#Genetics and #pathogenicity of #H5N6 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds and a #chicken in #Japan during winter 2017-2018 (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 May 2;533:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetics and pathogenicity of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and a chicken in Japan during winter 2017-2018.

Mine J1, Uchida Y1, Nakayama M1, Tanikawa T1, Tsunekuni R1, Sharshov K2, Takemae N1, Sobolev I2, Shestpalov A2, Saito T3.

Author information: 1 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand. 2 Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine, Novosibirsk, Russia. 3 Division of Transboundary Animal Disease, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0856, Japan; Thailand-Japan Zoonotic Diseases Collaboration Center, Kasetklang, Chatuchak, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand; United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1, Yanagito, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1112, Japan. Electronic address: taksaito@affrc.go.jp.



An H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreak occurred in poultry in Japan during January 2018, and H5N6 HPAIVs killed several wild birds in 3 prefectures during Winter 2017-2018. Time-measured phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the Hemagglutinin (HA) and internal genes of these isolates were genetically similar to clade H5N8 HPAIVs in Europe during Winter 2016-2017, and Neuraminidase (NA) genes of the poultry and wild bird isolates were gained through distinct reassortments with AIVs that were estimated to have circulated possibly in Siberia during Summer 2017 and Summer 2016, respectively. Lethal infectious dose to chickens was similar between the poultry and wild-bird isolates. H5N6 HPAIVs during Winter 2017-2018 in Japan had higher 50% chicken lethal doses and lower transmission efficiency than the H5Nx HPAIVs that caused previous outbreaks in Japan, thus explaining in part why cases during the 2017-2018 outbreak were sporadic.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Animal RNA virus; H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza; Pathogenicity; Phylogeny

PMID: 31071540 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.04.011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Wild Birds; Poultry; Japan.



Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A clade (#H5N6) viruses in wild #waterfowl and #poultry in #Europe and East #Asia, 2017-18 (Virus Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Evol. 2019 Apr 22;5(1):vez004. doi: 10.1093/ve/vez004. eCollection 2019 Jan.

Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017-18.

Poen MJ1, Venkatesh D2, Bestebroer TM1, Vuong O1, Scheuer RD1, Oude Munnink BB1, de Meulder D1, Richard M1, Kuiken T1, Koopmans MPG1, Kelder L3, Kim YJ4, Lee YJ4, Steensels M5, Lambrecht B5, Dan A6, Pohlmann A7, Beer M7, Savic V8, Brown IH9, Fouchier RAM1, Lewis NS9,10.

Author information: 1 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 2 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. 3 Staatsbosbeheer, Amersfoort, the Netherlands. 4 Avian Influenza Research and Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Republic of Korea. 5 Avian Virology and Immunology, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium. 6 Veterinary Diagnostics Directorate, Budapest, Hungary. 7 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems, Germany. 8 Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. 9 OIE/FAO/EURL International Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Swine Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)-Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK. 10 Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.



Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 clade viruses were first introduced into Europe in late 2014 and re-introduced in late 2016, following detections in Asia and Russia. In contrast to the 2014-15 H5N8 wave, there was substantial local virus amplification in wild birds in Europe in 2016-17 and associated wild bird mortality, with evidence for occasional gene exchange with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Since December 2017, several European countries have again reported events or outbreaks with HPAI H5N6 reassortant viruses in both wild birds and poultry, respectively. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that the two earliest incursions of HPAI H5N8 viruses originated in Southeast Asia and subsequently spread to Europe. In contrast, this study indicates that recent HPAI H5N6 viruses evolved from the H5N8 2016-17 viruses during 2017 by reassortment of a European HPAI H5N8 virus and wild host reservoir LPAI viruses. The genetic and phenotypic differences between these outbreaks and the continuing detections of HPAI viruses in Europe are a cause of concern for both animal and human health. The current co-circulation of potentially zoonotic HPAI and LPAI virus strains in Asia warrants the determination of drivers responsible for the global spread of Asian lineage viruses and the potential threat they pose to public health.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; avian influenza; emerging diseases; highly pathogenic avian influenza; phylogeny; virology

PMID: 31024736 PMCID: PMC6476160 DOI: 10.1093/ve/vez004

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; European Region; Asia Region.


Characterization of three clade #H5 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza viruses isolated from #wildbirds (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Mar 27. pii: S0163-4453(19)30096-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.03.011. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of three clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds.

Qiu Y1, Li Y2, Li J2, Hou G2, Wang S2, Zhuang Q2, Peng C2, Zhao X1, Jiang W3, Zou F4.

Author information: 1 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China. 2 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. 3 China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, China. Electronic address: civcul@163.com. 4 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: zoufs@giabr.gd.cn.



We isolated and characterized three H5 HPAIVs with different NA subtypes (N1, N6 and N8) during avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in wild birds during 2015-2016. The P126/H5N1, P560/H5N6 and ST/H5N8 viruses were highly pathogenic to chickens and ducks. Furthermore, P126/H5N1 and P560/H5N6 showed high pathogenicity in mice. Continued circulation of these influenza virus strains clearly poses a significant potential health threat to poultry and human populations.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Chickens; Ducks; H5; Highly pathogenic; Mice; Pathogenicity

PMID: 30928558 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.03.011

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N6; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds; China.


#Pathology of clade #avian #influenza virus (#H5N1) #infection in #quails and ducks in #Bangladesh (Avian Pathol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Avian Pathol. 2019 Feb;48(1):73-79. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1535165. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Pathology of clade avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in quails and ducks in Bangladesh.

Nooruzzaman M1, Haque ME1, Chowdhury EH1, Islam MR1.

Author information: 1 a Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science , Bangladesh Agricultural University , Mymensingh , Bangladesh.



We performed pathological and molecular virological investigation of three outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a quail farm and two duck farms of Mymensingh and Netrokona districts of Bangladesh in 2011. HPAI viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected from all three outbreaks and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene sequence placed the viruses into clade The outbreak in the quail farm was characterized by acute death with 100% mortality within two days. Marked haemorrhages and congestion with necrotic and inflammatory lesions in the respiratory tract, liver, pancreas and kidneys were the major gross and histopathological lesions. In the case of ducks, nervous signs were the remarkable clinical manifestations and the mortality was around 10%. No significant gross lesions were observed at necropsy. Non-purulent encephalitis with gliosis and neuronal degeneration was observed on histopathological examination. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigen could be detected in different organs of both quails and ducks. This study records varying clinical and pathological manifestations of HPAI in ducks and quails following natural infection with the same strain of the virus.



  • HPAIV of clade was detected from clinical outbreaks in quails and ducks
  • Sudden death with severe haemorrhages in various organs was found in quails
  • Pronounced nervous signs with non-purulent encephalitis were observed in ducks
  • Viral antigen could be localized in different organs by immunohistochemistry.

KEYWORDS: Bangladesh; HPAI; clade; ducks; immunohistochemistry; quails

PMID: 30303027 DOI: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1535165 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Bangladesh.


#Genetic relationship between #poultry and #wildbird viruses during the highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 epidemic in the #Netherlands, 2017-2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Mar 15. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13169. [Epub ahead of print]

Genetic relationship between poultry and wild bird viruses during the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 epidemic in the Netherlands, 2017-2018.

Beerens N1, Heutink R1, Pritz-Verschuren S1, Germeraad EA1, Bergervoet SA1, Harders F1, Bossers A1, Koch G1.

Author information: 1 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands.



In the Netherlands, three commercial poultry farms and two hobby holdings were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus in the winter of 2017-2018. This H5N6 virus is a reassortant of HPAI H5N8 clade group B viruses detected in Eurasia in 2016. H5N6 viruses were also detected in several dead wild birds during the winter. However, wild bird mortality was limited compared to the caused by the H5N8 group B virus in 2016-2017. H5N6 virus was not detected in wild birds after March, but in late summer infected wild birds were found again. In this study, the complete genome sequences of poultry and wild bird viruses were determined to study their genetic relationship. Genetic analysis showed that the outbreaks in poultry were not the result of farm-to-farm transmissions, but rather resulted from separate introductions from wild birds. Wild birds infected with viruses related to the first outbreak in poultry were found at short distances from the farm, within a short time frame. However, no wild bird viruses related to outbreaks 2 and 3 were detected. The H5N6 virus isolated in summer shares a common ancestor with the virus detected in outbreak 1. This suggests long-term circulation of H5N6 virus in the local wild bird population. In addition, the pathogenicity of H5N6 virus in ducks was determined, and compared to that of H5N8 viruses detected in 2014 and 2016. A similar high pathogenicity was measured for H5N6 and H5N8 group B viruses, suggesting that biological or ecological factors in the wild bird population may have affected the mortality rates during the H5N6 epidemic. These observations suggest different infection dynamics for the H5N6 and H5N8 group B viruses in the wild bird population.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza; H5N6; full genome sequencing; genetic analysis

PMID: 30874364 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13169

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Wild birds; Netherlands.


What Are the #Transmission #Mechanisms of #Influenza A Viruses in Wild #Mammals? (J Infect Dis., summary)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

What Are the Transmission Mechanisms of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Mammals?

J Jeffrey Root

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiz033, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz033

Published: 06 March 2019


Some influenza A viruses (IAVs) represent serious potential threats to public and agricultural health, with 3 notable examples from the past decade. During 2009, a novel H1N1 IAV (A[H1N1]pdm09), which was first detected in the United States, spread rapidly throughout many regions of the world [1]. In the United States alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that >60 million human cases were associated with this emergent and pandemic virus [1]. During 2013, a novel H7N9 avian-origin IAV (Asian lineage avian influenza A[H7N9] virus) was first detected in China. This virus not only cost the poultry industry more than $1 billion through culling and market closures, it also proved to be detrimental to public health, as this virus is readily transmitted to humans and can cause moderate-to-high rates of mortality [2, 3]. More recently, a highly pathogenic clade avian IAV was first detected in North America during 2014. Ultimately, the introduction of this virus (and subsequent reassortant viruses) elicited the most expensive highly pathogenic IAV outbreak in US history [4], with total losses estimated to be billions of dollars [5]. These 3 examples exemplify the enormous burdens that some IAVs can place on public and agricultural health systems and suggest that a diversity of studies need to be conducted to address the complex epidemiology of these virus-host systems.




Financial support. This work was supported by the US Department of Agriculture.

Potential conflicts of interest. Author certifies no potential conflicts of interest. The author has submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.

Keywords: Influenza A; Wildlife; Wild birds.


#Avian #influenza viruses at the wild-domestic #bird interface in #Egypt (Infect Ecol Epidemiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 20;9(1):1575687. doi: 10.1080/20008686.2019.1575687. eCollection 2019.

Avian influenza viruses at the wild-domestic bird interface in Egypt.

Naguib MM1,2,3, Verhagen JH4, Samy A3,5, Eriksson P1, Fife M5, Lundkvist Å1, Ellström P2, Järhult JD2.

Author information: 1 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 2 Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. 3 National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production, Animal Health Research Institute, Giza, Egypt. 4 Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden. 5 Genetics and Genomics, The Pirbright Institute, Surrey, UK.



Wild birds of the orders Anseriformes (mainly ducks, geese and swans) and Charadriiformes (mainly gulls, terns and waders) constitute the natural reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In Egypt, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and LPAI H9N2 viruses are endemic in domestic poultry, forming a threat to animal and human health and raising questions about the routes of introduction and mechanisms of persistence. Recently, HPAI H5N8 virus was also introduced into Egyptian domestic birds. Here we review the literature on the role of wild birds in the introduction and endemicity of avian influenza viruses in Egypt. Dabbling ducks in Egypt harbor an extensive LPAI virus diversity and may constitute the route of introduction for HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H5N8 viruses into Egypt through migration, however their role in the endemicity of HPAI H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and potentially other avian influenza virus (AIV) strains – by means of reassortment of viral genes – is less clear. Strengthened surveillance programs, in both domestic and wild birds, that include all LPAI virus subtypes and full genome sequencing are needed to better assess the wild-domestic bird interface and form a basis for evidence-based measures to limit and prevent AIV transmission between wild and domestic birds.

KEYWORDS: AIV; Africa; H5N1; HPAIV; IAV; LPAIV; ecology; epidemiology; migration; wild birds

PMID: 30815236 PMCID: PMC6383604 DOI: 10.1080/20008686.2019.1575687

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; H9N2; Poultry; Wild Birds; Egypt.