#SARS-CoV-2 #infection in farmed #minks, the #Netherlands, April and May 2020 (Euro Surveill., abstract)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020

Nadia Oreshkova1  , Robert Jan Molenaar2  , Sandra Vreman1 , Frank Harders1 , Bas B Oude Munnink3 , Renate W Hakze-van der Honing1 , Nora Gerhards1 , Paulien Tolsma4 , Ruth Bouwstra2 , Reina S Sikkema3 , Mirriam GJ Tacken1 , Myrna MT de Rooij5 , Eefke Weesendorp1 , Marc Y Engelsma1 , Christianne JM Bruschke6 , Lidwien AM Smit5 , Marion Koopmans3 , Wim HM van der Poel1  , Arjan Stegeman7

Affiliations: 1 Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Wageningen University and Research, Lelystad, the Netherlands; 2 GD Animal Health, Deventer, the Netherlands; 3 Department of Viroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 4 Regional Public Health Service Brabant-Zuid-Oost, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 5 Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 6 Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Hague, the Netherlands; 7 Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

Correspondence:  Wim H.M. van der Poel

Citation style for this article: Oreshkova Nadia  , Molenaar Robert Jan  , Vreman Sandra , Harders Frank , Oude Munnink Bas B , Hakze-van der Honing Renate W , Gerhards Nora , Tolsma Paulien , Bouwstra Ruth , Sikkema Reina S , Tacken Mirriam GJ , de Rooij Myrna MT , Weesendorp Eefke , Engelsma Marc Y , Bruschke Christianne JM , Smit Lidwien AM , Koopmans Marion , van der Poel Wim HM  , Stegeman Arjan . SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed minks, the Netherlands, April and May 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(23):pii=2001005. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.23.2001005

Received: 24 May 2020;   Accepted: 04 Jun 2020



Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.

©  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Minks; The Netherlands.


#Zoonotic #Pathogens in the #American #Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Zoonotic Pathogens in the American Mink in Its Southernmost Distribution

Francisco Ramírez-Pizarro, Carolina Silva-de la Fuente, Claudio Hernández-Orellana, Juana López, Verónica Madrid, Ítalo Fernández, Nicolás Martín, Daniel González-Acuña, Daniel Sandoval, René Ortega, and Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque

Published Online: 17 Jul 2019 / DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2445



The American mink, Neovison vison, is an invasive species in Chile. Its impact on native fauna and public health has not been studied in depth in the country. In this study, we searched for gastrointestinal parasites, including helminths and zoonotic Cryptosporidium sp., the presence of Trichinella sp. in muscle, and the renal carriage of pathogenic Leptospira sp. in minks caught on Navarino Island, “Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena” Region, and Maullín and Ancud, “Los Lagos” Region, Chile. A total of 58, 15, and 21 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for Trichinellasp. (artificial digestion of muscle). A total of 36, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were examined for pathogenic Leptospira species (molecular detection of LipL32 gen fragment in renal tissue) infection. Finally, 45, 11, and 17 minks from Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud, respectively, were analyzed to detect gastrointestinal parasites (by optical inspection of the digestive tract for helminths, and by both Ziehl-Neelsen stain and molecular detection of small subunit-ribosomal DNA for Cryptosporidium species). Trichinella larvae were not observed. Pathogenic Leptospirasp. was detected in 22 samples: 15 from Navarino Island, 3 from Maullín, and 4 from Ancud. Two nematodes, belonging to Ascaridinae (subfamily) and Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., were found in samples of two minks from Navarino Island. Oocysts and DNA of Cryptosporidium sp. were detected in three fecal samples from Navarino Island. Further studies could determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the potential impact of the zoonotic Leptospira sp. on the human population of the Navarino Island, Maullín, and Ancud districts. The enemy release theory could explain the low helminth species richness in the minks. In addition, we did not find evidence of parasite transmission from native fauna.

Keywords: Southern America; Wildlife; Zoonoses.


#H9N2 Viruses Isolated From #Mammals Replicated in Mice at Higher Levels Than #Avian-Origin Viruses (Front Microbiol., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Front Microbiol. 2019 Mar 11;10:416. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00416. eCollection 2019.

H9N2 Viruses Isolated From Mammals Replicated in Mice at Higher Levels Than Avian-Origin Viruses.

Sun H1, Wang K1, Yao W1, Liu Q1,2, Yang J1,2, Teng Q1,2, Li X1,2, Li Z1,2, Chen H1,2.

Author information: 1 Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China. 2 Animal Influenza Virus Ecology and Pathogenesis Innovation Team, The Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program, Shanghai, China.



H9N2 subtype influenza A virus (IAV) has more than 20 genotypes that are able to cross species barriers and expand from birds to mammals and humans. To better understand the impact of different H9N2 genotypes and their characteristics, five H9N2 viruses from different hosts including chickens, geese, pigs, mink, and humans representing the B69 88(Gs/14, Ck/15, and Mi/14), B35 (Sw/08) and G9 genotypes (Hu/04) were infected in chicken and mice. In mice, mammal-origin viruses replicated at higher levels in the lungs compared to avian viruses. The goose-virus replicated at the lowest levels indicating poor adaptation. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines were positively correlated with viral loads in the lung. In chickens, all viruses were excreted from cloacal and/or oropharyngeal swabs. Interestingly, Mink-origin virus exhibited higher virulence and replication in mice and chickens. Our data indicate that mammal-origin H9N2 viruses are more adapted and virulent in mice than the avian-origin viruses.

KEYWORDS: H9N2; genotype; influenza A virus; pathogenicity; subtype

PMID: 30915048 PMCID: PMC6421276 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00416

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Human; Poultry; Minks; Animal models.


#Intraspecies and #interspecies #transmission of #mink #H9N2 #influenza virus (Sci Rep., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 7;7(1):7429. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-07879-1.

Intraspecies and interspecies transmission of mink H9N2 influenza virus.

Yong-Feng Z1,2, Fei-Fei D1,2, Jia-Yu Y1,2, Feng-Xia Z1,2, Chang-Qing J1,2, Jian-Li W1,2, Shou-Yu G1,2, Kai C3, Chuan-Yi L1,2, Xue-Hua W1,2, Jiang SJ1,2, Zhi-Jing X4,5.

Author information: 1 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China. 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China. 3 College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266109, China. 4 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China. xiezhijing@126.com. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, 271018, China. xiezhijing@126.com.



H9N2 influenza A virus (IAV) causes low pathogenic respiratory disease and infects a wide range of hosts. In this study, six IAVs were isolated from mink and identified as H9N2 IAV. Sequence analysis revealed that the six isolates continued to evolve, and their PB2 genes shared high nucleotide sequence identity with H7N9 IAV. The six isolates contained an amino acid motif PSRSSR↓GL at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is a characteristic of low pathogenic influenza viruses. A serosurvey demonstrated that H9N2 IAV had spread widely in mink and was prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. Transmission experiments showed that close contact between H9N2-infected mink and naive mink, foxes and raccoon dogs resulted in spread of the virus to the contact animals. Furthermore, H9N2 challenge experiments in foxes and raccoon dogs showed that H9N2 IAV could infect these hosts. Virological and epidemiological surveillance of H9N2 IAV should be strengthened for the fur animal industry.

PMID: 28785024 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07879-1

Keywords: Avian Influenza; H9N2; Minks.


#SFTSV #Infection in #Minks in #China (Vector Borne Zoo Dis., abstract)

[Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Minks in China

To cite this article: Wang Gui-sheng, Wang Jin-bao, Tian Fu-lin, Zhang Hua-jie, Yin Fei-fei, Xu Cong, Xu Dong, Huang Yu-ting, and Yu Xue-jie. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. June 2017, ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2017.2115

Online Ahead of Print: June 27, 2017

Author information: Gui-sheng Wang,1,2 Jin-bao Wang,1 Fu-lin Tian,2 Hua-jie Zhang,3 Fei-fei Yin,3 Cong Xu,2 Dong Xu,3 Yu-ting Huang,4 and Xue-jie Yu5,6

1School of Life Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China. 2Shandong Provincial Center for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan, China. 3Weihai City Center for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Weihai, China. 4School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, China. 5Wuhan University School of Health Sciences, Wuhan, China.  6Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Address correspondence to: Xue-jie Yu, Wuhan University School of Health Sciences, Wuhan City 430071, Hubei Province, China, E-mail: xuyu@utmb.edu



We analyzed the seroprevalence of tick-borne severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) in farm-raised minks using double antigen ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit and indicated that 8.4% (15/178) of the minks had antibodies to the nucleoprotein of SFTSV and 72.7% (8/11) of mink farms had minks positive to SFTSV. The ELISA results were further confirmed by presence of neutralization to SFTSV in the mink sera. Our results suggested that minks were widely infected with SFTSV in China.

Keywords: SFTS; Tick-Borne Infections; Vector-borne infections; Wildlife; China.