#Pathogenicity and #genomic #changes of a 2016 #European #H5N8 highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus (clade 2.3.4.4) in experimentally infected #mallards and #chickens (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Aug 22;537:172-185. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.08.020. [Epub ahead of print]

Pathogenicity and genomic changes of a 2016 European H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (clade 2.3.4.4) in experimentally infected mallards and chickens.

Leyson C1, Youk SS1, Smith D1, Dimitrov K1, Lee DH2, Larsen LE3, Swayne DE1, Pantin-Jackwood MJ4.

Author information: 1 Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA. 2 Department of Pathobiology & Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Mansfield, CT, USA. 3 University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. 4 Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address: mary.pantin-jackwood@ars.usda.gov.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 virus caused outbreaks in poultry and unusually high mortality in wild birds in 2016-2017. The pathobiology of one of these viruses was examined in mallards and chickens. High mortality and transmission to direct contacts were observed in mallards inoculated with medium and high doses of the virus. However, in chickens, high mortality occurred only when birds are given the high virus dose and no transmission was observed, indicating that the virus was better adapted to mallards. In comparison with the virus inoculum, viral sequences obtained from the chickens had a higher number of nucleotide changes but lower intra-host genomic diversity than viral sequences obtained from the mallards. These observations are consistent with population bottlenecks occurring when viruses infect and replicate in a host that it is not well adapted to. Whether these observations apply to influenza viruses in general remains to be determined.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation; Chickens; Clade 2.3.4.4; Full genome sequencing; H5N8; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Infectivity; Mallards; Pathogenicity; Transmission

PMID: 31493656 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.08.020

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Animal models.

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#Avian #Influenza #H5N8 #Outbreak in #African #Penguins (Spheniscus demersus), #Namibia, 2019 (J Wildl Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Wildl Dis. 2019 Sep 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Avian Influenza H5N8 Outbreak in African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus), Namibia, 2019.

Umberto M1, Aikukutu G2, Roux JP3, Kemper J4, Ntahonshikira C1, Marruchella G1,5, Khaiseb S2, Cattoli G6, Dundon WG6.

Author information: 1 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, Neudamm Campus, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia. 2 Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL), 24 Goethe Street, Private Bag 18137, Windhoek, Namibia. 3 Ecosystem Section, Lüderitz Marine Research, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, PO Box 394, Lüderitz, Namibia. 4 African Penguin Conservation Project, PO Box 583, Lüderitz, Namibia. 5 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Loc. Piano d’Accio S.P. 18, 64100, Teramo, Italy. 6 Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria.

 

Abstract

In January 2019, high mortalities were reported among African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in a breeding colony on Halifax Island, Namibia, Africa. Analysis of samples by reverse transcription quantitative PCR indicated the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes confirmed the presence of the virus in the birds and its high similarity to HPAI subtype H5N8 identified in South Africa in 2017. There have been no previous reports of HPAI H5N8 in Namibia.

KEYWORDS: H5N8; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; Namibia; outbreak; penguins

PMID: 31483707

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Wild Birds; Namibia.

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A study of the #relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza a (#H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.

METHODS:

A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.

RESULTS:

The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6

Keywords: Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Oseltamivir; Zanamivir; Amantadine; H5N6; H6N6; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Avian Influenza; Human; Fujian; China.

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Comparative #pathological #findings in mute #swans (Cygnus olor) naturally infected with highly pathogenic #Avian #influenza viruses #H5N1 and #H5N8 in #Serbia (Vet Ital., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Ital. 2019 Mar 31;55(1):95-101. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.1463.7919.2.

Comparative pathological findings in mute swans (Cygnus olor) naturally infected with highly pathogenic Avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H5N8 in Serbia.

Božić B1, Vučićević I, Polaček V, Vasković N, Petrović T, Pajić M, Aleksić-Kovačević S.

Author information: 1 Scientific Veterinary Institute “Novi Sad”, Rumenački put 20, Novi Sad, Serbia. biljana@niv.ns.ac.rs.

 

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare pathological lesions and viral antigen expression in the organs of mute swans (Cygnus olor) naturally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H5N8. The examination was conducted on the carcasses of 22 mute swans which died during the avian influenza outbreaks in Serbia in 2006 and 2016-2017. Avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 isolated from mute swans in 2016-2017 was clustered within the 2.3.4.4 clade group B. After necropsy, lung, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney and brain tissues were sampled for histopathology and immunohistochemical examination. Avian influenza virus nucleoprotein polyclonal antibodies were used for detecting the viral antigen in the examined tissues. The most significant gross lesions were necrosis and haemorrhages in the pancreas. Major histological lesions were multifocal necroses in the pancreas, spleen and liver, non-purulent encephalitis, lung congestion and oedema. Immunohistochemical demonstration of HPAIV nucleoprotein in pancreas and brain was strongly consistent with histological lesions in both infected groups. Our findings showed that pancreas was the most affected organ in all examined mute swans. In addition to increased mortality rate, similar pathological findings were detected in mute swans naturally infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H5N8.

PMID: 30951187 DOI: 10.12834/VetIt.1463.7919.2 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free full text

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; Wild Birds; Serbia.

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#Pathology of A(#H5N8) (Clade 2.3.4.4) Virus in Experimentally Infected #Chickens and Mice (Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 4;2019:4124865. doi: 10.1155/2019/4124865. eCollection 2019.

Pathology of A(H5N8) (Clade 2.3.4.4) Virus in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Mice.

Prokopyeva EA1,2, Zinserling VA3, Bae YC4, Kwon Y4, Kurskaya OG1, Sobolev IA1, Kozhin PM1, Komissarov A5, Fadeev A5, Petrov V1, Shestopalov AM1, Sharshov KA1.

Author information: 1 Department of Experimental Research, Federal Research Center for Basic and Translational Medicine, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia. 2 Medical Department, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia. 3 Institute of Experimental Medicine, Almazov National Federal Research Centre, Saint Petersburg 197341, Russia. 4 Avian Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si 39660, Republic of Korea. 5 Department of etiology and epidemiology, Smorodintsev Research Institute of Influenza, Saint Petersburg 197376, Russia.

 

Abstract

The emergence of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in migratory birds raises serious concerns as these viruses have the potential to spread during fall migration. We report the identification of novel HPAIV A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 virus that was isolated from sick domestic duck at commercial farm during the second wave of spread that began in October and affected poultry (ducks; chiсkens) in several European regions of Russia and Western Siberia in 2016. The strain was highly lethal in experimental infection of chickens and mice with IVPI = 2.34 and MLD50 = 1.3log10⁡ EID50, accordingly. Inoculation of chickens with the HPAIV A/H5N8 demonstrated neuroinvasiveness, multiorgan failure, and death of chickens on the 3rd day post inoculation. Virus replicated in all collected organ samples in high viral titers with the highest titer in the brain (6.75±0.1 log10TCID50/ml). Effective virus replication was found in the following cells: neurons and glial cells of a brain; alveolar cells and macrophages of lungs; epithelial cells of a small intestine; hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of a liver; macrophages and endothelial cells of a spleen; and the tubular epithelial cells of kidneys. These findings advance our understanding of histopathological effect of A(H5N8) HPAIV infection.

PMID: 31354812 PMCID: PMC6637675 DOI: 10.1155/2019/4124865

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Animal models.

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Circulation, #Evolution and #Transmission of Highly Pathogenic #Avian #Influenza A (#H5N8) virus, 2016-2018 (J Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Infect. 2019 Jul 12. pii: S0163-4453(19)30214-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Circulation, Evolution and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N8) virus, 2016-2018.

Chen J1, Liang B2, Hu J3, Liu H3, Sun J4, Li M5, Chen Q6, He Y4, Liu D7.

Author information: 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address: chenjj@wh.iov.cn. 2 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, 101409, China. 3 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. 4 Qinghai Lake National Nature Reserve, Xining, 810099, China. 5 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. 6 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. 7 CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China; Center for Influenza Research and Early warning (CASCIRE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing, 101409, China. Electronic address: liud@wh.iov.cn.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

A second wave of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 has spread globally, causing outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry since autumn 2016. The circulation and evolutionary dynamics of the virus remain largely unknown.

METHODS:

We performed surveillance for H5N8 in Qinghai Lake in China since the emergence of the virus (from 2016 to 2018). By analyzing recovered viruses in Qinghai Lake and all related viruses worldwide (449 strains), we identified the genotypes, estimated their genesis and reassortment, and evaluated their global distribution and transmission.

RESULTS:

Through surveillance of wild migratory birds around Qinghai Lake between 2016 and 2018, we revealed that the H5N8 was introduced into Qinghai Lake bird populations (QH-H5N8), with distinct gene constellations in 2016 and 2017. A global analysis of QH-H5N8-related viruses showed that avian influenza viruses with low pathogenicity in wild birds contributed to the high diversity of genotypes; the major reassortment events possibly occurred during the 2016 breeding season and the following winters.

CONCLUSIONS:

Continued circulation of QH-H5N8-related viruses among wild birds has resulted in the global distribution of high genotypic diversity. Thus, these viruses pose an ongoing threat to wild and domestic bird populations and warrant continuous surveillance.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Circulation; Evolution; H5N8 avian influenza; Migratory birds; Transmission

PMID: 31306679 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.005

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds.

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#Respiratory disease due to mixed viral #infections in #poultry flocks in #Egypt between 2017 and 2018: #Upsurge of highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus subtype #H5N8 since 2018 (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Jul 11. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13281. [Epub ahead of print]

Respiratory disease due to mixed viral infections in poultry flocks in Egypt between 2017 and 2018: Upsurge of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N8 since 2018.

Hassan KE1,2, El-Kady MF2, El-Sawah AAA2, Luttermann C3, Parvin R1,4, Shany S2, Beer M1, Harder T1.

Author information: 1 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 2 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. 3 Institute of Immunology Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Greifswald-Riems, Germany. 4 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

 

Abstract

For several years, poultry production in Egypt has been suffering from co-circulation of multiple respiratory viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) and low pathogenic H9N2 (clade G1-B). Incursion of HPAIV H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4b) to Egypt in November 2016 via wild birds followed by spread into commercial poultry flocks further complicated the situation. Current analyses focussed on 39 poultry farms suffering from respiratory manifestation and high mortality in six Egyptian governorates during 2017-2018. Real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) substantiated the co-presence of at least two respiratory virus species in more than 80% of the investigated flocks. The percentage of HPAIV H5N1-positive holdings was fairly stable in 2017 (12.8%) and 2018 (10.2%), while the percentage of HPAIV H5N8-positive holdings increased from 23% in 2017 to 66.6% during 2018. The proportion of H9N2-positive samples was constantly high (2017:100% and 2018:63%), and H9N2 co-circulated with HPAIV H5N8 in 22 out of 39 (56.8%) flocks. Analyses of 26 H5, 18 H9 and 4 N2 new sequences confirmed continuous genetic diversification. In silico analysis revealed numerous amino acid substitutions in the HA and NA proteins suggestive of increased adaptation to mammalian hosts and putative antigenic variation. For sensitive detection of H9N2 viruses by RT-qPCR, an update of primers and probe sequences was crucial. Reasons for the relative increase of HPAIV H5N8 infections versus H5N1 remained unclear, but lack of suitable vaccines against clade 2.3.4.4b cannot be excluded. A reconsideration of surveillance and control measures should include updating of diagnostic tools and vaccination strategies.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; Highly pathogenic avian influenza; co-infection; control; diagnostic tools; reassortant viruses

PMID: 31297991 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13281

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N8; H9N2; Poultry; Egypt.

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