Alterations in #visual acuity and visual #development in #infants 1-24 months old either exposed to or infected by #Zika virus during #gestation, with and without #microcephaly (J AAPOS., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J AAPOS. 2019 Jun 20. pii: S1091-8531(19)30137-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2019.03.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Alterations in visual acuity and visual development in infants 1-24 months old either exposed to or infected by Zika virus during gestation, with and without microcephaly.

Baran LCP1, da Costa MF2, Vidal KS2, Damico FM3, Barboni MTS4, da S Lima D2, de C R de M França V5, Martins CMG2, Tabares HS2, Dias SL5, Silva LA2, Decleva D2, Hamer RD6, Zatz M7, Bertozzi APAP8, Gazeta RE8, Passos SD8, Ventura DF2.

Author information: 1 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo Institute of Psychology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Nucleus of Neurosciences and Behavior, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: 2 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo Institute of Psychology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Nucleus of Neurosciences and Behavior, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 3 Department of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo College of Medicine, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 4 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo Institute of Psychology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Nucleus of Neurosciences and Behavior, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. 5 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo Institute of Psychology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. 6 Department of Experimental Psychology, University of São Paulo Institute of Psychology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Nucleus of Neurosciences and Behavior, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida. 7 Human Genome and Stem Cells Center, Bioscience Institute, University of São Paulo. 8 University of Jundiai Medical School, Jundiai, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.




To evaluate visual acuity and visual acuity development in children from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, who were exposed to the Zika virus (ZIKV) gestationally.


Children who had been exposed to ZIKV during gestation and age-matched control subjects received visual acuity and funduscopic examination. ZIKV exposure was confirmed by maternal quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing or serology assay. The ZIKV group was divided into two subgroups: Zika-exposed (ZE), with only the mother having confirmed ZIKV-infection, and Zika-infected (ZI), with confirmed infection. Visual acuity development was compared with prior norms and quantified by measuring visual acuity correlation with age.


A total of 110 children were included: 47 who had been exposed to ZIKV (ZE, 23; ZI, 24) and 63 controls. Abnormal visual acuity was found in 5 of 24 ZI children. Of the 4 children with microcephaly, only 2 had visual acuity loss (only 1 also had abnormal funduscopic findings). There was significant correlation between age and visual acuity in both the control group (R2 = 0.8; P < 0.0000) and the ZE subgroup (R2 = 0.6; P < 0.0000). However, visual acuity did not correlate with age in the ZI subgroup (R2 = 0.04; P = 0.38). Furthermore, the increment in octaves/month was much lower in the ZI subgroup.


Our data indicates that visual acuity losses only occur in infants who suffered gestational-infection, not simply exposure. Lack of correlation between age and visual acuity in the ZI subgroup suggests a slowing of visual development even in the absence of microcephaly. This result may have broad implications for the deleterious effects of ZIKV on the central nervous system.

Copyright © 2019 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31229606 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2019.03.005

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly; Pediatrics; Ophthalmology; Neurology.



#Understanding the #relation between #Zika virus #infection during #pregnancy and adverse #fetal, #infant and #child #outcomes: a protocol … (BMJ Open., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

BMJ Open. 2019 Jun 18;9(6):e026092. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026092.

Understanding the relation between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse fetal, infant and child outcomes: a protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of pregnant women and their infants and children.

Wilder-Smith A1, Wei Y2, Araújo TVB3, VanKerkhove M4, Turchi Martelli CM5, Turchi MD6, Teixeira M7, Tami A8, Souza J9, Sousa P10, Soriano-Arandes A11, Soria-Segarra C12, Sanchez Clemente N13, Rosenberger KD14, Reveiz L15, Prata-Barbosa A16, Pomar L17, Pelá Rosado LE18, Perez F19, Passos SD20, Nogueira M21, Noel TP22, Moura da Silva A23, Moreira ME24, Morales I14, Miranda Montoya MC25, Miranda-Filho DB26, Maxwell L27,28, Macpherson CNL22, Low N29, Lan Z30, LaBeaud AD31, Koopmans M32, Kim C33, João E34, Jaenisch T14, Hofer CB35, Gustafson P36, Gérardin P37,38, Ganz JS39, Dias ACF7, Elias V40, Duarte G41, Debray TPA42, Cafferata ML43, Buekens P44, Broutet N33, Brickley EB45, Brasil P46, Brant F7, Bethencourt S47, Benedetti A48, Avelino-Silva VL49, Ximenes RAA50, Alves da Cunha A51, Alger J52; Zika Virus Individual Participant Data Consortium.

Collaborators (33): Abreu de Carvalho LM, Batista R, Bertozzi AP, Carles G, Cotrim D, Damasceno L, Dimitrakis L, Duarte Rodrigues MM, Estofolete CF, Fragoso da Silveira Gouvêa MI, Fumadó-Pérez V, Gazeta RE, Kaydos-Daniels N, Gilboa S, Krystosik A, Lambert V, López-Hortelano MG, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Nelson C, Nielsen K, Oliani DM, Rabello R, Ribeiro M, Rockx B, Rodrigues LC, Salgado S, Silveira K, Sulleiro E, Tong V, Valencia D, De Souza WV, Villar Centeno LA, Zin A.

Author information: 1 Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore. 2 Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK. 3 Department of Social Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 4 Health Emergencies Programme, Organisation mondiale de la Sante, Geneve, Switzerland. 5 Department of Collective Health, Institute Aggeu Magalhães (CPqAM), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Recife, Brazil. 6 Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goias, Goiânia, Brazil. 7 Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 8 Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. 9 Department of Social Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 10 Reference Center for Neurodevelopment, Assistance, and Rehabilitation of Children, State Department of Health of Maranhão, Sao Luís, Brazil. 11 Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. 12 SOSECALI C. Ltda, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 13 Department of Epidemiology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 14 Department of Infectious Diseases, Section Clinical Tropical Medicine, UniversitatsKlinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. 15 Evidence and Intelligence for Action in Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. 16 Department of Pediatrics, D’Or Institute for Research & Education, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 17 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Centre Hospitalier de l’Ouest Guyanais, Saint-Laurent du Maroni, French Guiana. 18 Hospital Materno Infantil de Goiânia, Goiânia State Health Secretary, Goiás, Brazil. 19 Communicable Diseases and Environmental Determinants of Health Department, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. 20 Department of Pediatrics, FMJ, São Paulo, Brazil. 21 Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Department of Dermatologic Diseases, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. 22 Windward Islands Research and Education Foundation, St. George’s University, True Blue Point, Grenada. 23 Department of Public Health, Universidade Federal do Maranhão – São Luís, São Luís, Brazil. 24 Department of Neonatology, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 25 Facultad de Salud, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia. 26 Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 27 Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 28 Hubert Department of Global Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 29 Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. 30 McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Canada. 31 Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Stanford Hospital, Palo Alto, California, USA. 32 Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 33 Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 34 Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 35 Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 36 Statistics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 37 INSERM CIC1410 Clinical Epidemiology, CHU La Réunion, Saint Pierre, Réunion. 38 UM 134 PIMIT (CNRS 9192, INSERM U1187, IRD 249, Université de la Réunion), Universite de la Reunion, Sainte Clotilde, Réunion. 39 Children’s Hospital Juvencio Matos, São Luís, Brazil. 40 Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. 41 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 42 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. 43 Mother and Children Health Research Department, Instituto de Efectividad Clinica y Sanitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 44 School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, USA. 45 Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 46 Instituto de pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 47 Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia, Carabobo, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. 48 Departments of Medicine and of Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 49 Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 50 Department of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. 51 Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 52 Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.




Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is a known cause of microcephaly and other congenital and developmental anomalies. In the absence of a ZIKV vaccine or prophylactics, principal investigators (PIs) and international leaders in ZIKV research have formed the ZIKV Individual Participant Data (IPD) Consortium to identify, collect and synthesise IPD from longitudinal studies of pregnant women that measure ZIKV infection during pregnancy and fetal, infant or child outcomes.


We will identify eligible studies through the ZIKV IPD Consortium membership and a systematic review and invite study PIs to participate in the IPD meta-analysis (IPD-MA). We will use the combined dataset to estimate the relative and absolute risk of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), including microcephaly and late symptomatic congenital infections; identify and explore sources of heterogeneity in those estimates and develop and validate a risk prediction model to identify the pregnancies at the highest risk of CZS or adverse developmental outcomes. The variable accuracy of diagnostic assays and differences in exposure and outcome definitions means that included studies will have a higher level of systematic variability, a component of measurement error, than an IPD-MA of studies of an established pathogen. We will use expert testimony, existing internal and external diagnostic accuracy validation studies and laboratory external quality assessments to inform the distribution of measurement error in our models. We will apply both Bayesian and frequentist methods to directly account for these and other sources of uncertainty.


The IPD-MA was deemed exempt from ethical review. We will convene a group of patient advocates to evaluate the ethical implications and utility of the risk stratification tool. Findings from these analyses will be shared via national and international conferences and through publication in open access, peer-reviewed journals.


PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42017068915).

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.

KEYWORDS: Microcephaly; Zika Virus; congenital Zika syndrome; individual participant data meta-analysisis; prognosis; risk prediction model

PMID: 31217315 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026092

Keywords: Zika Virus; Microcephaly; Pregnancy; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome.


#Epidemiological and #clinical suspicion of #congenital #Zika virus #infection: #serological findings in #mothers and #children from #Brazil (J Med Virol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Med Virol. 2019 May 15. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25504. [Epub ahead of print]

Epidemiological and clinical suspicion of congenital Zika virus infection: serological findings in mothers and children from Brazil.

Venturi G1, Fortuna C1, Alves RM2, Passos do Prado Paschoal AG2, da Silva Júnior PJ3, Remoli ME1, Benedetti E1, Amendola A1, da Silva Batista E3, Gama DVN2, Barros DH3, Fiorentini C1, Rezza G1, Leite Primo Chagas JR2,3.

Author information: 1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy. 2 Pediatric Neurology Service, S. Antonio das Obras Sociais Irmã Dulce Hospital(HSA/OSID), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 3 Neurologia Pediátrica, Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.



The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has caused an increase of babies born with microcephaly or other neurological malformations. The differential diagnosis of Zika infection, particularly serological diagnosis, is an important but complex issue. In this study, we describe clinical manifestations of 94 suspected cases of congenital Zika from Bahia state, Brazil, and the results of serological tests performed on children and/or their mothers at an average of 71 days after birth. Anti-Zika IgM antibodies were detected in 44.4% and in 7.1% of samples from mothers and children, respectively. Nearly all the IgM, and 92% of IgG positive results were confirmed by neutralization test. Zika specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in as much as 90.4 % of the cases. Moreover, dengue specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in 79.0% of Zika seropositive mothers. In conclusion, Zika IgM negative results should be considered with caution, due to a possible rapid loss of sensitivity after birth, while the NS1-based Zika IgM ELISA test we have used has demonstrated to be highly specific. In a high percentage of cases, Zika specific neutralizing antibodies were detected, which are indicative of a past Zika infection, probably occurred during pregnancy in this population.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Congenital infection; Flavivirus; diagnosis; microcephaly; neutralization test; serological tests

PMID: 31090222 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.25504

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika  Congenital Infection; Serology; Pregnancy; Brazil.


#Children Born to #Mothers with #Rash During #Zika Virus #Epidemic in #Brazil: First 18 Months of Life (J Trop Pediatr., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

J Trop Pediatr. 2019 Apr 21. pii: fmz019. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmz019. [Epub ahead of print]

Children Born to Mothers with Rash During Zika Virus Epidemic in Brazil: First 18 Months of Life.

Vianna RAO1, Lovero KL2, Oliveira SA1, Fernandes AR1, Santos TCSD1, Lima LCSS1, Carvalho FR1, Quintans MDS1, Bueno AC1, Torbey AFM1, Souza ALAAG1, Farias AOP1, Camacho LAB3, Riley LW4, Cardoso CAA1.

Author information: 1 Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ 24.033-900, Brazil. 2 Department of Psychiatry, University of Columbia, New York 10032, USA. 3 Departamento de Epidemiologia e Métodos Quantitativos em Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21.041-210, Brazil. 4 Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.




To better understand the clinical spectrum and course of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) during the first 18 months of life of children whose mothers had rash during pregnancy.


This longitudinal observational study evaluated the clinical progress from birth until 18 months of life of children of mothers who developed rash during or up to 3 months before gestation. Maternal rash occurred from November 2015 to May 2017. The study subjects were divided into three groups: children whose mothers tested positive by RT-qPCR for Zika virus (ZIKV) (Group 1), children whose mothers tested negative by RT-qPCR for ZIKV (Group 2), and children whose mothers did not undergo any testing for ZIKV (Group 3) but tested negative for other congenital infections.


Between April 2016 and July 2018, we studied 108 children: 43 in Group 1, 26 in Group 2 and 39 in Group 3. The majority of children were admitted into the study within 6 months of life. CZS was diagnosed in 26 children, equally distributed in Groups 1 and 3. Of 18 children with microcephaly, 6 were in Group 1 (1 postnatal) and 12 were in Group 3 (5 postnatal). Maternal rash frequency was 10 times higher during the first trimester than in the other trimesters (OR: 10.35; CI 95%: 3.52-30.41). CZS was diagnosed during the follow-up period in 14 (54%) cases. Developmental delays and motor abnormalities occurred in all children and persisted up to 18 months. Epilepsy occurred in 18 (69%) of the cases.


Infants born of mothers exposed to ZIKV during pregnancy showed progression of developmental, motor and neurologic abnormalities even if they were born asymptomatic. Continued postnatal monitoring of such newborns is necessary to preclude disability-associated complications.

© The Author(s) [2019]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

KEYWORDS: Congenital Zika syndrome; RT-PCR; Zika virus; microcephaly

PMID: 31006031 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmz019

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly; Pregnancy; Brazil.


#Zika viruses of #African and #Asian lineages cause #fetal #harm in a mouse model of vertical #transmission (PLoS Negl Trop Dis., abstract)

[Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]


Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission

Anna S. Jaeger, Reyes A. Murrieta, Lea R. Goren, Chelsea M. Crooks, Ryan V. Moriarty, Andrea M. Weiler, Sierra Rybarczyk, Matthew R. Semler, Christopher Huffman, Andres Mejia, Heather A. Simmons, Michael Fritsch, Jorge E. Osorio,  [ … ], Matthew T. Aliota

Published: April 17, 2019 / DOI: / This is an uncorrected proof.



Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was first linked to birth defects during the American outbreak in 2015/2016. It has been proposed that mutations unique to the Asian/American-genotype explain, at least in part, the ability of Asian/American ZIKV to cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Recent studies identified mutations in ZIKV infecting humans that arose coincident with the outbreak in French Polynesia and were stably maintained during subsequent spread to the Americas. Here we show that African ZIKV can infect and harm fetuses and that the S139N substitution that has been associated with the American outbreak is not essential for fetal harm. Our findings, in a vertical transmission mouse model, suggest that ZIKV will remain a threat to pregnant women for the foreseeable future, including in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Additional research is needed to better understand the risks associated with ZIKV infection during pregnancy, both in areas where the virus is newly endemic and where it has been circulating for decades.


Author summary

Zika virus (ZIKV) was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and is thought to have spread from Africa through equatorial Asia in the middle of the 20th century. Along the way the virus diversified, so that now two genetic lineages, African and Asian/American, are recognized. Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), the set of fetal and neonatal complications associated with ZIKV infection in pregnancy, was noted during the recent outbreak in the Americas. But the origins of CZS remain a mystery. In particular, it is unclear whether ZIKV recently acquired the ability to cause CZS, perhaps as Asian-lineage viruses spread to the Americas, or whether African-lineage viruses can also cause CZS. To address this question, we used a mouse model of vertical ZIKV transmission to assess pathogenic potential to the fetus of African and Asian/American ZIKV. Our data show that ZIKV of both African and Asian/American lineages can cause fetal harm in the mouse pregnancy model, and that this capacity does not require asparagine at amino acid residue 139, which recently emerged in Asian-lineage viruses and has been suggested to increase ZIKV’s pathogenic potential for fetuses. Our results, therefore imply that ZIKV infection during pregnancy poses a risk for fetal harm in all regions where the virus is endemic.


Citation: Jaeger AS, Murrieta RA, Goren LR, Crooks CM, Moriarty RV, Weiler AM, et al. (2019) Zika viruses of African and Asian lineages cause fetal harm in a mouse model of vertical transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(4): e0007343.

Editor: Anita K. McElroy, CDC, UNITED STATES

Received: December 6, 2018; Accepted: March 27, 2019; Published: April 17, 2019

Copyright: © 2019 Jaeger et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Zika virus sequence data have been deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) with accession code SRP150883 and SRP156459. The authors declare that all other data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article.

Funding: Funding for this project came from National Institutes of Health grants R21AI131454, R01AI132563, R56AI132563, and start-up funds from the University of Minnesota Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences to MTA; and National Institutes of Health grants R01AI067380 and R21AI125996 to GDE. RAM is supported in part by NSF training grant DGE-1450032 and by a Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Fellowship F31AI134108. The publication’s contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NCRR or NIH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Keywords: Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Zika Congenital Infection; Animal models.


#Outcomes of #Congenital #Zika Virus Infection During an #Outbreak in Valle del Cauca, #Colombia (Pediatr Infect Dis J., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Apr 10. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002307. [Epub ahead of print]

Outcomes of Congenital Zika Virus Infection During an Outbreak in Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

Calle-Giraldo JP1, Rojas CA2, Hurtado IC2,3,4, Barco C2, Libreros D5,6, Sánchez PJ7, López P2,8, Arias A6, Dávalos DM9, Lesmes MC4, Pinzón E4, Ortiz VA4, López-Medina E2,6,8.

Author information: 1 From the Department of Pediatrics, Universidad del Quindío, Armenia, Colombia. 2 Department of Pediatrics, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 3 Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 4 Department of Health, Valle del Cauca. Cali, Colombia. 5 Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 6 Centro Médico Imbanaco. Cali, Colombia. 7 Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children´s Hospital, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio. 8 Centro de Estudios en Infectología Pediátrica. Cali, Colombia. 9 Department of Public Health, Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia.




Despite increasing information in the literature regarding congenital Zika infection, gaps remain in our knowledge of its clinical manifestations.


We did a prospective observational study of exposed fetuses and infants whose mothers developed symptomatic and confirmed Zika infection during pregnancy in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. We performed neurological, ophthalmological and audiological evaluations, and classified outcomes as possibly or uncertainly related to Zika. Frequencies of outcomes were compared according to the trimester of pregnancy when infection occurred.


We evaluated 171 products of gestation including 17 pregnancy losses and 154 patients evaluated postnatally. Ninety (52.6%) pregnancies presented an adverse outcome, 36% possibly related with Zika and the remaining 64% of uncertain relation. Infection in the first trimester had the highest frequencies of adverse outcomes possibly related with Zika compared with the second and third trimesters (39% vs. 12.5% vs. 12%) with risk ratios of adverse outcomes possibly related to Zika in pregnancies infected in the first versus second or third trimester of 3.1 (95% CI: 2.4-4.1) and 3.3 (95% CI: 2.5-4.2), respectively. The frequencies of pregnancy loss and microcephaly were 9.4% and 4.5%, respectively. Auditory and ophthalmic abnormalities possibly related with Zika were present in 3% and 6% of the patients evaluated, respectively.


We observed a high frequency of gestational and neonatal complications in pregnant women who acquired Zika infection, especially in early pregnancy, resulting in a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Preventive measures are urgently needed to reduce the clinical burden during future Zika outbreaks.

PMID: 30985517 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002307

Keywords: Zika Virus; Pregancy; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome; Microcephaly; Colombia.


#Zika virus during #pregnancy: From #maternal exposure to #congenital Zika virus #syndrome (Prenat Diagn., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Prenat Diagn. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1002/pd.5446. [Epub ahead of print]

Zika virus during pregnancy: From maternal exposure to congenital Zika virus syndrome.

Pomar L1, Musso D2, Malinger G3, Vouga M1, Panchaud A4, Baud D1.

Author information: 1 Materno-Fetal and Obstetrics Research Unit, Department “Woman-Mother-Child”, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. 2 IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, IHU-Méditerranée infection, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France. 3 Division of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center & Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. 4 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Geneva University and Service of Pharmacy, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.



The risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy depends on the incidence of the disease, which is highly variable in different affected geographic areas (<1% to 75%). Among infected pregnant women, the risk of any adverse fetal/neonatal outcome was estimated at 5-42%, with 1-4% of fetal loss and 4-9% of suspected CZS. The estimated rate of maternal-fetal transmission ranges between 7% and 26%, depending on the methodology of the study. Findings associated with CZS are microcephaly (33-64%), ventriculomegaly (63-92%), calcifications (71-92%), malformations of cortical development (79-82%), anomalies of the corpus callosum (71-100%) and of the posterior fossa (21-82%), arthrogryposis (10-25%), eye abnormalities (25%), and extra-neurologic signs such as intra uterine growth restriction (14%), placentomegaly, transient hepatitis, mild anemia. Infants who present with CZS at birth suffer from motor abnormalities (77-100%), epilepsy (9-54%), hearing loss and neurologic impairments. Prenatal ultrasound with advanced neurosonography and appropriate virological follow-up represent the state-of-the art approach to adequately monitor at-risk pregnancies, in order to diagnose early signs of CZS and to inform parents about the neonatal prognosis.

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 30866073 DOI: 10.1002/pd.5446

Keywords: Zika Virus; Pregnancy; Zika Congenital Infection; Zika Congenital Syndrome.