Health  Organization. https://www.who.int/wer/en/; Peacock et al. 2019). Among the 59 patients,  three (5.1%) presented with severe pneumonia and 56 had mild influenza-like symptoms  (World Health Organization.  https://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/HAI_Risk_Assessment/en/). In  general, human infections with H9N2 are sporadic and the majority of cases are mild  and non-fatal, and there is no evidence of human-to-human transmission to date  (Peacock et al. 2019).


Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; H9N2; China.


Genetically and antigenically #divergent #influenza A(#H9N2) viruses exhibit differential #replication and #transmission phenotypes in #mammalian models (J Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Genetically and antigenically divergent influenza A(H9N2) viruses exhibit differential replication and transmission phenotypes in mammalian models

Jessica A Belser, Xiangjie Sun, Nicole Brock, Claudia Pappas, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Hui Zeng, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Paul J Carney, Jessie Chang, Nguyen Van Long, Nguyen Thi Diep, Sharmi Thor, Han Di, Genyan Yang, Peter W Cook, Hannah M Creager, Dayan Wang, Jeffrey McFarland, Pham Van Dong, David E. Wentworth, Terrence M Tumpey, John R Barnes, James Stevens, C. Todd Davis, Taronna R Maines

DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00451-20



Low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses, enzootic in poultry populations in Asia, are associated with fewer confirmed human infections but higher rates of seropositivity compared to A(H5) or A(H7) subtype viruses. Co-circulation of A(H5) and A(H7) viruses leads to the generation of reassortant viruses bearing A(H9N2) internal genes with markers of mammalian adaptation, warranting continued surveillance in both avian and human populations. Here, we describe active surveillance efforts in live poultry markets in Vietnam in 2018 and compare representative viruses to G1 and Y280 lineage viruses that have infected humans. Receptor binding properties, pH thresholds for HA activation, in vitro replication in human respiratory tract cells, and in vivo mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility were investigated. While A(H9N2) viruses from both poultry and humans exhibited features associated with mammalian adaptation, one human isolate from 2018, A/Anhui-Lujiang/39/2018, exhibited increased capacity for replication and transmission, demonstrating the pandemic potential of A(H9N2) viruses.



A(H9N2) influenza viruses are widespread in poultry in many parts of the world, and for over twenty years, have sporadically jumped species barriers to cause human infection. As these viruses continue to diversify genetically and antigenically, it is critical to closely monitor viruses responsible for human infections, to ascertain if A(H9N2) viruses are acquiring properties that make them better suited to infect and spread among humans. In this study, we describe an active poultry surveillance system established in Vietnam to identify the scope of influenza viruses present in live bird markets and the threat they pose to human health. Assessment of a recent A(H9N2) virus isolated from an individual in China in 2018 is also reported and was found to exhibit properties of adaptation to humans and, importantly, show similarities to strains isolated from the live bird markets of Vietnam.

Copyright © 2020 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China; Vietnam.


#Genetic Characterization of the First Detected #Human Case of Low Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A/ #H9N2 in sub-Saharan Africa, #Senegal (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020 Dec;9(1):1092-1095. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1763858.

Genetic Characterization of the First Detected Human Case of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza A/H9N2 in sub-Saharan Africa, Senegal

Mamadou Malado Jallow 1, Amary Fall 1, Mamadou Aliou Barry 2, Boly Diop 3, Sara Sy 1, Déborah Goudiaby 1, Malick Fall 4, Vincent Enouf 5, Mbayame Ndiaye Niang 1, Ndongo Dia 1

Affiliations: 1 Département de Virologie, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal.  2 Unité d’Epidémiologie des maladies infectieuses, Institut Pasteur de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal. 3 Division surveillance épidémiologique et riposte vaccinale du ministère de la Santé et de l’action sociale, Dakar, Senegal. 4 Département de Biologie Animale, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta DIOP de Dakar, Dakar, Sénégal. 5 Institut Pasteur Paris, Plateforme P2M, Dakar, Senegal.

PMID: 32471335 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1763858



The H9N2 influenza virus has become one of the dominant subtypes of influenza virus circulating in poultry, wild birds, and can occasionally cross the mammalian species barrier. Here, we report the first human A/H9N2 in Sub-Saharan Africa. The patient was a child of 16 months’ old living in the South-West of Senegal. He had no influenza vaccination history and no other disease history. He had symptoms of fever with an auxiliary temperature of 39.1°C. Respiratory symptoms were an intense cough, runny nose and pulmonary crackles. All eight genome segments belonged to the A/H9N2 AIV subtype and the strain characyerized as of low pathogenicity with a RSSR/GLF amino acids mo-tif. Phylogenetic analysis of both complete HA and NA gene segments showed that the A/H9N2 subtype virus from Senegal belonged to the G1 lineage. This human case highlights the weakness of influenza surveillance in animals and the need for enhanced surveillance using a one-health approach.

Keywords: A/H9N2; Avian Influenza; Human; Senegal.


#Genotyping and #Reassortment #Analysis of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses #H5N8 and #H5N2 From #Egypt Reveals Successive Annual #Replacement of Genotypes (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2020 May 23;104375. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104375. Online ahead of print.

Genotyping and Reassortment Analysis of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses H5N8 and H5N2 From Egypt Reveals Successive Annual Replacement of Genotypes

Kareem E Hassan 1, Noha Saad 2, Hassanein H Abozeid 3, Salama Shany 4, Magdy F El-Kady 4, Abdelsatar Arafa 2, Azza A A El-Sawah 4, Florian Pfaff 5, Hafez M Hafez 6, Martin Beer 5, Timm Harder 7

Affiliations: 1 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany; Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. 2 National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, 12618, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 3 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. 4 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. 5 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany. 6 Institute of Poultry Diseases, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany. 7 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald, Riems, Germany. Electronic address: Timm.Harder@fli.de.

PMID: 32454245 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104375



Highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, clade 2.2.1, and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses, G1-B lineage, are endemic in poultry in Egypt and have co-circulated for almost a decade. Surprisingly, no inter-subtypic reassortment events have been reported from the field during that time. After the introduction of HPAIV H5N8, clade, in Egyptian poultry in 2016, suddenly HP H5N2 reassortants with H9N2 viruses emerged. The current analyses focussed on studying 32 duck flocks, 4 broiler chicken flocks, and 1 turkey flock, suffering from respiratory manifestations with moderate to high mortality reared in two Egyptian governorates during 2019. Real-time RT-PCR substantiated the presence of HP H5N8 in 21 of the 37 investigated flocks with mixed infection of H9N2 in two of them. HP H5N1 was not detected. Full hemagglutinin (HA) sequencing of 10 samples with full-genome sequencing of three of them revealed presence of a single genotype. Very few substituting mutations in the HA protein were detected versus previous Egyptian HA sequences of that clade. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions in the Matrix (M2) and the Neuraminidase (NA) proteins associated with conferring both Amantadine and Oseltamivir resistance were present. Systematic reassortment analysis of all publicly available Egyptian whole genome sequences of HP H5N8 (n = 23), reassortant HP H5N2 (n = 2) and LP H9N2 (n = 53) viruses revealed presence of at least seven different genotypes of HPAI H5Nx viruses of clade in Egypt since 2016. For H9N2 viruses, at least three genotypes were distinguishable. Heat mapping and tanglegram analyses suggested that several internal gene segments in both HP H5Nx and H9N2 viruses originated from avian influenza viruses circulating in wild bird species in Egypt. Based on the limited set of whole genome sequences available, annual replacement patterns of HP H5Nx genotypes emerged and suggested selective advantages of certain genotypes since 2016.

Keywords: Beast analysis; Egypt; Genotyping; H5N2; H9N2; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Phylogenetic analysis; Reassortment; Subtype H5N8; Tanglegram.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Conflict of interest statement. Declaration of Competing Interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; H9N2; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; Egypt; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Amantadine; Oseltamivir.


Historical #Origins and #Zoonotic #Potential of #Avian #Influenza Virus #H9N2 in #Tunisia Revealed by Bayesian Analysis and Molecular Characterization (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2020 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s00705-020-04624-4. Online ahead of print.

Historical Origins and Zoonotic Potential of Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 in Tunisia Revealed by Bayesian Analysis and Molecular Characterization

Marwa Arbi 1, Oussema Souiai 2, Natalia Rego 3, Imen Larbi 1, Hugo Naya 3 4, Abdeljelil Ghram 1, Mehdi Houimel 5

Affiliations: 1 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, LR19IPT03, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, 13, Place Pasteur, BP74, 1002, Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia. 2 Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Biomathematics and Biostatistics, LR16IPT09, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia. 3 Bioinformatics Unit, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. 4 Departmento de Producción Animal y Pasturas, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de la República, Av. Gral. Eugenio Garzón 780, 12900, Montevideo, Uruguay. 5 Laboratory of Epidemiology and Veterinary Microbiology, LR19IPT03, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, 13, Place Pasteur, BP74, 1002, Tunis, Belvedere, Tunisia. mehdi.houimel@pasteur.rns.tn.

PMID: 32335769 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-020-04624-4



During 2009-2012, several outbreaks of avian influenza virus H9N2 were reported in Tunisian poultry. The circulating strains carried in their hemagglutinins the human-like marker 226L, which is known to be important for avian-to-human viral transmission. To investigate the origins and zoonotic potential of the Tunisian H9N2 viruses, five new isolates were identified during 2012-2016 and their whole genomes were sequenced. Bayesian-based phylogeny showed that the HA, NA, M and NP segments belong to the G1-like lineage. The PB1, PB2, PA and NS segments appeared to have undergone multiple intersubtype reassortments and to be only distantly related to all of the Eurasian lineages (G1-like, Y280-like and Korean-like). The spatiotemporal dynamic of virus spread revealed that the H9N2 virus was transferred to Tunisia from the UAE through Asian and European pathways. As indicated by Bayesian analysis of host traits, ducks and terrestrial birds played an important role in virus transmission to Tunisia. The subtype phylodynamics showed that the history of the PB1 and PB2 segments was marked by intersubtype reassortments with H4N6, H10N4 and H2N2 subtypes. Most of these transitions between locations, hosts and subtypes were statistically supported (BF > 3) and not influenced by sampling bias. Evidence of genetic evolution was observed in the predicted amino acid sequences of the viral proteins of recent Tunisian H9N2 viruses, which were characterized by the acquisition of new mutations involved in virus adaptation to avian and mammalian hosts and amantadine resistance. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary history of Tunisian H9N2 viruses and highlights the zoonotic risk associated with their circulation in poultry, indicating the need for continuous surveillance of their molecular evolution.

Grant support LR19IPT06/Tunisian Ministry for Research and Technology

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Reassortant strain; Tunisia; Antivirals; Drugs resistance; Amantadine.


#Avian #influenza #human #infections at the human-animal interface (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian influenza human infections at the human-animal interface

Damien A M Philippon, Peng Wu, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa105, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa105

Published: 10 March 2020




Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) are among the most concerning emerging and re-emerging pathogens because of the potential risk in causing an influenza pandemic with catastrophic impact. The recent increase in domestic animals and poultry worldwide was followed by an increase of human AIV outbreaks reported.


We reviewed the epidemiology of human infections with AIV from the literature including reports from the World Health Organization, extracting information on virus subtype, time, location, age, sex, outcome and exposure.


We described the characteristics of more than 2,500 laboratory-confirmed human infections with AIVs. Human infections with H5N1 and H7N9 were more frequently reported than other subtypes. The risk of death was highest among reported cases infected with H5N1, H5N6, H7N9 and H10N8 infections. Older people and males tended to have a lower risk of infection with most AIV subtypes, except for H7N9. Visiting live poultry markets were mostly reported by H7N9, H5N6 and H10N8 cases, while exposure to sick or dead bird mostly reported by H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7 and H10N7 cases.


Understanding the profile of human cases of different AIV subtypes would guide control strategy. Continued monitoring of human infections with AIVs is essential for pandemic preparedness.

avian influenza, human infection, review

Issue Section:  Review

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© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Human; H5N1; H5N6; H7N3; H7N7; H7N9; H9N2; H10N8.


Detection of a #Reassortant #H9N2 #Avian #Influenza Virus with #Intercontinental Gene Segments in a Resident #Australian Chestnut #Teal (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2020 Jan 13;12(1). pii: E88. doi: 10.3390/v12010088.

Detection of a Reassortant H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus with Intercontinental Gene Segments in a Resident Australian Chestnut Teal.

Bhatta TR1,2, Chamings A1,2, Vibin J1,2, Klaassen M1,3, Alexandersen S1,2,4.

Author information: 1 Geelong Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia. 2 School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia. 3 Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Victoria 3220, Australia. 4 Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia.



The present study reports the genetic characterization of a low-pathogenicity H9N2 avian influenza virus, initially from a pool and subsequently from individual faecal samples collected from Chestnut teals (Anas castanea) in southeastern Australia. Phylogenetic analyses of six full gene segments and two partial gene segments obtained from next-generation sequencing showed that this avian influenza virus, A/Chestnut teal/Australia/CT08.18/12952/2018 (H9N2), was a typical, low-pathogenicity, Eurasian aquatic bird lineage H9N2 virus, albeit containing the North American lineage nucleoprotein (NP) gene segment detected previously in Australian wild birds. This is the first report of a H9N2 avian influenza virus in resident wild birds in Australia, and although not in itself a cause of concern, is a clear indication of spillover and likely reassortment of influenza viruses between migratory and resident birds, and an indication that any lineage could potentially be introduced in this way.

KEYWORDS: Chestnut teal; Eurasian lineage; H9N2; avian influenza virus; low pathogenicity; phylogenetic analysis; reassortant

PMID: 31940999 DOI: 10.3390/v12010088

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Wild Birds; Reassortant strain; Australia.


Detection and #Isolation of #H9N2 Subtype of #Avian #Influenza Virus in House #Sparrows (Passer domesticus) of Ahvaz, #Iran (Arch Razi Inst., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Razi Inst. 2019 Dec;74(4):439-444. doi: 10.22092/ari.2019.122504.1223. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Detection and Isolation of H9N2 Subtype of Avian Influenza Virus in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) of Ahvaz, Iran.

Broomand Z1,1, Mayahi M1, Hosseini H2, Valadbeigi S1.

Author information: 1 Department of avian health and diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran.



Avian influenza (AI) is an acute infectious disease with worldwide significance causing extensive economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and categorized in the genus influenza virus A. These viruses have been isolated from more than 100 species of free-living birds. Migratory birds are considered as reservoirs for AIVs and are the major agents responsible for global outbreaks. The Passeriformes are found in most parts of the world and cover a variety of habitats from rural to urban areas. House sparrows are members of the family Passeridae and due to their free flying, are strongly associated with seabirds, indigenous, and industrial poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the role of house sparrows in AIV (H9N2) circulation in the Ahvaz region. The intestinal and tracheal samples were taken from 200 sparrows around Ahvaz during 2017. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using specific primers in order to detect M and H9 genes of AIVs. The positive specimens in the PCR for the M gene were inoculated into 9-11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic fluid. The results showed that 11 out of 200 samples were positive for the two genes of M and H9. According to the findings of the present study, house sparrows are infected with H9N2 and pose a threat to commercial poultry. These birds may play a significant role in the transmission of AIV between wildlife and domestic animals. Therefore, this issue is important to be considered in preventive measurements.

Copyright © 2019, Archives of Razi Institute. Published by Kowsar.

KEYWORDS: Ahvaz; Avian influenza; House sparrows; Iran; Molecular detection

PMID: 31939262 DOI: 10.22092/ari.2019.122504.1223

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Wild Birds; Poultry; Iran.