Novel #Coronavirus #Infection in Hospitalized #Infants Under 1 Year of Age in #China (JAMA, summary)

[Source: JAMA, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Research Letter / February 14, 2020

Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China

Min Wei, MD1; Jingping Yuan, MD, PhD1; Yu Liu, PhD2; Tao Fu, PhD1; Xue Yu, MS3; Zhi-Jiang Zhang, MD, PhD3

Author Affiliations: 1 Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; 2 School of Management, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, China; 3 School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

JAMA. Published online February 14, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2131

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Since December 8, 2019, an epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly.1 As of February 6, 2020, China reported 31 211 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 637 fatalities. Previous studies suggest that COVID-19 is more likely to infect older adult men, particularly those with chronic comorbidities.2-4 Few infections in children have been reported. We identified all infected infants in China and described demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical features.

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Section Editor: Jody W. Zylke, MD, Deputy Editor.

 

Article Information

Corresponding Author: Zhi-Jiang Zhang, MD, PhD, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, No. 185 Donghu Rd, Wuhan 430071, China (zhang22968@163.com).

Published Online: February 14, 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2131

Author Contributions: Dr Zhang had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Wei, Yuan, and Liu contributed equally.

Concept and design: Zhang.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Wei, Yuan, Liu, Fu, Yu, Zhang.

Drafting of the manuscript: Wei, Zhang.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Yuan, Liu, Fu, Yu, Zhang.

Statistical analysis: Liu, Yu, Zhang.

Obtained funding: Zhang.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Zhang.

Supervision: Zhang.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 81641123) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (grant 2042017kf0193).

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Additional Contributions: We thank all patients involved in the study.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Pediatrics; China.

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Potential #Maternal and #Infant #Outcomes From (Wuhan) #Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting #Pregnant Women: Lessons From SARS, MERS, and Other HCoV Infections (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses, 12 (2) 2020 Feb 10

Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes From (Wuhan) Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons From SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections

David A Schwartz 1, Ashley L Graham 2

Affiliations: 1 Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. 2 Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

PMID: 32050635 DOI: 10.3390/v12020194

 

Abstract

In early December 2019 a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, a city of 11 million persons in the People’s Republic of China. Further investigation revealed these cases to result from infection with a newly identified coronavirus, termed the 2019-nCoV. The infection moved rapidly through China, spread to Thailand and Japan, extended into adjacent countries through infected persons travelling by air, eventually reaching multiple countries and continents. Similar to such other coronaviruses as those causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the new coronavirus was reported to spread via natural aerosols from human-to-human. In the early stages of this epidemic the case fatality rate is estimated to be approximately 2%, with the majority of deaths occurring in special populations. Unfortunately, there is limited experience with coronavirus infections during pregnancy, and it now appears certain that pregnant women have become infected during the present 2019-nCoV epidemic. In order to assess the potential of the Wuhan 2019-nCoV to cause maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and other poor obstetrical outcomes, this communication reviews the published data addressing the epidemiological and clinical effects of SARS, MERS, and other coronavirus infections on pregnant women and their infants. Recommendations are also made for the consideration of pregnant women in the design, clinical trials, and implementation of future 2019-nCoV vaccines.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; China; MERS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome; SARS-CoV; Wuhan coronavirus; Wuhan coronavirus outbreak; coronavirus; emerging infection; epidemic; maternal death; maternal morbidity; maternal mortality; pneumonia; pregnancy; pregnancy complications; severe acute respiratory syndrome.

Conflict of interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pregnancy; Pediatrics.

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A case of three-month-old #infant with new #coronavirus infection (Chin J Pediatr., abstract)

[Source: Chinese Journal of Pediatrics , full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A case of three-month-old infant with new coronavirus infection

Zhang Yuehua, Lin Daojiong, Xiao Meifang, Wang Jiachong, Wei Yong, Lei Zhixian, Zeng Zhenqiong, Li Ling, Li Hongai, Xiang Wei

Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, 2020, 58 (00) : E006-E006. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0006

 

Summary

The patient, Jan. 19, Xiaogan, Hubei, was hospitalized for 4 hours with fever, and the peripheral white blood cells were not high. A chest X-ray film showed a slightly thickened right lung texture, which seemed to be a bit flaky. Pharyngeal swab 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) The nucleic acid test was positive, and the 2019-nCoV infection diagnosis was established, which is consistent with the ordinary type. He was discharged after 15 days of active treatment. The child’s respiratory symptoms appeared later and were milder. The parents of the children tested positive for 2019-nCoV 7 days after the onset of the disease, suggesting that intra-family transmission is an important transmission route for 2019-nCoV infection. Although the patient’s throat swabs turned negative for 3 consecutive times, 2019-nCoV nucleic acid was still detected in the sputum and feces over the same period. The mother of the child had no fever and respiratory symptoms, but chest CT revealed exudative lesions in the left and right upper lungs, suggesting that pulmonary lesions can be seen in asymptomatic 2019-nCoV infection.

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Cite this article: Zhang Yuehua, Lin Daojiong, Xiao Meifang, et al. A case of three-month-old infants with new coronavirus infection [J]. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, 2020,58 (00): E006-E006. DOI: 10.3760 / cma.j.issn .0578-1310.2020.0006

Keywords: COVID-19; Pediatrics; China; Hubei.

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Detection of #variants with reduced #baloxavir marboxil #susceptibility after #treatment of #children with #influenza A during the 2018/2019 influenza season (J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Detection of variants with reduced baloxavir marboxil susceptibility after treatment of children with influenza A during the 2018/2019 influenza season

Masatoki Sato, Emi Takashita, Masahiko Katayose, Kenji Nemoto, Nobuko Sakai, Koichi Hashimoto, Mitsuaki Hosoya

The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiaa061, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa061

Published: 08 February 2020

 

Abstract

During the 2018–2019 influenza seasons, we detected reduced baloxavir marboxil (baloxavir) susceptible variants with I38S or I38T amino acid substitutions on the PA subunit of influenza virus RNA polymerase in 7 of 18 baloxavir treated children and found that virus titer rebounded in some of these children with variants. We also found fever durations to be similar between patients with or without the variants, but the patients with variants shed the virus 3 days longer and took longer to improve clinical symptoms than those without variants.

The emergence of these variants should be monitored during future influenza seasons.

influenza, baloxavir, oseltamivir, antiviral therapy, resistance

This content is only available as a PDF.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)

Keywords: Influenza A; Antivirals; Drugs Resistance; Baloxavir; Pediatrics.

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Early Administration of #Oseltamivir Within 48 Hours After Onset of Flulike Symptoms Can Reduce the #Risk of Influenza B Virus-Associated #Pneumonia in Hospitalized #Pediatric Patients with Influenza B Virus Infection (Pediatr Infect Dis J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Feb;39(2):e20-e22. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002528.

Early Administration of Oseltamivir Within 48 Hours After Onset of Flulike Symptoms Can Reduce the Risk of Influenza B Virus-Associated Pneumonia in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients with Influenza B Virus Infection.

Dai Z1, Zhang L, Yu Q, Liu L, Yang M, Fan K.

Author information: 1 From the Department of Accident and Emergency, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

 

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study to identify the risk factors for pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients with influenza B infection. Receiving oseltamivir within the first 48 hours of onset and frequent cough was respectively considered as a protective factor and a risk factor for the influenza B virus-associated pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients. Early administration of oseltamivir can reduce the risk of influenza B virus-associated pneumonia.

PMID: 31929434 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002528

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Influenza B; Antivirals; Oseltamivir; Pneumonia; Pediatrics.

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#Catastrophic #effects of #climatechange on #children’s #health start before #birth (J Clin Invest., summary)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.]

Catastrophic effects of climate change on children’s health start before birth

Susan E. Pacheco

First published January 13, 2020

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When I first paid attention to the magnitude of the climate crisis in 2006, it was hard to accept that I had been indifferent to the problem for so many years. As a pediatrician, it did not take long to realize that children, whose bodies and minds are still developing and who are dependent on adults for care, are the most tragic casualties of the climate crisis. The shift in weather patterns, increased heat, heat waves, and drought; the resulting wildfires, increased storm intensity and flooding, crop failure and lower nutritional value, and shifting pattern of infectious vectors; and the resulting air pollution from continued use of fossil fuels impose a heavy burden in children, whose inherent physical and emotional immaturity makes them more vulnerable to these insults.

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Keywords: Climate change; Global Warming; Pediatrics.

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#Human #parainfluenza virus #circulation, #USA, 2011-2019 (J Clin Virol., abstract)

[Source: Journal of Clinical Virology, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Journal of Clinical Virology / Available online 9 January 2020, 104261 / In Press, Journal Pre-proof

Human parainfluenza virus circulation, United States, 2011-2019

Authors: Nicholas P. DeGroote a, Amber K. Haynes a, Calli Taylor b, Marie E. Killerby a, Rebecca M.Dahl c, Desiree Mustaquim b, Susan I.Gerber a, John T. Watson a

{a} Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA; {b} Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA; {c} Maximus Federal, Contracting agency to the Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA

Received 31 October 2019, Revised 2 January 2020, Accepted 8 January 2020, Available online 9 January 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104261

 

Highlights

  • Human parainfluenza virus type 3 is the most commonly reported parainfluenza virus followed by types 1, 2, and 4, respectively.
  • Each parainfluenza virus type exhibited a unique circulation pattern.
  • Parainfluenza type 4 circulated annually and peaked during the winter months.
  • No remarkable distinction in regional versus national seasonal circulation patterns.
  • The majority of parainfluenza virus detections with available age data occurred among children aged ≤2 years.

 

Abstract

Background

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) cause upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses, most frequently among infants and young children, but also in the elderly. While seasonal patterns of HPIV types 1-3 have been described, less is known about national patterns of HPIV-4 circulation.

Objectives

To describe patterns of HPIVs circulation in the United States (US).

Study design

We used data from the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS), a voluntary passive laboratory-based surveillance system, to characterize the epidemiology and circulation patterns of HPIVs in the US during 2011-2019. We summarized the number of weekly aggregated HPIV detections nationally and by US census region, and used a subset of data submitted to NREVSS from public health laboratories and several clinical laboratories during 2015-2019 to analyze differences in patient demographics.

Results

During July 2011 – June 2019, 2,700,135 HPIV tests were reported; 122,852 (5%) were positive for any HPIV including 22,446 for HPIV-1 (18%), 17,474 for HPIV-2 (14%), 67,649 for HPIV-3 (55%), and 15,283 for HPIV-4 (13%). HPIV testing increased substantially each year. The majority of detections occurred in children aged ≤ 2 years (36%) with fluctuations in the distribution of age by type.

Conclusions

HPIVs were detected year-round during 2011-2019, with type-specific year-to-year variations in circulation patterns. Among HPIV detections where age was known, the majority were aged ≤ 2 years. HPIV-4 exhibited an annual fall-winter seasonality, both nationally and regionally. Continued surveillance is needed to better understand national patterns of HPIV circulation.

Keywords: parainfluenza virus – respiratory virus surveillance – PIV circulation

© 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Keywords: Parainfluenza virus; Pediatrics; USA.

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