A study of the relationship between #human #infection with #avian #influenza A #H5N6 and environmental avian influenza viruses in #Fujian, #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):762. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6.

A study of the relationship between human infection with avian influenza a (H5N6) and environmental avian influenza viruses in Fujian, China.

Chen P1, Xie JF1,2, Lin Q2, Zhao L2, Zhang YH2, Chen HB2, Weng YW1,2, Huang Z2, Zheng KC3,4.

Author information: 1 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. 2 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. 3 College of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, No. 88, Jiaotong Road, Taijiang District, Fuzhou, 350000, China. kingdadi9909@126.com. 4 Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, China. kingdadi9909@126.com.




Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province.


A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian’s first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian.


The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient’s H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples.


The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient’s viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza a (H5N6) virus; Environmental contamination; Phylogenetic analysis

PMID: 31477028 PMCID: PMC6719373 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4145-6 [Indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; H6N6; Reassortant strain; Human; Poultry; Fujian; China.


Comparative Virological and Pathogenic Characteristics of #Avian #Influenza #H5N8 Viruses Detected in #WildBirds and Domestic #Poultry in #Egypt during the Winter of 2016/2017 (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Oct 27;11(11). pii: E990. doi: 10.3390/v11110990.

Comparative Virological and Pathogenic Characteristics of Avian Influenza H5N8 Viruses Detected in Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry in Egypt during the Winter of 2016/2017.

Moatasim Y1, Kandeil A1, Aboulhoda BE2, El-Shesheny R1,3, Alkhazindar M4, AbdElSalam ET4, Kutkat O1, Kamel MN1, El Taweel AN1, Mostafa A1, Hicks JT5, Abd Elghaffar SK6, Kayali G7,8, Ali MA1.

Author information: 1 Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Virus, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza 12622, Egypt. 2 Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt. 3 St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. 4 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613, Egypt. 5 Center for Ecology of Infectious Disease, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. 6 Pathology and Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit 71526, Egypt. 7 Human Link, Hazmieh 1109, Lebanon. 8 Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA.



The surveillance and virological characterization of H5N8 avian influenza viruses are important in order to assess their zoonotic potential. The genetic analyses of the Egyptian H5N8 viruses isolated through active surveillance in wild birds and domestic poultry in the winter of 2016/2017 showed multiple introductions of reassortant viruses. In this study, we investigated and compared the growth kinetics, infectivity, and pathogenicity of the three reassortant forms of H5N8 viruses detected in wild birds and domestic poultry in Egypt during the first introduction wave in the winter of 2016/2017. Three representative H5N8 viruses (abbreviated as 813, 871, and 13666) were selected. The 871/H5N8 virus showed enhanced growth properties in vitro in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A549 cells. Interestingly, all viruses replicated well in mice without prior adaptation. Infected C57BL/6 mice showed 20% mortality for 813/H5N8 and 60% mortality for 871/H5N8 and 13666/H5N8, which could be attributed to the genetic differences among the viruses. Studies on the pathogenicity in experimentally infected ducks revealed a range of pathogenic effects, with mortality rate ranging from 0% for 813/H5N8 and 13666/H5N8 to 28% for 871/H5N8. No significant differences were observed among the three compared viruses in infected chickens. Overall, different H5N8 viruses had variable biological characteristics, indicating a continuous need for surveillance and virus characterization efforts.

KEYWORDS: Egypt; H5N8; avian influenza virus; pathogenicity

PMID: 31717865 DOI: 10.3390/v11110990

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Wild Birds; Poultry; Egypt.


Molecular Characterization of a Novel #Avian #Influenza A #H2N9 Strain Isolated from Wild #Duck in #Korea in 2018 (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Nov 10;11(11). pii: E1046. doi: 10.3390/v11111046.

Molecular Characterization of a Novel Avian Influenza A (H2N9) Strain Isolated from Wild Duck in Korea in 2018.

Yeo SJ1, Than DD1, Park HS2, Sung HW3, Park H1.

Author information: 1 Zoonosis Research Center, Department of Infection Biology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea. 2 GnCBio Inc, 4F, Yegan Plaza, 36, Banseok-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34069, Korea. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.



A novel avian influenza virus (A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018) (H2N9) was isolated from wild birds in South Korea in 2018, and phylogenetic and molecular analyses were conducted on complete gene sequences obtained by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) virus belonged to the Eurasian countries, whereas other internal genes (polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein (M), and non-structural protein (NS)) belonged to the East Asian countries. A monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, E627 in the PB2 gene, and no deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that the A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) isolate was a typical low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI). Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (98.34%) is to that of A/duck/Mongolia/482/2015 (H2N3), and amino acid sequence of NA was closely related to that of A/duck/Bangladesh/8987/2010 (H10N9) (96.45%). In contrast, internal genes showed homology higher than 98% compared to those of other isolates derived from duck and wild birds of China or Japan in 2016-2018. The newly isolated A/wild duck/Korea/K102/2018 (H2N9) strain is the first reported avian influenza virus in Korea, and may have evolved from multiple genotypes in wild birds and ducks in Mongolia, China, and Japan.

KEYWORDS: H2N9; Korea; novel avian influenza virus isolate; wild duck

PMID: 31717636 DOI: 10.3390/v11111046

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H2N9; Reassortant strain; H2N3; H10N9; Wild Birds; S. Korea.


A novel #reassortant clade highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6 virus identified in South #Korea in 2018 (Infect Genet Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Infect Genet Evol. 2019 Nov 1:104056. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant clade highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus identified in South Korea in 2018.

Baek YG1, Lee YN1, Lee DH2, Cheon SH1, Kye SJ1, Park YR1, Si YJ1, Lee MH1, Lee YJ3.

Author information: 1 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. 2 Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, The University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Unit-3089, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. 3 Avian Influenza Research & Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: leeyj700@korea.kr.



Since 2017, clade H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been detected over a broad geographic region, including Eurasia. These viruses have evolved through reassortment with Eurasian low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs), resulting in multiple genotypes. Here, we sequenced the full-length genome of 15 H5N6 HPAIVs collected from wild birds and poultry farms in South Korea from January to March 2018. A comparative phylogenetic analysis was then conducted. Three distinct genotypes were identified in South Korea during 2017/2018, including a novel reassortant genotype, H214. The novel reassortant H5N6 viruses isolated in this study possessed PB2, PA, and NP gene segments of Eurasian LPAIV on a genetic backbone of the H35-like genotype, which was identified in Korea and the Netherlands during 2017. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the novel reassortant viruses were generated most likely during the fall migration/wintering season of migratory waterfowl in 2017. Considering the continued emergence and spread of clade HPAIV, enhanced surveillance of wild waterfowl is needed for early detection of HPAIV incursions.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; HPAIV; Novel genotype; Novel reassortant; Phylogenetic analysis; tMRCA

PMID: 31683010 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104056

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Korea.


#Pathobiology and innate immune responses of gallinaceous #poultry to clade #H5Nx highly pathogenic #avian #influenza virus #infection (Vet Res., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vet Res. 2019 Nov 1;50(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s13567-019-0704-5.

Pathobiology and innate immune responses of gallinaceous poultry to clade H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

Bertran K1,2, Pantin-Jackwood MJ1, Criado MF1, Lee DH1,3, Balzli CL1,4, Spackman E1, Suarez DL1, Swayne DE5.

Author information: 1 Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, 30605, USA. 2 IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. 3 Department of Pathobiology & Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA. 4 Battelle National Biodefense Institute, National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center, 8300 Research PI, Fort Detrick, MD, 21702, USA. 5 Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, U.S. National Poultry Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA, 30605, USA. david.swayne@usda.gov.



In the 2014-2015 Eurasian lineage clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in the U.S., backyard flocks with minor gallinaceous poultry and large commercial poultry (chickens and turkeys) operations were affected. The pathogenesis of the first H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade HPAI U.S. isolates was investigated in six gallinaceous species: chickens, Japanese quail, Bobwhite quail, Pearl guinea fowl, Chukar partridges, and Ring-necked pheasants. Both viruses caused 80-100% mortality in all species, except for H5N2 virus that caused 60% mortality in chickens. The surviving challenged birds remained uninfected based on lack of clinical disease and lack of seroconversion. Among the infected birds, chickens and Japanese quail in early clinical stages (asymptomatic and listless) lacked histopathologic findings. In contrast, birds of all species in later clinical stages (moribund and dead) had histopathologic lesions and systemic virus replication consistent with HPAI virus infection in gallinaceous poultry. These birds had widespread multifocal areas of necrosis, sometimes with heterophilic or lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate, and viral antigen in parenchymal cells of most tissues. In general, lesions and antigen distribution were similar regardless of virus and species. However, endotheliotropism was the most striking difference among species, with only Pearl guinea fowl showing widespread replication of both viruses in endothelial cells of most tissues. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Japanese quail, and IL-6 in chickens, were up-regulated in later clinical stages compared to asymptomatic birds.

PMID: 31675983 DOI: 10.1186/s13567-019-0704-5

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; Reassortant strain; Poultry; Viral pathogenesis.


Locally Acquired #Human #Infection with #Swine-Origin #Influenza A(#H3N2) Variant Virus, #Australia, 2018 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Volume 26, Number 1—January 2020 / Dispatch

Locally Acquired Human Infection with Swine-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus, Australia, 2018

Yi-Mo Deng  , Frank Y.K. Wong, Natalie Spirason, Matthew Kaye, Rebecca Beazley, Miguel Grau, Songhua Shan, Vittoria Stevens, Kanta Subbarao, Sheena Sullivan, Ian G. Barr, and Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran

Author affiliations: World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (Y.M. Deng, N. Spirason, M. Kaye, K. Subbarao, S. Sullivan, I.G. Barr, V. Dhanasekaran); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (F.Y.K. Wong, S. Shan, V. Stevens); South Australian Department of Health and Wellbeing, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia (R. Beazley); Monash University, Melbourne (M. Grau, V. Dhanasekaran); University of Melbourne, Melbourne (S. Sullivan, I.G. Barr)



In 2018, a 15-year-old female adolescent in Australia was infected with swine influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. The virus contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from 1990s-like human seasonal viruses and internal protein genes from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, highlighting the potential risk that swine influenza A virus poses to human health in Australia.

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Influenza A; Seasonal Influenza; Reassortant strain; H3N2; H1N1pdm09; Human; Australia.


The #PB2 and M #genes are critical for the superiority of genotype S #H9N2 virus to genotype H in optimizing viral fitness of #H5Nx and #H7N9 #avian #influenza viruses in mice (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Oct 21. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13395. [Epub ahead of print]

The PB2 and M genes are critical for the superiority of genotype S H9N2 virus to genotype H in optimizing viral fitness of H5Nx and H7N9 avian influenza viruses in mice.

Hao X1,2,3, Hu J1,2,3, Wang X1,2,3, Gu M1,2,3, Wang J1,2,3, Liu D1,2,3, Gao Z1,2,3, Chen Y1,2,3, Gao R1,2,3, Li X1,2,3, Hu Z1,2,3, Hu S1,2,3, Liu X1,2,3, Peng D1,2,3, Jiao X2,3,4, Liu X1,2,3,4.

Author information: 1 Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 2 Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 3 Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Biological Hazard Factors (Animal Origin) for Agri-food Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. 4 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.



Genotype S H9N2 avian influenza virus, which has been predominant in China since 2010, and contributed its entire internal gene cassette to the genesis of novel reassortant influenza viruses, including H5Nx, H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that pose great threat to poultry and humans. A key feature of the genotype S H9N2 virus is the substitution of G1-like M and PB2 genes for the earlier F/98-like M and PB2 of genotype H virus. However, how this gene substitution has influenced viral adaptability of emerging influenza viruses in mammals remains unclear. We report here that reassortant H5Nx and H7N9 viruses with the genotype S internal gene cassette displayed enhanced replication and virulence over those with genotype H internal gene cassette in cell cultures as well as in the mouse models. We showed that the G1-like PB2 gene was associated with increased polymerase activity and improved nuclear accumulation compared to the F/98-like counterpart, while the G1-like M gene facilitated effective translocation of RNP to cytoplasm. Our findings suggest that the genotype S H9N2 internal gene cassette, which possesses G1-like M and PB2 genes, is superior to that of genotype H, in optimizing viral fitness, and thus have implications for assessing the potential risk of these gene introductions to generate emerging influenza viruses.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: G1-like M and PB2; H5Nx; H7N9; avian influenza virus; viral fitness

PMID: 31631569 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13395

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; H7N9; H10N8; H9N2; Reassortant strains.