Clade 2.3.2.1 #H5N1 #avian #influenza viruses circulate at the interface of #migratory and domestic #birds around #Qinghai Lake in #China (Vet Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Microbiol. 2019 Aug;235:234-242. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.07.009. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulate at the interface of migratory and domestic birds around Qinghai Lake in China.

Yang J1, Wang Z1, Du Y1, Jia Y1, Wang L1, Xu S2, Zhu Q3.

Author information: 1 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 1 Xujiaping, Lanzhou 730046, China. 2 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 1 Xujiaping, Lanzhou 730046, China. Electronic address: xushuai@caas.cn. 3 State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, 1 Xujiaping, Lanzhou 730046, China. Electronic address: zhuqiyun@caas.cn.

 

Abstract

During 2012-2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/2015 (GS/QH/QH6/15) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c. Further analysis of the internal genes of the isolates found that the PB2 gene of EN/QH/1/13 had 99.6% nucleotide identity with that of A/tiger/Jiangsu/1/2013 (H5N1), which clustered into an independent branch with PB2 from multiple subtypes. PB2, PB1, and M genes of CK/QH/QH3/15 were from H9N2, suggesting it was a reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2. Animal studies of three selected viruses revealed that CK/GS/XG2/12, EN/QH/1/13, and CK/QH/QH3/15 were highly lethal to chickens, with intravenous pathogenicity indexes (IVPIs) of 2.97, 2.81, and 3.00, respectively, and systemically replicated in chickens. In a mouse study, three selected H5N1 viruses were highly pathogenic to mice and readily replicated in the lungs, nasal turbinates, kidneys, spleens, and brains. Therefore, isolates in this study appear to be novel reassortants that were circulating at the interface of wild and domestic birds around Qinghai Lake and are lethal to chickens and mice. These data suggest that more extensive surveillance should be implemented, and matched vaccines should be chosen for the domestic birds in this area.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: H5N1; Interface; Migratory or domestic bird; Qinghai Lake; Virus evolution

PMID: 31383307 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.07.009

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H9N2; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; Animal Models; China.

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#Genetic and #antigenic characterization of #avian #influenza #H9N2 viruses during 2016 in #Iraq (Open Vet J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Open Vet J. 2019 Jul;9(2):164-171. doi: 10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Genetic and antigenic characterization of avian influenza H9N2 viruses during 2016 in Iraq.

Mohamed NS1,2, Kandeil A3,2, Al-Zubaidy IAH4, Kayali G5,6, Ali MA3.

Author information: 1 Department of Genebank and Genetic Sequence, Forensic DNA Research and Training Center, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq. 2 These authors contributed equally to this work. 3 Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses, Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. 4 Unit of zoonotic diseases researches, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. 5 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, TX, USA. 6 Human Link, Hazmieh, Lebanon.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Little is known about the antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza A viruses circulating in poultry in Iraq.

OBJECTIVE:

This study describes the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the detected avian influenza H9N2 viruses in Iraq during 2016.

METHODS:

Full genome sequences of two H9N2 viruses isolated from chickens in Iraq during 2016 were assembled. Antigenic analyses of Iraqi H9N2 viruses and contemporary H9N2 isolates from Lebanon and Egypt were performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay.

RESULTS:

Phylogenetic analysis of surface glycoproteins and internal segments (PB2, PA, NP, M, and NS) indicated that the Iraqi H9N2 viruses were closely related to G1-like lineage of H9N2 viruses isolated from Pakistan and Iran indicating possible epidemiological links. The PB1 segments of the current characterized H9N2 viruses were not related to any of the previously characterized H9N2 viruses and closely similar to H7N7 virus detected in chickens in Germany in 2015. Multiple genetic determinants for virulence and mammalian transmission were characterized in the characterized H9N2 viruses in Iraq. The antigenic analysis showed a close relationship between H9N2 viruses in Iraq and contemporary H9N2 viruses in Egypt and Lebanon. Like H9N2 viruses, Iraqis H9N2 virus bound to human-like receptor rather than avian-like receptor thus represent a public health risk.

CONCLUSION:

Active surveillance of avian influenza virus in poultry and migratory birds should be adopted to monitor the genesis and emergence of new viruses in Iraq.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H9N2; Iraq

PMID: 31360657 PMCID: PMC6626158 DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v9i2.12

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H7N7; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Iraq.

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Co-infection of #Chlamydia psittaci with #H9N2, ORT and #Aspergillus fumigatus contributes to severe #pneumonia and high mortality in SPF #chickens (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 25;7(1):13997. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14519-1.

Co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci with H9N2, ORT and Aspergillus fumigatus contributes to severe pneumonia and high mortality in SPF chickens.

Chu J1,2, Zhang Q2, Zuo Z2, El-Ashram S1,3, Guo Y2, Zhao P2, Huang S1, He C4,5, Khan A6.

Author information: 1 College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, 528231, Guangdong, China. 2 Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. 3 Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Shiekh, 33735, Egypt. 4 College of Life Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, 528231, Guangdong, China. chenghe@cau.edu.cn. 5 Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. chenghe@cau.edu.cn. 6 Department of Pathology,Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan. ahrar1122@uaf.edu.pk.

 

Abstract

Since 2007, most areas of China have seen outbreaks of poultry airsacculitis, which causes hugely economic losses to the poultry industry. However, there are no effective measures to combat the problem. In this study, 105 rations were collected to isolate Aspergillus spp. from the diseased farms. In subsequent experiments, SPF chickens were inoculated with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus), and mortality rate, body weight gain and lesion score were evaluated. Of these ration samples, 63 (60.0%) were A. fumigates, 21 (20.0%) were Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and 11 (10.5%) were Aspergillus candidus (A. candidus). Furthermore, SPF birds infected with C. psittaci, ORT, H9N2 virus and A. fumigatus conidia exhibited a mortality rate of 40%, while simultaneous co-infection with C. psittaci, ORT and A. fumigatus resulted in a mortality rate of 20%. The avian airsacculitis was manifested in the C. psittaci + ORT/A. fumigatus, C. psittaci + H9N2 + ORT/A. fumigatus and C. psittaci + H9N2/A. fumigatus groups while others had transient respiratory diseases without mortality. Our survey indicates that feed-borne A. fumigatus is prevalent in poultry rations. The combination of C. psittaci, ORT, H9N2 and A. fumigatus conidia contributes to the replication of avian airsacculitis by aggravating the severe damage to the air sacs and lungs of chickens.

PMID: 29070907 PMCID: PMC5656626 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-14519-1 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Chlamydia psittaci; Aspergillus fumigatus; Poultry.

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The #PB2 and M genes of #genotype S #H9N2 virus contribute to the enhanced #fitness of #H5Nx and #H7N9 #avian #influenza viruses in chickens (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Jul 8;535:218-226. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.07.001. [Epub ahead of print]

The PB2 and M genes of genotype S H9N2 virus contribute to the enhanced fitness of H5Nx and H7N9 avian influenza viruses in chickens.

Hao X1, Wang X1, Hu J1, Gu M1, Wang J1, Deng Y1, Jiang D1, He D1, Xu H1, Yang Y1, Hu Z1, Chen S1, Hu S1, Liu X1, Shang S1, Peng D1, Jiao X2, Liu X3.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 2 Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 3 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China; Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address: xfliu@yzu.edu.cn.

 

Abstract

Genotype S H9N2 viruses frequently donate their internal genes to facilitate the generation of novel influenza viruses, e.g., H5N6, H7N9, and H10N8, which have caused human infection. Genotype S was originated from the replacement of F/98-like M and PB2 genes of the genotype H with those from G1-like lineage. However, whether this gene substitution will influence the viral fitness of emerging influenza viruses remains unclear. We found that H5Nx and H7N9 viruses with G1-like PB2 or M gene exhibited higher virulence and replication than those with F/98-like PB2 or M in chickens. We also determined the functional significance of G1-like PB2 in conferring increased polymerase activity and improved nucleus transportation efficiency, and facilitated RNP nuclear export by G1-like M. Our results suggest that G1-like PB2 and M genes optimize viral fitness, and thus play a crucial role in the genesis of emerging influenza viruses that cause rising prevalence in chickens.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; Chickens; G1-like PB2 and M; H5Nx; H7N9; Viral fitness

PMID: 31325836  DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.07.001

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H5N6; H10N8; H7N9; Reassortant strain; Poultry.

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Prevailing I292V #PB2 #mutation in #avian #influenza #H9N2 virus increases viral #polymerase function and attenuates IFN-β induction in human cells (J Gen Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Gen Virol. 2019 Jul 15. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001294. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevailing I292V PB2 mutation in avian influenza H9N2 virus increases viral polymerase function and attenuates IFN-β induction in human cells.

Gao W1, Zu Z1, Liu J1, Song J1, Wang X1, Wang C1, Liu L1, Tong Q1, Wang M1, Sun H1, Sun Y1, Liu J1, Chang KC2, Pu J1.

Author information: 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, PR China. 2 School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, UK.

 

Abstract

Adaptation of PB2 protein is important for the establishment of avian influenza viruses in mammalian hosts. Here, we identify I292V as the prevalent mutation in PB2 of circulating avian H9N2 and pandemic H1N1 viruses. The same dominant PB2 mutation is also found in most human isolates of emergent avian H7N9 and H10N8 viruses. In human cells, PB2-292V in H9N2 virus has the combined ability of conferring higher viral polymerase activity and stronger attenuation of IFN-β induction than that of its predecessor PB2-292I. IFN-β attenuation is accompanied by higher binding affinity of PB2-292V for host mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein, an important intermediary protein in the induction of IFN-β. In the mouse in vivo model, PB2-292V mutation increases H9N2 virus replication with ensuing increase in disease severity. Collectively, PB2-292V is a new mammalian adaptive marker that promotes H9N2 virus replication in mammalian hosts with the potential to improve transmission from birds to humans.

PMID: 31305236 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001294

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Viral pathogenesis.

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#Respiratory disease due to mixed viral #infections in #poultry flocks in #Egypt between 2017 and 2018: #Upsurge of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus subtype #H5N8 since 2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jul 11. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13281. [Epub ahead of print]

Respiratory disease due to mixed viral infections in poultry flocks in Egypt between 2017 and 2018: Upsurge of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 since 2018.

Hassan KE1,2, El-Kady MF2, El-Sawah AAA2, Luttermann C3, Parvin R1,4, Shany S2, Beer M1, Harder T1.

Author information: 1 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Institute of Immunology Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 4 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

 

Abstract

For several years, poultry production in Egypt has been suffering from co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) and low pathogenic H9N2 (clade G1-B). Incursion of HPAIV H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4b) to Egypt in November 2016 via wild birds followed by spread into commercial poultry flocks further complicated the situation. Current analyses focussed on 39 poultry farms suffering from respiratory manifestation and high mortality in six Egyptian governorates during 2017-2018. Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) substantiated the co-presence of at least two respiratory virus species in more than 80% of the investigated flocks. The percentage of HPAIV H5N1-positive holdings was fairly stable in 2017 (12.8%) and 2018 (10.2%), while the percentage of HPAIV H5N8-positive holdings increased from 23% in 2017 to 66.6% during 2018. The proportion of H9N2-positive samples was constantly high (2017:100% and 2018:63%), and H9N2 co-circulated with HPAIV H5N8 in 22 out of 39 (56.8%) flocks. Analyses of 26 H5, 18 H9 and 4 N2 new sequences confirmed continuous genetic diversification. In silico analysis revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in the HA and NA proteins suggestive of increased adaptation to mammalian hosts and putative antigenic variation. For sensitive detection of H9N2 viruses by RT-qPCR, an update of primers and probe sequences was crucial. Reasons for the relative increase of HPAIV H5N8 infections versus H5N1 remained unclear, but lack of suitable vaccines against clade 2.3.4.4b cannot be excluded. A reconsideration of surveillance and control measures should include updating of diagnostic tools and vaccination strategies.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; co-infection; control; diagnostic tools; reassortant viruses

PMID: 31297991 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13281

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; H9N2; Poultry; Egypt.

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#PB2 #mutations arising during #H9N2 #influenza #evolution in the Middle East confer enhanced #replication and growth in #mammals (PLoS Pathog., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Pathogens, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

OPEN ACCESS /  PEER-REVIEWED / RESEARCH ARTICLE

PB2 mutations arising during H9N2 influenza evolution in the Middle East confer enhanced replication and growth in mammals

Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Takao Ono, Tatsuya Takagi, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yohei Watanabe

Published: July 2, 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007919 / This is an uncorrected proof.

 

Abstract

Avian influenza virus H9N2 has been endemic in birds in the Middle East, in particular in Egypt with multiple cases of human infections since 1998. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by H9N2, little is known about the biological properties of H9N2 in this epicentre of infection. Here, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of H9N2 in the Middle East and identified phylogeny-associated PB2 mutations that acted cooperatively to increase H9N2 replication/transcription in human cells. The accumulation of PB2 mutations also correlated with an increase in H9N2 virus growth in the upper and lower airways of mice and in virulence. These mutations clustered on a solvent-exposed region in the PB2-627 domain in proximity to potential interfaces with host factors. These PB2 mutations have been found at high prevalence during evolution of H9N2 in the field, indicating that they have provided a selective advantage for viral adaptation to infect poultry. Therefore, continuous prevalence of H9N2 virus in the Middle East has generated a far more fit or optimized replication phenotype, leading to an expanded viral host range, including to mammals, which may pose public health risks beyond the current outbreaks.

 

Author summary

The G1-like clade of H9N2 influenza viruses can undergo genetic reassortment with other influenza virus subtypes to produce novel zoonotic viruses, such as the Gs/GD lineage H5N1, H7N9, H10N8, and H5N8 viruses. Since 1998, the G1-like subclade of H9N2 influenza virus has been widely circulating in birds in Central Asia and the Middle East and a number of human cases have been reported. However, little is known about the biological properties of H9N2 viruses in this epicentre of infection. Our data showed that, during about two decades of evolution in nature, G1-like subclade strains evolved to produce strains with appreciably higher replication phenotypes in Central Asia and the Middle East, which led to their expanded host range, including to humans. Therefore, G1-like subclade strains in these areas may accumulate mutations to produce novel viruses and the large gene pool in these areas would enable reassortment with other influenza viruses. This study indicated the need for studies of H9N2 viruses in such areas to monitor their evolutionary dynamics and possible genetic changes.

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Citation: Arai Y, Kawashita N, Ibrahim MS, Elgendy EM, Daidoji T, Ono T, et al. (2019) PB2 mutations arising during H9N2 influenza evolution in the Middle East confer enhanced replication and growth in mammals. PLoS Pathog 15(7): e1007919. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007919

Editor: Adam S. Lauring, University of Michigan, UNITED STATES

Received: March 11, 2019; Accepted: June 14, 2019; Published: July 2, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Arai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Funding: This work was supported by CREST (to KM) from Japan Science and Technology Agency (http://www.jst.go.jp/kisoken/crest/en/index.html; Grant Number JPMJCR15F4), partly by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (to YW), Young Scientists B (to YA) and Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (to YW) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (https://www.jsps.go.jp/english/index.html; Grant Numbers 15H05295, 18K15171 and 19H04841, respectively), and partly by grants from the Takeda Science Foundation (http://www.takeda-sci.or.jp/; [to YW]), the Heiwa Nakajima Foundation (http://www.hnf.jp/; [to YW]), and a Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from The Japan Science Society (https://www.jss.or.jp/en/; [to YA]), and partly by the JSPS Core-to-Core Program (https://www.jsps.go.jp/english/e-c2c/index.html; [to TN]). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Avian Influenza, H9N2.

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