#Genetic and #biological characteristics of #avian #influenza virus subtype #H1N8 in #environments related to live #poultry #markets in #China (BMC Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 22;19(1):458. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z.

Genetic and biological characteristics of avian influenza virus subtype H1N8 in environments related to live poultry markets in China.

Zhang Y1, Dong J1, Bo H1, Dong L1, Zou S1, Li X1, Shu Y1,2, Wang D3.

Author information: 1 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. 2 Present Address: Public Health School (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. 3 Chinese National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza; Key Laboratory for Medical Virology, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing, China. dayanwang@cnic.org.cn.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, slaughterhouses, and poultry farms. Multiple subtypes of avian influenza virus have been identified based on environmental surveillance, and an H1N8 virus was isolated from the drinking water of a live poultry market.

METHODS:

Virus isolation was performed by inoculating influenza A-positive specimens into embryonated chicken eggs. Next-generation sequencing was used for whole-genome sequencing. A solid-phase binding assay was performed to test the virus receptor binding specificity. Trypsin dependence plaque formation assays and intravenous pathogenicity index tests were used to evaluate virus pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Different cell lines were chosen for comparison of virus replication capacity.

RESULTS:

According to the phylogenetic trees, the whole gene segments of the virus named A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) were of Eurasian lineage. The HA, NA, PB1, and M genes showed the highest homology with those of H1N8 or H1N2 subtype viruses isolated from local domestic ducks, while the PB2, PA, NP and NS genes showed high similarity with the genes of H7N9 viruses detected in 2017 and 2018 in the same province. This virus presented an avian receptor binding preference. The plaque formation assay showed that it was a trypsin-dependent virus. The intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in chickens was 0.02. The growth kinetics of the A/Environment/Fujian/85144/2014(H1N8) virus in different cell lines were similar to those of a human-origin virus, A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), but lower than those of the control avian-origin and swine-origin viruses.

CONCLUSIONS:

The H1N8 virus was identified in avian influenza-related environments in China for the first time and may have served as a gene carrier involved in the evolution of the H7N9 virus in poultry. This work further emphasizes the importance of avian influenza virus surveillance, especially in live poultry markets (LPMs). Active surveillance of avian influenza in LPMs is a major pillar supporting avian influenza control and response.

KEYWORDS: Avian influenza virus; H1N8 subtype; Live poultry market

PMID: 31117981 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4079-z

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Poultry; Live poultry markets; China; Reassortant strain; H1N1; H1N2; H7N9.

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#PB2 and #hemagglutinin #mutations confer a #virulent phenotype on an #H1N2 #avian #influenza virus in mice (Arch Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Arch Virol. 2019 May 20. doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04283-0. [Epub ahead of print]

PB2 and hemagglutinin mutations confer a virulent phenotype on an H1N2 avian influenza virus in mice.

Yu Z1, Ren Z2, Zhao Y3, Cheng K4, Sun W3, Zhang X3, Wu J5, He H6, Xia X7, Gao Y8.

Author information: 1 Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Jiaoxiao road, Jinan, 250023, Shandong, China. zhijun0215@gmail.com. 2 Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China. 3 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 Institute of Poultry Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 1 Jiaoxiao road, Jinan, 250023, Shandong, China. 6 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China. 7 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. xiaxzh@cae.cn. 8 Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Military Veterinary Research Institute, Academy of Military Medical Science of PLA, 666 Liuyingxi St., Changchun, 130122, People’s Republic of China. gaoyuwei@gmail.com.

 

Abstract

We previously obtained mouse-adapted variants of H1N2 avian influenza virus that contained PB2-L134H, PB2-I647L, PB2-D701N, HA-G228S, and M1-D231N mutations. Here, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on viral pathogenicity in a mammalian model. By evaluating the virulence of mouse-adapted H1N2 variants at different generations, we found that the PB2-D701N and HA-G228S mutations both contribute to the virulence of this virus in mammals. Furthermore, we found that the PB2-D701N and HA-G228S mutations both enhance the ability of the virus to replicate in vivo and in vitro and that the PB2-D701N substitution results in an expansion of viral tissue tropism. These results suggest that the PB2-D701N mutation and the HA-G228S mutation are the major mammalian determinants of H1N2 virus. These results help us to understand more about the mechanisms by which influenza viruses adapt to mammals, and monitoring of these mutations can be used in continuous influenza surveillance to assess the pandemic potential of avian influenza virus variants.

PMID: 31111259 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-019-04283-0

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H1N2; Reassortant strain; Animal models.

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The #PA #Subunit of the #Influenza Virus #Polymerase Complex Affects #Replication and #Airborne #Transmission of the #H9N2 Subtype #Avian Influenza Virus (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jan 9;11(1). pii: E40. doi: 10.3390/v11010040.

The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus.

Hao M1,2, Han S3,4, Meng D5,6, Li R7, Lin J8, Wang M9, Zhou T10, Chai T11.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 2 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763896230@163.com. 4 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. 18763896230@163.com. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. iamli_z@126.com. 6 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. iamli_z@126.com. 7 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. lirong19900129@163.com. 8 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763806701@163.com. 9 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18854937499@163.com. 10 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 13864453175@163.com. 11 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. chaitj117@163.com.

 

Abstract

The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA gene. However, rSD01-PA could infect guinea pigs through direct contact, while the parental strain SD01 could not, even though the infection of rSD01-PA could not be achieved through aerosol. In summary, our results indicate that the protein encoded by the PA gene plays a key role in replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV.

KEYWORDS: H9N2 AIV; airborne transmission; pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus; reassortment; replication

PMID: 30634394 PMCID: PMC6356911 DOI: 10.3390/v11010040 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H9N2; Reassortant strain.

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#H9N2 #influenza viruses from #Bangladesh: #Transmission in #chicken and New World #quail (Influenza Other Respir Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Nov;12(6):814-817. doi: 10.1111/irv.12589. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

H9N2 influenza viruses from Bangladesh: Transmission in chicken and New World quail.

Seiler P1, Kercher L1, Feeroz MM2, Shanmuganatham K1,3, Jones-Engel L4, Turner J1, Walker D1, Alam SMR2, Hasan MK2, Akhtar S2, McKenzie P1, Franks J1, Krauss S1, Webby RJ1, Webster RG1.

Author information: 1 Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. 2 Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 3 Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Ames, Iowa. 4 National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

 

Abstract

The H9N2 influenza viruses that have become established in Bangladeshi live poultry markets possess five gene segments of the highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza virus. We assessed the replication, transmission, and disease potential of three H9N2 viruses in chickens and New World quail. Each virus replicated to high titers and transmitted by the airborne route to contacts in both species. Infected chickens showed no disease signs, and the viruses differed in their disease potential in New World quail. New World quail were more susceptible than chickens to H9N2 viruses and shed virus after airborne transmission for 10 days. Consequently, New World quail are a potential threat in the maintenance and spread of influenza virus in live poultry markets.

© 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

KEYWORDS: Bangladesh; H9N2 influenza; chicken; disease; quail; transmission

PMID: 29989679 PMCID: PMC6185884 DOI: 10.1111/irv.12589 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; H7N3; Reassortant Strain; Bangladesh; Poultry.

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Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic #avian #influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (#H5N6) viruses in wild #waterfowl and #poultry in #Europe and East #Asia, 2017-18 (Virus Evol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virus Evol. 2019 Apr 22;5(1):vez004. doi: 10.1093/ve/vez004. eCollection 2019 Jan.

Co-circulation of genetically distinct highly pathogenic avian influenza A clade 2.3.4.4 (H5N6) viruses in wild waterfowl and poultry in Europe and East Asia, 2017-18.

Poen MJ1, Venkatesh D2, Bestebroer TM1, Vuong O1, Scheuer RD1, Oude Munnink BB1, de Meulder D1, Richard M1, Kuiken T1, Koopmans MPG1, Kelder L3, Kim YJ4, Lee YJ4, Steensels M5, Lambrecht B5, Dan A6, Pohlmann A7, Beer M7, Savic V8, Brown IH9, Fouchier RAM1, Lewis NS9,10.

Author information: 1 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 2 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. 3 Staatsbosbeheer, Amersfoort, the Netherlands. 4 Avian Influenza Research and Diagnostic Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Republic of Korea. 5 Avian Virology and Immunology, Sciensano, Brussels, Belgium. 6 Veterinary Diagnostics Directorate, Budapest, Hungary. 7 Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Insel Riems, Germany. 8 Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. 9 OIE/FAO/EURL International Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Swine Influenza and Newcastle Disease, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA)-Weybridge, Addlestone, Surrey, UK. 10 Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

 

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses were first introduced into Europe in late 2014 and re-introduced in late 2016, following detections in Asia and Russia. In contrast to the 2014-15 H5N8 wave, there was substantial local virus amplification in wild birds in Europe in 2016-17 and associated wild bird mortality, with evidence for occasional gene exchange with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Since December 2017, several European countries have again reported events or outbreaks with HPAI H5N6 reassortant viruses in both wild birds and poultry, respectively. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that the two earliest incursions of HPAI H5N8 viruses originated in Southeast Asia and subsequently spread to Europe. In contrast, this study indicates that recent HPAI H5N6 viruses evolved from the H5N8 2016-17 viruses during 2017 by reassortment of a European HPAI H5N8 virus and wild host reservoir LPAI viruses. The genetic and phenotypic differences between these outbreaks and the continuing detections of HPAI viruses in Europe are a cause of concern for both animal and human health. The current co-circulation of potentially zoonotic HPAI and LPAI virus strains in Asia warrants the determination of drivers responsible for the global spread of Asian lineage viruses and the potential threat they pose to public health.

KEYWORDS: H5N6; avian influenza; emerging diseases; highly pathogenic avian influenza; phylogeny; virology

PMID: 31024736 PMCID: PMC6476160 DOI: 10.1093/ve/vez004

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N6; H5N8; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Wild Birds; European Region; Asia Region.

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Continuing #evolution of highly pathogenic #H5N1 viruses in #Bangladeshi live #poultry #markets (Emerg Microbes Infect., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Emerg Microbes Infect. 2019;8(1):650-661. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1605845.

Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses in Bangladeshi live poultry markets.

Barman S1, Turner JCM1, Hasan MK2, Akhtar S2, El-Shesheny R1,3, Franks J1, Walker D1, Seiler P1, Friedman K1, Kercher L1, Jeevan T1, McKenzie P1, Webby RJ1, Webster RG1, Feeroz MM2.

Author information: 1a Department of Infectious Diseases , St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital , Memphis , TN , USA. 2 b Department of Zoology , Jahangirnagar University , Dhaka , Bangladesh. 3 c Center of Scientific Excellence for Influenza Viruses , National Research Centre , Giza , Egypt.

 

Abstract

Since November 2008, we have conducted active avian influenza surveillance in Bangladesh. Clades 2.2.2, 2.3.4.2, and 2.3.2.1a of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses have all been identified in Bangladeshi live poultry markets (LPMs), although, since the end of 2014, H5N1 viruses have been exclusively from clade 2.3.2.1a. In June 2015, a new reassortant H5N1 virus (H5N1-R1) from clade 2.3.2.1a was identified, containing haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of H5N1 viruses circulating in Bangladesh since 2011, plus five other genes of Eurasian-lineage low pathogenic avian influenza A (LPAI) viruses. Here we report the status of circulating avian influenza A viruses in Bangladeshi LPMs from March 2016 to January 2018. Until April 2017, H5N1 viruses exclusively belonged to H5N1-R1 clade 2.3.2.1a. However, in May 2017, we identified another reassortant H5N1 (H5N1-R2), also of clade 2.3.2.1a, wherein the PA gene segment of H5N1-R1 was replaced by that of another Eurasian-lineage LPAI virus related to A/duck/Bangladesh/30828/2016 (H3N8), detected in Bangladeshi LPM in September 2016. Currently, both reassortant H5N1-R1 and H5N1-R2 co-circulate in Bangladeshi LPMs. Furthermore, some LPAI viruses isolated from LPMs during 2016-2017 were closely related to those from ducks in free-range farms and wild birds in Tanguar haor, a wetland region of Bangladesh where ducks have frequent contact with migratory birds. These data support a hypothesis where Tanguar haor-like ecosystems provide a mechanism for movement of LPAI viruses to LPMs where reassortment with poultry viruses occurs adding to the diversity of viruses at this human-animal interface.

KEYWORDS: Bangladesh; H9N2 viruses; avian influenza A virus; domestic ducks; highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses; live poultry market; reassortment; surveillance

PMID: 31014196 DOI: 10.1080/22221751.2019.1605845

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Reassortant Strain; Poultry; Live poultry markets; Bangladesh.

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#Virus #survival and fitness when multiple genotypes and subtypes of #influenza A viruses exist and circulate in #swine (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Apr 9;532:30-38. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.016. [Epub ahead of print]

Virus survival and fitness when multiple genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses exist and circulate in swine.

Ma J1, Shen H1, McDowell C1, Liu Q1, Duff M1, Lee J1, Lang Y1, Hesse D1, Richt JA1, Ma W2.

Author information: 1 Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. 2 Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address: wjma@ksu.edu.

 

Abstract

We performed swine influenza virus (SIV) surveillance in Midwest USA and isolated 100 SIVs including endemic and reassortant H1 and H3 viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 genes. To determine virus evolution when different genotypes and subtypes of influenza A viruses circulating in the same swine herd, a virus survival experiment was conducted in pigs mimicking field situations. Five different SIVs were used to infect five pigs individually, then two groups of sentinel pigs were introduced to investigate virus transmission. Results showed that each virus replicated efficiently in lungs of each infected pig, but only reassortant H3N2 and H1N2v viruses transmitted to the primary contact pigs. Interestingly, the parental H1N2v was the majority of virus detected in the second group of sentinel pigs. These data indicate that the H1N2v seems to be more viable in swine herds than other SIV genotypes, and reassortment can enhance viral fitness and transmission.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: H1N2v; Pigs; Surveillance; Swine influenza virus; Virus competition and survival

PMID: 31003122 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.03.016

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; Pigs; H1N1; H3N2; H1N2.

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