Circulation, #Evolution and #Transmission of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A (#H5N8) virus, 2016-2018 (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Jul 12. pii: S0163-4453(19)30214-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Circulation, Evolution and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N8) virus, 2016-2018.

Chen J1, Liang B2, Hu J3, Liu H3, Sun J4, Li M5, Chen Q6, He Y4, Liu D7.

Author information: 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address: chenjj@wh.iov.cn. 2 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, 101409, China. 3 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. 4 Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve, Xining, 810099, China. 5 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. 6 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. 7 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, 101409, China. Electronic address: liud@wh.iov.cn.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

A second wave of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 has spread globally, causing outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry since autumn 2016. The circulation and evolutionary dynamics of the virus remain largely unknown.

METHODS:

We performed surveillance for H5N8 in Qinghai Lake in China since the emergence of the virus (from 2016 to 2018). By analyzing recovered viruses in Qinghai Lake and all related viruses worldwide (449 strains), we identified the genotypes, estimated their genesis and reassortment, and evaluated their global distribution and transmission.

RESULTS:

Through surveillance of wild migratory birds around Qinghai Lake between 2016 and 2018, we revealed that the H5N8 was introduced into Qinghai Lake bird populations (QH-H5N8), with distinct gene constellations in 2016 and 2017. A global analysis of QH-H5N8-related viruses showed that avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity in wild birds contributed to the high diversity of genotypes; the major reassortment events possibly occurred during the 2016 breeding season and the following winters.

CONCLUSIONS:

Continued circulation of QH-H5N8-related viruses among wild birds has resulted in the global distribution of high genotypic diversity. Thus, these viruses pose an ongoing threat to wild and domestic bird populations and warrant continuous surveillance.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Circulation; Evolution; H5N8 avian influenza; Migratory birds; Transmission

PMID: 31306679 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.005

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds.

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#Respiratory disease due to mixed viral #infections in #poultry flocks in #Egypt between 2017 and 2018: #Upsurge of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus subtype #H5N8 since 2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jul 11. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13281. [Epub ahead of print]

Respiratory disease due to mixed viral infections in poultry flocks in Egypt between 2017 and 2018: Upsurge of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 since 2018.

Hassan KE1,2, El-Kady MF2, El-Sawah AAA2, Luttermann C3, Parvin R1,4, Shany S2, Beer M1, Harder T1.

Author information: 1 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Institute of Immunology Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 4 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

 

Abstract

For several years, poultry production in Egypt has been suffering from co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) and low pathogenic H9N2 (clade G1-B). Incursion of HPAIV H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4b) to Egypt in November 2016 via wild birds followed by spread into commercial poultry flocks further complicated the situation. Current analyses focussed on 39 poultry farms suffering from respiratory manifestation and high mortality in six Egyptian governorates during 2017-2018. Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) substantiated the co-presence of at least two respiratory virus species in more than 80% of the investigated flocks. The percentage of HPAIV H5N1-positive holdings was fairly stable in 2017 (12.8%) and 2018 (10.2%), while the percentage of HPAIV H5N8-positive holdings increased from 23% in 2017 to 66.6% during 2018. The proportion of H9N2-positive samples was constantly high (2017:100% and 2018:63%), and H9N2 co-circulated with HPAIV H5N8 in 22 out of 39 (56.8%) flocks. Analyses of 26 H5, 18 H9 and 4 N2 new sequences confirmed continuous genetic diversification. In silico analysis revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in the HA and NA proteins suggestive of increased adaptation to mammalian hosts and putative antigenic variation. For sensitive detection of H9N2 viruses by RT-qPCR, an update of primers and probe sequences was crucial. Reasons for the relative increase of HPAIV H5N8 infections versus H5N1 remained unclear, but lack of suitable vaccines against clade 2.3.4.4b cannot be excluded. A reconsideration of surveillance and control measures should include updating of diagnostic tools and vaccination strategies.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; co-infection; control; diagnostic tools; reassortant viruses

PMID: 31297991 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13281

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; H9N2; Poultry; Egypt.

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Clade 2.3.4.4 #H5 North #American Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza Viruses Infect, but Do Not Cause #Clinical Signs in, American Black #Ducks (Anas rubripes) (Avian Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Dis. 2019 Jan 18;63(2):366-370. doi: 10.1637/11950-081418-ResNote.1.

Clade 2.3.4.4 H5 North American Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Infect, but Do Not Cause Clinical Signs in, American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes).

Spackman E1, Prosser DJ2, Pantin-Jackwood M3, Stephens CB3, Berlin AM2.

Author information: 1 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605, erica.spackman@ars.usda.gov. 2 Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Laurel, MD 20708. 3 Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, United States National Poultry Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA 30605.

 

Abstract in English, Spanish

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) from the goose/Guangdong/1996 clade 2.3.4.4 H5 lineage spread from Asia into North America in 2014, most likely by wild bird migrations. Although several variants of the virus were detected, H5N8 and H5N2 were the most widespread in North American wild birds and domestic poultry. In early 2015, the H5N2 virus spread through commercial poultry in the Midwest, and >50 million chickens and turkeys died or had to be culled. Related H5 HPAIVs are still endemic in much of the Eastern Hemisphere. The wild bird species that were involved with dissemination of the virus in North America are not known. Dabbling ducks, especially mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), typically have the highest detection rates for avian influenza viruses. To better characterize the wild avian species that could spread the virus, American black ducks (Anas rubripes), which are closely related to mallards, were challenged with the North American H5N2 and H5N8 index HPAIV isolates: A/Northern Pintail/WA/40964/2014 H5N2 and A/Gyrfalcon/WA/41088/2014 H5N8. Although the American black ducks could be infected with low doses of both isolates (≤102 50% egg infective doses), ducks shed the H5N2 longer than the H5N8 (10 vs. 7 days) and the titers of virus shed were higher. Although there were too few ducks available on which to draw definitive conclusions, this suggests that American black ducks could serve as a more efficient reservoir for the H5N2 virus than the H5N8 virus.

KEYWORDS: H5 influenza; avian virus; duck virus; highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

PMID: 31251539 DOI: 10.1637/11950-081418-ResNote.1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N2; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; USA.

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Full #genome characterization of #Iranian #H5N8 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus from Hooded #Crow (Corvus cornix), 2017: The first report (Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Jun;64:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.005. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Full genome characterization of Iranian H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), 2017: The first report.

Ghafouri SA1, Fallah Mehrabadi MH2, Talakesh SF3, Hosseini H4, Ziafati Z5, Malekan M5, Aghaeean L5, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A6.

Author information: 1 Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran. 3 Iranian Egg Farmers’ Federation, Secretory-General, Tehran, Iran. 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran. 5 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. 6 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: arashghalyanchi@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

During 2014-2017 Clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread worldwide. In 2016, an epidemic of HPAIV H5N8 in Iran caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected and continue to experience problems. Several outbreaks were reported in 2017. One of them is related to Hooded crow (Corvus cornix) in a national park in Esfahan province in 2017. Whole genome sequencing and characterization have been done on the detected H5N8 sample. Based on HA sequencing results, it belongs to 2.3.4.4 clade, and the cleavage site is (PLREKRRKR/G). Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the Iran 2017 H5N8 virus clustered within subgroup Russia 2016 2.3.4.4 b of group B in H5 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV. On the other hand, the NA gene of the virus is placed in group C of Eurasian lineage. Complete genome characterization of this virus revealed probable reassortment of the virus with East-Asian low-pathogenic influenza viruses. Furthermore, the virus possessed some phenotypic markers related to the increased potential for transmission and pathogenicity to mammals at internal segments. This study is the first full genome characterization H5N8 HPAIV in Iran. The data complete the puzzle of molecular epidemiology of H5N8 HPAIV in Iran and the region. Our study provides evidence for fast and continuing reassortment of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, that might lead to changes in virus structural and functional characteristics such as the route and method of transmission of the virus and virus infective, pathogenic and zoonotic potential.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; Characterization; Crow; Full genome; H5N8; Iran; Phylogenetic study

PMID: 31174704 DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.03.005

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Iran.

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The #Emergence and Decennary #Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 #HPAI #H5Nx (Microorganisms., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Microorganisms. 2019 May 29;7(6). pii: E156. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156.

The Emergence and Decennary Distribution of Clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI H5Nx.

Antigua KJC1, Choi WS2, Baek YH3, Song MS4.

Author information: 1 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tineantigua@gmail.com. 2 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. tuckgirlee@naver.com. 3 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. microuni@chungbuk.ac.kr. 4 College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea. songminsuk@chungbuk.ac.kr.

 

Abstract

Reassortment events among influenza viruses occur naturally and may lead to the development of new and different subtypes which often ignite the possibility of an influenza outbreak. Between 2008 and 2010, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 of the N1 subtype from the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96-like (Gs/GD) lineage generated novel reassortants by introducing other neuraminidase (NA) subtypes reported to cause most outbreaks in poultry. With the extensive divergence of the H5 hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of documented viruses, the WHO/FAO/OIE H5 Evolutionary Working Group clustered these viruses into a systematic and unified nomenclature of clade 2.3.4.4 currently known as “H5Nx” viruses. The rapid emergence and circulation of these viruses, namely, H5N2, H5N3, H5N5, H5N6, H5N8, and the regenerated H5N1, are of great concern based on their pandemic potential. Knowing the evolution and emergence of these novel reassortants helps to better understand their complex nature. The eruption of reports of each H5Nx reassortant through time demonstrates that it could persist beyond its usual seasonal activity, intensifying the possibility of these emerging viruses’ pandemic potential. This review paper provides an overview of the emergence of each novel HPAI H5Nx virus as well as its current epidemiological distribution.

KEYWORDS: H5Nx; avian; avian influenza; dissemination; epidemiology; evolution

PMID: 31146461 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7060156

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Reassortant strain; H5N1; H5N2; H5N3; H5N5; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild birds.

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Detection of #reassortant #H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus in a black-faced #spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, #Taiwan, 2017 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Aug;62:275-278. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Detection of reassortant H5N6 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead, Taiwan, 2017.

Liu YP1, Lee DH2, Chen LH1, Lin YJ1, Li WC1, Hu SC1, Chen YP1, Swayne DE2, Lee MS3.

Author information: 1 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. 2 U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA. 3 Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address: minshiuh@mail.nvri.gov.tw.

 

Abstract

A H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was detected in a black-faced spoonbill (Platalea minor) found dead in Taiwan during December 2017. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest the hemagglutinin gene belongs to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 Group B. All genes except neuraminidase gene shared high levels of nucleotide identity with H5N8 HPAIV identified from Europe during 2016-2017. Genetically similar H5N6 HPAIV was also identified from Japan during November 2017. Enhanced surveillance is required in this region.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Clade 2.3.4.4; H5N6; Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus; Phylogenetic analysis; Taiwan

PMID: 29705362 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.04.026 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Taiwan.

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#Heterologous prime-boost with A(#H5N1) #pandemic #influenza #vaccines induces broader cross-clade #antibody responses than homologous prime-boost (npj Vaccines, abstract)

[Source: npj Vaccines, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Article | OPEN | Published: 29 May 2019

Heterologous prime-boost with A(H5N1) pandemic influenza vaccines induces broader cross-clade antibody responses than homologous prime-boost

Min Z. Levine,  Crystal Holiday,  Stacie Jefferson, F. Liaini Gross, Feng Liu, Sheng Li, Damien Friel, Philippe Boutet, Bruce L. Innis, Corey P. Mallett, Terrence M. Tumpey, James Stevens & Jacqueline M. Katz

npj Vaccines 4, Article number: 22 (2019)

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5Nx) viruses continue to pose a pandemic threat. US national vaccine stockpiles are a cornerstone of the influenza pandemic preparedness plans. However, continual genetic and antigenic divergence of A(H5Nx) viruses requires the development of effective vaccination strategies using stockpiled vaccines and adjuvants for pandemic preparedness. Human sera collected from healthy adults who received either homologous (2 doses of a AS03A-adjuvanted A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005, A/Turkey), or heterologous (primed with AS03A-adjuvanted A/Indonesia/5/2005, A/Indo, followed by A/Turkey boost) prime-boost vaccination regimens were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays against 8 wild-type HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses from 6 genetic clades. Molecular, structural and antigenic features of the A(H5Nx) viruses that could influence the cross-clade antibody responses were also explored. Compared with homologous prime-boost vaccinations, priming with a clade 2.1.3.2 antigen (A/Indo) followed by one booster dose of a clade 2.2.1 antigen (A/Turkey) administered 18 months apart did not compromise the antibody responses to the booster vaccine (A/Turkey), it also broadened the cross-clade antibody responses to several antigenically drifted variants from 6 heterologous clades, including an antigenically distant A(H5N8) virus (A/gyrfalcon/Washington/410886/2014, clade 2.3.4.4) that caused recent outbreaks in US poultry. The magnitude and breadth of the cross-clade antibody responses against emerging HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses are associated with genetic, structural and antigenic differences from the vaccine viruses and enhanced by the inclusion of an adjuvant. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with AS03A adjuvanted vaccine offers a vaccination strategy to use existing stockpiled vaccines for pandemic preparedness against new emerging HPAI A(H5Nx) viruses.

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Vaccines.

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