#UK #vaccines #network: Mapping #priority #pathogens of #epidemic #potential and vaccine #pipeline developments (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Sep 12. pii: S0264-410X(19)31197-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009. [Epub ahead of print]

UK vaccines network: Mapping priority pathogens of epidemic potential and vaccine pipeline developments.

Noad RJ1, Simpson K2, Fooks AR3, Hewson R4, Gilbert SC5, Stevens MP6, Hosie MJ7, Prior J8, Kinsey AM9, Entrican G10, Simpson A11, Whitty CJM12, Carroll MW13.

Author information: 1 Pathobiology and Population Science, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK. Electronic address: rnoad@rvc.ac.uk. 2 JKS Bioscience Ltd, 2 Midanbury Court, 44 Midanbury Lane, Southampton SO18 4HF, UK. Electronic address: Karl.simpson@jksbioscience.co.uk. 3 Animal and Plant Health Agency, Weybridge, UK. Electronic address: Tony.Fooks@apha.gsi.gov.uk. 4 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. 5 Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address: sarah.gilbert@ndm.ox.ac.uk. 6 The Roslin Institute & Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK. Electronic address: Mark.Stevens@roslin.ed.ac.uk. 7 MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, College of Veterinary, Medical and Life Sciences, Garscube Estate, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. Electronic address: margaret.hosie@glasgow.ac.uk. 8 CBR Division, Dstl Porton Down, Wiltshire SP3 4DZ, UK. Electronic address: jlprior@dstl.gsi.gov.uk. 9 Medical Research Council, One Kemble Street, London WC2B 4AN, UK. Electronic address: anna.kinsey@mrc.ukri.org. 10 Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, Penicuik, Near Edinburgh, Scotland EH26 0PZ, UK. Electronic address: Gary.Entrican@moredun.ac.uk. 11 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: Andrew.simpson@phe.gov.uk. 12 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel St., London WC1E 7HT, UK. Electronic address: christopher.whitty@lshtm.ac.uk. 13 National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JG, UK. Electronic address: miles.carroll@phe.gov.uk.

 

Abstract

During the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa an expert panel was established on the instructions of the UK Prime Minister to identify priority pathogens for outbreak diseases that had the potential to cause future epidemics. A total of 13 priority pathogens were identified, which led to the prioritisation of spending in emerging diseases vaccine research and development from the UK. This meeting report summarises the process used to develop the UK pathogen priority list, compares it to lists generated by other organisations (World Health Organisation, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and summarises clinical progress towards the development of vaccines against priority diseases. There is clear technical progress towards the development of vaccines. However, the availability of these vaccines will be dependent on sustained funding for clinical trials and the preparation of clinically acceptable manufactured material during inter-epidemic periods.

Copyright © 2019.

KEYWORDS: Epidemic; Outbreak; Pathogen; Priority; UKVN; Vaccine

PMID: 31522809 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.009

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; UK; Vaccines.

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#Regulatory aspects of quality and safety for live #recombinant viral #vaccines against infectious diseases in #Japan (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Sep 7. pii: S0264-410X(19)31095-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.031. [Epub ahead of print]

Regulatory aspects of quality and safety for live recombinant viral vaccines against infectious diseases in Japan.

Sakurai A1, Ogawa T2, Matsumoto J3, Kihira T4, Fukushima S5, Miyata I6, Shimizu H7, Itamura S8, Ouchi K9, Hamada A10, Tani K11, Okabe N12, Yamaguchi T13.

Author information: 1 Office of Vaccines and Blood Products, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Shin-Kasumigaseki Bldg., 3-3-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Electronic address: sakurai-akira@pmda.go.jp. 2 Office of Vaccines and Blood Products, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Shin-Kasumigaseki Bldg., 3-3-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Electronic address: ogawa-takashi@pmda.go.jp. 3 Office of Vaccines and Blood Products, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Shin-Kasumigaseki Bldg., 3-3-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Electronic address: matsumoto-jun@pmda.go.jp. 4 Office of Vaccines and Blood Products, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Shin-Kasumigaseki Bldg., 3-3-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0013, Japan. Electronic address: kihira-tetsunari@pmda.go.jp. 5 Travellers’ Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan. Electronic address: fuku789@tokyo-med.ac.jp. 6 Department of Pediatrics, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-Shi, Okayama 701-0192, Japan. Electronic address: miyata.kkcl@gmail.com. 7 Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Life Science and Environment (LiSE) Research Center 2F, 3-25-13 Tono-Machi, Kawasaki-Ku, Kawasaki-City, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan. Electronic address: shimizu-h@city.kawasaki.jp. 8 National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4-7-1 Gakuen, Musashimurayama-Shi, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan. Electronic address: sitamura@nih.go.jp. 9 Department of Pediatrics, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki-Shi, Okayama 701-0192, Japan. Electronic address: kouchi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp. 10 Travellers’ Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan. Electronic address: a-hamada@tokyo-med.ac.jp.  11 Project Division of ALA Advanced Medical Research, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Electronic address: k-tani@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp. 12 Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Life Science and Environment (LiSE) Research Center 2F, 3-25-13 Tono-Machi, Kawasaki-Ku, Kawasaki-City, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan. Electronic address: okaben-n@city.kawasaki.jp. 13 Divison of Pharmacology, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, 10281 Komuro, Ina-machi, Kitaadachi-gun, Saitama 362-0806, Japan. Electronic address: t-yamaguchi@nichiyaku.ac.jp.

 

Abstract

Recombinant viral vaccines expressing antigens of pathogenic microbes (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, and malaria) have been designed to overcome the insufficient immune responses induced by the conventional vaccines. Our knowledge of and clinical experience with the new recombinant viral vaccines are insufficient, and a clear regulatory pathway is needed for the further development and evaluation of recombinant viral vaccines. In 2018, the research group supported by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (MHLW) published a concept paper to address the development of recombinant viral vaccines against infectious diseases. Herein we summarize the concept paper-which explains the Japanese regulatory concerns about recombinant viral vaccines-and provide a focus of discussion about the development of recombinant viral vaccines.

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31506194 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.08.031

Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Vaccines; Japan.

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The #SpanishFlu, #Epidemics, and the Turn to #Biomedical #Responses (Am J Public Health, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Am J Public Health. 2018 Nov;108(11):1455-1458. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304581. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

The Spanish Flu, Epidemics, and the Turn to Biomedical Responses.

Schwartz JL1.

Author information: 1 The author is with the Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, and Section of the History of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

 

Abstract

A century ago, nonpharmaceutical interventions such as school closings, restrictions on large gatherings, and isolation and quarantine were the centerpiece of the response to the Spanish Flu. Yet, even though its cause was unknown and the science of vaccine development was in its infancy, considerable enthusiasm also existed for using vaccines to prevent its spread. This desire far exceeded the scientific knowledge and technological capabilities of the time. Beginning in the early 1930s, however, advances in virology and influenza vaccine development reshaped the relative priority given to biomedical approaches in epidemic response over traditional public health activities. Today, the large-scale implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions akin to the response to the Spanish Flu would face enormous legal, ethical, and political challenges, but the enthusiasm for vaccines and other biomedical interventions that was emerging in 1918 has flourished. The Spanish Flu functioned as an inflection point in the history of epidemic responses, a critical moment in the long transition from approaches dominated by traditional public health activities to those in which biomedical interventions are viewed as the most potent and promising tools in the epidemic response arsenal.

PMID: 30252511 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304581 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Keywords: Pandemic Influenza; Pandemic Preparedness; Spanish Flu; Infectious diseases; Vaccines; Quarantine measures.

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#Polymicrobial Nature of #Tick-Borne #Diseases (mBio, abstract)

[Source: mBio, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Polymicrobial Nature of Tick-Borne Diseases

Santiago Sanchez-Vicente, Teresa Tagliafierro, James L. Coleman, Jorge L. Benach, Rafal Tokarz

Liise-anne Pirofski, Editor

DOI: 10.1128/mBio.02055-19

 

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne diseases have doubled in the last 12 years, and their geographic distribution has spread as well. The clinical spectrum of tick-borne diseases can range from asymptomatic to fatal infections, with a disproportionate incidence in children and the elderly. In the last few years, new agents have been discovered, and genetic changes have helped in the spread of pathogens and ticks. Polymicrobial infections, mostly in Ixodes scapularis, can complicate diagnostics and augment disease severity. Amblyomma americanum ticks have expanded their range, resulting in a dynamic and complex situation, possibly fueled by climate change. To document these changes, using molecular biology strategies for pathogen detection, an assessment of 12 microbes (9 pathogens and 3 symbionts) in three species of ticks was done in Suffolk County, New York. At least one agent was detected in 63% of I. scapularis ticks. Borrelia burgdorferi was the most prevalent pathogen (57% in adults; 27% in nymphs), followed by Babesia microti (14% in adults; 15% in nymphs), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (14% in adults; 2% in nymphs), Borrelia miyamotoi (3% in adults), and Powassan virus (2% in adults). Polymicrobial infections were detected in 22% of I. scapularis ticks, with coinfections of B. burgdorferi and B. microti (9%) and of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum (7%). Three Ehrlichia species were detected in 4% of A. americanum ticks. The rickettsiae constituted the largest prokaryotic biomass of all the ticks tested and included Rickettsia amblyommatis, Rickettsia buchneri, and Rickettsia montanensis. The high rates of polymicrobial infection in ticks present an opportunity to study the biological interrelationships of pathogens and their vectors.

 

IMPORTANCE

Tick-borne diseases have increased in prevalence in the United States and abroad. The reasons for these increases are multifactorial, but climate change is likely to be a major factor. One of the main features of the increase is the geographic expansion of tick vectors, notably Amblyomma americanum, which has brought new pathogens to new areas. The clinical spectrum of tick-borne diseases can range from asymptomatic to fatal infections, with a disproportionate incidence in children and the elderly. In addition, new pathogens that are cotransmitted by Ixodes scapularis have been discovered and have led to difficult diagnoses and to disease severity. Of these, Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, continues to be the most frequently transmitted pathogen. However, Babesia microti, Borrelia miyamotoi (another spirochete), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Powassan virus are frequent cotransmitted agents. Polymicrobial infection has important consequences for the diagnosis and management of tick-borne diseases.

Keywords: Tick-borne diseases; Powassan virus; Borrelia burgorferi; Infectious diseases.

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#Zoonotic #Diseases in #Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Diseases in Oman: Successes, Challenges, and Future Directions

Salah Al Awaidy and Hilal Al Hashami

Published Online: 5 Sep 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2458

 

Abstract

Objective:

This article describes the situation analysis of endemic and emerging zoonoses, and includes prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman. It also suggests possible recommendations toward elimination and risk reduction of emerging zoonoses.

Methods:

Epidemiologic information has been drawn from official to assess the situation. There has been significant progress in reducing the risk of brucellosis, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Rabies, West Nile fever, Q fever, and cystic hydatid disease have been confined to wildlife or livestock.

Results:

There is an increasing threat of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in Oman due to globalization of travel and trade, development activities, and impact of climate change and vector bionomics. Prevention, control, and subsequent elimination of zoonoses on a sustainable basis shall not be possible without intersectoral collaboration between the human and animal health sectors. There are challenges for establishing such strong collaboration and coordination mechanisms in Oman. Institutional and cultural barriers, data and resource sharing, and national capability for rapid and effective investigation of zoonotic infections and emerging zoonoses in humans and animal reservoirs are among others.

Conclusions:

In the light of achievements made on the prevention and control of zoonoses in Oman during the past decades, priority zoonoses should be identified for elimination, and continuous efforts should be made to further strengthen a holistic multidisciplinary and multisectorial approach for controlling zoonoses at source. Pivotal interventions would include urgent adoption of “One Health” strategic approach as well as establishment of a robust, integrated surveillance system with a strong laboratory investigation capacity to eliminate priority zoonoses and minimize the risk of entry, establishment, and spread of emerging zoonoses in Oman.

Keywords: Zoonoses; Infectious Diseases; Emerging Diseases; Oman.

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#ICU #Preparedness During #Pandemics and Other #Biological #Threats (Crit Care Clin., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Crit Care Clin. 2019 Oct;35(4):609-618. doi: 10.1016/j.ccc.2019.06.001. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Intensive Care Unit Preparedness During Pandemics and Other Biological Threats.

Maves RC1, Jamros CM2, Smith AG2.

Author information: 1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Naval Medical Center, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134, USA. Electronic address: ryan.c.maves.mil@mail.mil. 2 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Naval Medical Center, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134, USA.

 

Abstract

In the twenty-first century, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), 2009 A(H1N1) influenza, and Ebola have all placed strains on critical care systems. In addition to the increased patient needs common to many disasters, epidemics may further degrade ICU capability when staff members fall ill, including in the course of direct patient care. In a large-scale pandemic, shortages of equipment and medications can further limit an ICU’s ability to provide the normal standard of care. Hospital preparedness for epidemics must include strategies to maintain staff safety, secure adequate supplies, and have plans for triage and prioritization of care when necessary.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Disaster preparedness; Influenza; Pandemic

PMID: 31445608 DOI: 10.1016/j.ccc.2019.06.001

Keywords: Pandemic preparedness; Infectious diseases; Intensive Care.

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A novel sub-epidemic #modeling #framework for short-term #forecasting #epidemic #waves (BMC Med., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMC Med. 2019 Aug 22;17(1):164. doi: 10.1186/s12916-019-1406-6.

A novel sub-epidemic modeling framework for short-term forecasting epidemic waves.

Chowell G1,2, Tariq A3, Hyman JM4.

Author information: 1 Department of Population Heath Sciences, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. gchowell@gsu.edu. 2 Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. gchowell@gsu.edu. 3 Department of Population Heath Sciences, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. 4 Department of Mathematics, Center for Computational Science, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Simple phenomenological growth models can be useful for estimating transmission parameters and forecasting epidemic trajectories. However, most existing phenomenological growth models only support single-peak outbreak dynamics whereas real epidemics often display more complex transmission trajectories.

METHODS:

We develop and apply a novel sub-epidemic modeling framework that supports a diversity of epidemic trajectories including stable incidence patterns with sustained or damped oscillations to better understand and forecast epidemic outbreaks. We describe how to forecast an epidemic based on the premise that the observed coarse-scale incidence can be decomposed into overlapping sub-epidemics at finer scales. We evaluate our modeling framework using three outbreak datasets: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Singapore, plague in Madagascar, and the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and four performance metrics.

RESULTS:

The sub-epidemic wave model outperforms simpler growth models in short-term forecasts based on performance metrics that account for the uncertainty of the predictions namely the mean interval score (MIS) and the coverage of the 95% prediction interval. For example, we demonstrate how the sub-epidemic wave model successfully captures the 2-peak pattern of the SARS outbreak in Singapore. Moreover, in short-term sequential forecasts, the sub-epidemic model was able to forecast the second surge in case incidence for this outbreak, which was not possible using the simple growth models. Furthermore, our findings support the view that the national incidence curve of the Ebola epidemic in DRC follows a stable incidence pattern with periodic behavior that can be decomposed into overlapping sub-epidemics.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings highlight how overlapping sub-epidemics can capture complex epidemic dynamics, including oscillatory behavior in the trajectory of the epidemic wave. This observation has significant implications for interpreting apparent noise in incidence data where the oscillations could be dismissed as a result of overdispersion, rather than an intrinsic part of the epidemic dynamics. Unless the oscillations are appropriately modeled, they could also give a false positive, or negative, impression of the impact from public health interventions. These preliminary results using sub-epidemic models can help guide future efforts to better understand the heterogenous spatial and social factors shaping sub-epidemic patterns for other infectious diseases.

KEYWORDS: Democratic Republic of Congo; Ebola; Epidemic wave; Forecast; Mathematical framework; Mean interval score; Plague; Reporting delay; SARS; Sub-epidemic; Uncertainty; Unobserved heterogeneity

PMID: 31438953 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-019-1406-6

Keywords: Infectious diseases; Mathematical models.

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