#Prevalence and #Phylogenetics of #H9N2 in Backyard and Commercial #Poultry in #Pakistan (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2018 Dec;62(4):416-424. doi: 10.1637/11690-062117-ResNote.1.

Prevalence and Phylogenetics of H9n2 in Backyard and Commercial Poultry in Pakistan.

Ali M1, Yaqub T2, Mukhtar N3, Imran M4, Ghafoor A5, Shahid MF1, Yaqub S1, Smith GJD6,7, Su YCF6, Naeem M8.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 2 Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan, tahiryaqub@uvas.edu.pk. 3 Primary and Secondary, Health Care Department, Government of Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan. 4 Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 5 University Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. 6 Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, 169857 Singapore. 7 Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710. 8 Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Surveillance of H9N2 is currently focused on areas central to the commercial poultry industry. This study determined the prevalence of H9N2 virus in commercial and backyard poultry flocks in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Oral and tracheal swabs were collected from commercial and backyard poultry from January 2015 through June 2016. Antisera against H5, H7, H9, and Newcastle disease viruses were used for virus identification. Molecular confirmation was made by reverse transcription PCR. Avian influenza virus subtypes H5 and H7 were not detected. The H9N2 virus was isolated in 5.7% of 905 tested flocks (5-10 birds/flock). Prevalence in commercial and backyard poultry was 6.7% of 687 flocks and 2.7% of 218 flocks, respectively. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase-gene-based phylogenetic analysis of commercial and backyard poultry isolates showed 100% homology. Within sublineage B2 of Pakistan, identity among most recent isolates (2015) was 100%, compared to 75%-99% identity with previously isolated viruses (2010-12), indicating continued virus evolution. Most of the previously reported and currently studied viruses were isolated near the Pakistan-India border. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Pakistani and Indian isolates were closely related, indicating that avian influenza virus transmission may occur across this border.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; Punjab; commercial poultry; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase; phylogenetic analysis; prevalence

PMID: 31119926 DOI: 10.1637/11690-062117-ResNote.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Poultry; Pakistan; India.

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The #PA #Subunit of the #Influenza Virus #Polymerase Complex Affects #Replication and #Airborne #Transmission of the #H9N2 Subtype #Avian Influenza Virus (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jan 9;11(1). pii: E40. doi: 10.3390/v11010040.

The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus.

Hao M1,2, Han S3,4, Meng D5,6, Li R7, Lin J8, Wang M9, Zhou T10, Chai T11.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 2 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763896230@163.com. 4 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. 18763896230@163.com. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. iamli_z@126.com. 6 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. iamli_z@126.com. 7 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. lirong19900129@163.com. 8 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763806701@163.com. 9 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18854937499@163.com. 10 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 13864453175@163.com. 11 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. chaitj117@163.com.

 

Abstract

The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA gene. However, rSD01-PA could infect guinea pigs through direct contact, while the parental strain SD01 could not, even though the infection of rSD01-PA could not be achieved through aerosol. In summary, our results indicate that the protein encoded by the PA gene plays a key role in replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV.

KEYWORDS: H9N2 AIV; airborne transmission; pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus; reassortment; replication

PMID: 30634394 PMCID: PMC6356911 DOI: 10.3390/v11010040 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H9N2; Reassortant strain.

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#H9N2 #influenza viruses from #Bangladesh: #Transmission in #chicken and New World #quail (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Nov;12(6):814-817. doi: 10.1111/irv.12589. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

H9N2 influenza viruses from Bangladesh: Transmission in chicken and New World quail.

Seiler P1, Kercher L1, Feeroz MM2, Shanmuganatham K1,3, Jones-Engel L4, Turner J1, Walker D1, Alam SMR2, Hasan MK2, Akhtar S2, McKenzie P1, Franks J1, Krauss S1, Webby RJ1, Webster RG1.

Author information: 1 Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. 2 Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 3 Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Ames, Iowa. 4 National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

 

Abstract

The H9N2 influenza viruses that have become established in Bangladeshi live poultry markets possess five gene segments of the highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza virus. We assessed the replication, transmission, and disease potential of three H9N2 viruses in chickens and New World quail. Each virus replicated to high titers and transmitted by the airborne route to contacts in both species. Infected chickens showed no disease signs, and the viruses differed in their disease potential in New World quail. New World quail were more susceptible than chickens to H9N2 viruses and shed virus after airborne transmission for 10 days. Consequently, New World quail are a potential threat in the maintenance and spread of influenza virus in live poultry markets.

© 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Bangladesh; H9N2 influenza; chicken; disease; quail; transmission

PMID: 29989679 PMCID: PMC6185884 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12589 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H7N3; Reassortant Strain; Bangladesh; Poultry.

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The #molecular characteristics of #avian #influenza viruses (#H9N2) derived from #air samples in live #poultry #markets (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Jun;60:191-196. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.01.009. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

The molecular characteristics of avian influenza viruses (H9N2) derived from air samples in live poultry markets.

Wu Y1, Lin J1, Yang S1, Xie Y1, Wang M1, Chen X1, Zhu Y1, Luo L1, Shi W2.

Author information: 1 Zhongshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, PR China; Zhongshan Institute of School of Public Health, Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, PR China. 2 Zhongshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, PR China; Zhongshan Institute of School of Public Health, Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address: 25838783@qq.com.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the molecular characteristics of H9N2-subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from air samples collected in live poultry markets (LPMs) and explore their sequence identities with AIVs that caused human infection.

METHODS:

Weekly surveillance of H9N2-subtype AIVs in the air of LPMs was conducted from 2015 to 2016. H9-positive samples were isolated from chicken embryos. Whole genome sequences of the isolated AIVs were obtained through high-throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis and key loci variations of the sequences were further analyzed.

RESULTS:

A total of 327 aerosol samples were collected from LPMs. Nine samples were positive for H9-subtype AIVs based on quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR). According to the whole genome sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis, except for the A/Environment/Zhongshan/ZS201505/2015 (ZS201505) strain, 8 gene segments of 8 aerosol H9N2 isolates and 2 H9N2 human isolates in 2015 were located in the same clade. Among key loci variations, except for the ZS201505 strain, H9N2-subtype AIVs had no mutations in eight receptor binding sites of hemagglutinin (HA), and stalks of neuraminidase (NA) proteins exhibited a deletion site of three bases. The PA gene of ZS201503 and ZS201602 exhibited an L336M mutation. The N30D and T215A mutations in the M1 gene and amino acid residues L89V in PB2, P42S in NS1 and S31N in M2 were retained in these 9 strains of H9N2 isolates, which could enhance the virus’s virulence.

CONCLUSION:

Live H9N2 AIVs survived in the aerosol of LPMs in Zhongshan City. The aerosol viruses had a close evolutionary relationship with human epidemic strains, indicating that there might be a risk of AIV transmission from polluted aerosols in LPMs to humans. Mutations in H9N2-subtype AIVs isolated from air samples collected from LPMs suggested their pathogenicity was enhanced to infect humans.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Aerosol sample; H9N2-subtype avian influenza virus; Live poultry market; Molecular characteristics

PMID: 29331671 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.01.009 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; China.

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#H9N2 Viruses Isolated From #Mammals Replicated in Mice at Higher Levels Than #Avian-Origin Viruses (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Mar 11;10:416. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00416. eCollection 2019.

H9N2 Viruses Isolated From Mammals Replicated in Mice at Higher Levels Than Avian-Origin Viruses.

Sun H1, Wang K1, Yao W1, Liu Q1,2, Yang J1,2, Teng Q1,2, Li X1,2, Li Z1,2, Chen H1,2.

Author information: 1 Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China. 2 Animal Influenza Virus Ecology and Pathogenesis Innovation Team, The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program, Shanghai, China.

 

Abstract

H9N2 subtype influenza A virus (IAV) has more than 20 genotypes that are able to cross species barriers and expand from birds to mammals and humans. To better understand the impact of different H9N2 genotypes and their characteristics, five H9N2 viruses from different hosts including chickens, geese, pigs, mink, and humans representing the B69 88(Gs/14, Ck/15, and Mi/14), B35 (Sw/08) and G9 genotypes (Hu/04) were infected in chicken and mice. In mice, mammal-origin viruses replicated at higher levels in the lungs compared to avian viruses. The goose-virus replicated at the lowest levels indicating poor adaptation. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with viral loads in the lung. In chickens, all viruses were excreted from cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs. Interestingly, Mink-origin virus exhibited higher virulence and replication in mice and chickens. Our data indicate that mammal-origin H9N2 viruses are more adapted and virulent in mice than the avian-origin viruses.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; genotype; influenza A virus; pathogenicity; subtype

PMID: 30915048 PMCID: PMC6421276 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00416

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; Minks; Animal models.

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Selection of #avian #influenza A (#H9N2) virus with reduced susceptibility to #neuraminidase #inhibitors #oseltamivir and #zanamivir (Virus Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Res. 2019 Mar 22. pii: S0168-1702(18)30554-9. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.019. [Epub ahead of print]

Selection of avian influenza A (H9N2) virus with reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir.

Kode SS1, Pawar SD2, Cherian SS3, Tare DS1, Bhoye D3, Keng SS1, Mullick J1.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Group, Microbial Containment Complex, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India. 2 Avian Influenza Group, Microbial Containment Complex, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India. Electronic address: shaileshpawarniv@gmail.com. 3 Bioinformatics Group, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, India.

 

Abstract

Identification of amino-acid substitutions in the neuraminidase (NA) of low-pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H9N2 viruses is important to study the susceptibility to NA inhibitors (NAI). To identify mutations under NAI selective pressure, the virus was serially passaged with increasing levels of either oseltamivir or zanamivir in ovo, and the growth of the viruses in the presence and absence of NAI’s compared. Mutations R292 K in the presence of oseltamivir and E119D in presence of zanamivir were observed within passage one and two respectively. The R292 K mutation reduced oseltamivir susceptibility significantly (2,523-fold) and moderately reduced susceptibility to zanamivir. The E119D mutation significantly reduced susceptibility to zanamivir (415-fold) and remained susceptible to oseltamivir. Genetic stability of the mutations assessed by serial passages of the mutant viruses in eggs without drug pressure resulted in the loss of these mutations, making the virus susceptible to both the drugs. Molecular modeling and dynamics simulations revealed that the R292 K mutation disrupted oseltamivir binding similar to other group 2 NAs, while a different mechanism was noted for zanamivir binding for both R292 K and E119D mutations. The study highlights the need for regular susceptibility screening of circulating AI viruses.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: Antiviral resistance; Avian influenza; H9N2; Molecular dynamics; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir

PMID: 30910698 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.019

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Avian Influenza; H9N2.

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#Human-isolated #H7N9 obtained internal #genes from #duck and human #influenza viruses (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infection, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Human-isolated H7N9 obtained internal genes from duck and human influenza viruses

Zhiqing Pu a, Jinjin Yang a, Xuejuan Shen a, David M. Irwin b,c, Yongyi Shen a,d,e

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.03.008

Published online: March 14, 2019 – Accepted:March 12, 2019

 

Abstract

Recent studies in this journal revealed that some H7N9 viruses reassorted with duck AIVs, and then attained the ability to efficiently infect ducks.1,2 H7N9 AIVs have been endemic in chicken since their emergence in China in February 2013.3 After its emergence, H7N9 viruses have evolved substantially, and have frequently reassorted, acquiring internal genes from other chicken H9N2 viruses, increasing the genetic diversity of H7N9 viruses.4 This raises the concern that whether H7N9 can attain internal genes from other AIVs.

© 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The British Infection Association.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H7N9; H9N2; Human; Poultry; Reassortant strain; China.

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