A novel #reassortant #influenza A (#H1N1) virus #infection in #swine in #Shandong Province, eastern #China (Transbound Emerg Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13360. [Epub ahead of print]

A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China.

Yu Z1,2,3, Cheng K4, He H5, Wu J1,2,3.

Author information: 1 Poultry Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250023, China. 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Poultry Diseases Diagnosis and Immunology. 3 Poultry Breeding Engineering Technology Center of Shandong Province. 4 Dairy Cattle Research Center, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250132, China. 5 College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China.

 

Abstract

Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics. Hence, persistent surveillance of influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine herds could contribute to the prevention and control of this virus. Here, we report a novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus generated by reassortment between 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses and swine viruses. We also found that this virus is prevalent in swine herds in Shandong Province, eastern China. Our findings suggest that surveillance of the emergence of the novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus in swine is imperative.

© 2019 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

KEYWORDS: H1N1; human; influenza; reassortant; swine

PMID: 31535780 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13360

Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H1N1pdm09; Pigs; Reassortant strain; Shandong; China.

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#Mammalian #pathogenicity and transmissibility of a #reassortant Eurasian #avian-like A(#H1N1v) #influenza virus associated with #human #infection in #China (2015) (Virology, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Virology. 2019 Aug 10;537:31-35. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.08.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reassortant Eurasian avian-like A(H1N1v) influenza virus associated with human infection in China (2015).

Pulit-Penaloza JA1, Belser JA1, Tumpey TM1, Maines TR2.

Author information: 1 Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. 2 Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. Electronic address: tmaines@cdc.gov.

 

Abstract

Swine-origin (variant) H1 influenza A viruses associated with numerous human infections in North America in recent years have been extensively studied in vitro and in mammalian models to determine their pandemic potential. However, limited information is available on Eurasian avian-like lineage variant H1 influenza viruses. In 2015, A/Hunan/42443/2015 virus was isolated from a child in China with a severe infection. Molecular analysis revealed that this virus possessed several key virulence and human adaptation markers. Similar to what was previously observed in C57BL/6J mice, we report here that in the BALB/c mouse model, A/Hunan/42443/2015 virus caused more severe morbidity and higher mortality than did North American variant H1 virus isolates. Furthermore, the virus efficiently replicated throughout the respiratory tract of ferrets and exhibited a capacity for transmission in this model, underscoring the need to monitor zoonotic viruses that cross the species barrier as they continue to pose a pandemic threat.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.

KEYWORDS: Ferret; H1N1; Influenza; Pathogenesis; Variant virus

PMID: 31430632 DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2019.08.008

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; Reassortant strain; Human; China.

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#Animal #Influenza Virus #Infections in #Humans: A Commentary (Int J Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 8. pii: S1201-9712(19)30327-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.08.002. [Epub ahead of print]

Animal Influenza Virus Infections in Humans: A Commentary.

Borkenhagen LK1, Salman MD2, Ma MJ3, Gray GC4.

Author information: 1 Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, & Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. 2 Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 3 State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China. 4 Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, & Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, China; Emerging Infectious Diseases Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. Electronic address: gregory.gray@dm.duke.edu.

 

Abstract

Here we review evidence for influenza A viruses (IAVs) moving from swine, avian, feline, equine, and canine species to infect humans. We review case reports, sero-epidemiological, archeo-epidemiological, environmental, and historical studies and consider trends in livestock farming. Although this focused review is not systematic, the aggregated data point to industrialized swine farming as the most likely source of future pandemic viruses, yet IAV surveillance on such farms is remarkably sparse. We recommend increased biosafety and biosecurity training for farm administrators and swine workers with One Health-oriented virus surveillance throughout industrialized farming and meat production lines. Collaborative partnerships with human medical researchers could aid in efforts to mitigate emerging virus threats by offering new surveillance and diagnostic technologies to livestock farming industries.

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

KEYWORDS: One Health; global diseases; infectious animal diseases; influenza; pandemics; zoonosis

PMID: 31401200 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.08.002

Keywords: Influenza A; Swine Influenza; Avian Influenza; Canine Avian Influenza; Human.

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Safety and immunogenicity of unadjuvanted subvirion #monovalent inactivated #influenza #H3N2 variant (#H3N2v) #vaccine in #children and #adolescents (Vaccine, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Vaccine. 2019 Jul 30. pii: S0264-410X(19)31006-0. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.07.085. [Epub ahead of print]

Safety and immunogenicity of unadjuvanted subvirion monovalent inactivated influenza H3N2 variant (H3N2v) vaccine in children and adolescents.

Munoz FM1, Anderson EJ2, Bernstein DI3, Harrison CJ4, Pahud B4, Anderson E5, Creech CB6, Berry AA7, Kotloff KL7, Walter EB8, Atmar RL9, Bellamy AR10, Chang S11, Keitel WA9.

Author information: 1 Departments of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address: florm@bcm.edu. 2 Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. 3 Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States. 4 Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Mercy Hospital Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, United States. 5 Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States. 6 Vanderbilt Vaccine Research Program, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States. 7 Department of Pediatrics and Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States. 8 Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States. 9 Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. 10 The Emmes Corporation, Rockville, MD, United States. 11 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville, MD, United States.

 

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In response to the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, we evaluated a swine-origin influenza A/H3N2 variant (H3N2v) vaccine in children.

STUDY DESIGN:

This multicenter phase II open-label study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of two doses, 21 days apart, of investigational unadjuvanted subvirion monovalent inactivated H3N2v vaccine administered via intramuscular injection. Children 6-35 months of age received 7.5mcg or 15mcg of hemagglutinin (HA)/dose; children 3-17 years of age received 15mcg HA/dose. Safety and reactogenicity were assessed by measuring the occurrence of solicited injection site and systemic reactions in the 7 days after each vaccination; adverse events were assessed for 42 days and serious adverse events for 7 months after the first vaccination. Immunogenicity was evaluated by measuring hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing (Neut) antibodies to H3N2v prior to and 21 days after each vaccination. Cross-reactivity against seasonal H3N2 strains was evaluated.

RESULTS:

The H3N2v vaccine was well tolerated. Transient mild to moderate injection site tenderness, pain and erythema was observed, with the most commonly reported systemic reactogenicity being irritability in children 6-35 months, and headache and fatigue in children 9-17 years old. Children 6-35 months old, whether they received 7.5mcg or 15mcg/dose, had low HAI and Neut antibody responses after two doses compared to older children. Children under 9 years of age required two doses of vaccine to demonstrate a response, while 9-17 year olds responded well after one dose. Previous influenza vaccination and older age were associated with higher immune responses to H3N2v vaccine. Children 9-17 years of age also developed cross-reactive antibodies against recent seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses.

CONCLUSION:

The H3N2v vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children and adolescents. Age-related increases in immunogenicity against H3N2v and seasonal H3N2 viruses were observed, suggesting prior priming via infection and/or immunization. Clinical trial registry: The trial is registered with clinicaltrial.gov: NCT02100436.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS: Adolescents; Children; Cross-reactive antibodies; H3N2 variant; Immunogenicity; Influenza; Safety

PMID: 31375440 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.07.085

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Influenza A; Seasonal Influenza; Pandemic Influenza; H3N2v; Pediatrics; Vaccines.

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#Respiratory Illness in a #Piggery Associated with the First Identified #Outbreak of #Swine #Influenza in #Australia: Assessing the #Risk to #Human Health and #Zoonotic Potential (Trop Med Infect Dis., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Trop Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 25;4(2). pii: E96. doi: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096.

Respiratory Illness in a Piggery Associated with the First Identified Outbreak of Swine Influenza in Australia: Assessing the Risk to Human Health and Zoonotic Potential.

Smith DW1,2, Barr IG3,4, Loh R5, Levy A6, Tempone S7, O’Dea M8, Watson J9, Wong FYK10, Effler PV11,12.

Author information: 1 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 2 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. david.smith@health.wa.gov.au. 3 World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, at The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia. Ian.Barr@influenzacentre.org.au. 5 Sustainability and Biosecurity, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Perth, WA 6151, Australia. richmond.loh@dpird.wa.gov.au. 6 Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. avram.levy@health.wa.gov.au. 7 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. simone.tempone@health.wa.gov.au. 8 School of Veterinary Medicine, Murdoch University, Perth, WA 6150, Australia. M.ODea@murdoch.edu.au. 9 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. James.Watson@csiro.au. 10 CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, VIC 3219, Australia. Frank.Wong@csiro.au. 11 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au. 12 Communicable Disease Control Directorate, Department of Health Western Australia, Perth, WA 6004, Australia. paul.effler@health.wa.gov.au.

 

Abstract

Australia was previously believed to be free of enzootic swine influenza viruses due strict quarantine practices and use of biosecure breeding facilities. The first proven Australian outbreak of swine influenza occurred in Western Australian in 2012, revealing an unrecognized zoonotic risk, and a potential future pandemic threat. A public health investigation was undertaken to determine whether zoonotic infections had occurred and to reduce the risk of further transmission between humans and swine. A program of monitoring, testing, treatment, and vaccination was commenced, and a serosurvey of workers was also undertaken. No acute infections with the swine influenza viruses were detected. Serosurvey results were difficult to interpret due to previous influenza infections and past and current vaccinations. However, several workers had elevated haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels to the swine influenza viruses that could not be attributed to vaccination or infection with contemporaneous seasonal influenza A viruses. However, we lacked a suitable control population, so this was inconclusive. The experience was valuable in developing better protocols for managing outbreaks at the human-animal interface. Strict adherence to biosecurity practices, and ongoing monitoring of swine and their human contacts is important to mitigate pandemic risk. Strain specific serological assays would greatly assist in identifying zoonotic transmission.

KEYWORDS: Australia; human; influenza; pandemic; swine

PMID: 31242646 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020096

Keywords: Swine Influenza; Pigs; Human; Serology; Australia.

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The #PA #Subunit of the #Influenza Virus #Polymerase Complex Affects #Replication and #Airborne #Transmission of the #H9N2 Subtype #Avian Influenza Virus (Viruses, abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Viruses. 2019 Jan 9;11(1). pii: E40. doi: 10.3390/v11010040.

The PA Subunit of the Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex Affects Replication and Airborne Transmission of the H9N2 Subtype Avian Influenza Virus.

Hao M1,2, Han S3,4, Meng D5,6, Li R7, Lin J8, Wang M9, Zhou T10, Chai T11.

Author information: 1 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 2 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. mengchan1993@126.com. 3 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763896230@163.com. 4 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. 18763896230@163.com. 5 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. iamli_z@126.com. 6 Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Taishan Medical University, Taian 270016, China. iamli_z@126.com. 7 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. lirong19900129@163.com. 8 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18763806701@163.com. 9 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 18854937499@163.com. 10 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. 13864453175@163.com. 11 College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Taian 271018, China. chaitj117@163.com.

 

Abstract

The polymerase acidic (PA) protein is the third subunit of the influenza A virus polymerase. In recent years, studies have shown that PA plays an important role in overcoming the host species barrier and host adaptation of the avian influenza virus (AIV). The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA gene. However, rSD01-PA could infect guinea pigs through direct contact, while the parental strain SD01 could not, even though the infection of rSD01-PA could not be achieved through aerosol. In summary, our results indicate that the protein encoded by the PA gene plays a key role in replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV.

KEYWORDS: H9N2 AIV; airborne transmission; pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus; reassortment; replication

PMID: 30634394 PMCID: PMC6356911 DOI: 10.3390/v11010040 [Indexed for MEDLINE]  Free PMC Article

Keywords: Avian Influenza; Swine Influenza; H1N1; H9N2; Reassortant strain.

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#Text-Based #Illness #Monitoring for #Detection of Novel Influenza A Virus Infections During an #Influenza A #H3N2v Virus #Outbreak in #Michigan, 2016: #Surveillance and Survey (JMIR Public Health Surveill., abstract)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2019 Apr 26;5(2):e10842. doi: 10.2196/10842.

Text-Based Illness Monitoring for Detection of Novel Influenza A Virus Infections During an Influenza A (H3N2)v Virus Outbreak in Michigan, 2016: Surveillance and Survey.

Stewart RJ1,2, Rossow J3,4, Eckel S5, Bidol S5, Ballew G6, Signs K5, Conover JT7, Burns E1, Bresee JS1, Fry AM1, Olsen SJ1, Biggerstaff M1.

Author information: 1 Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. 2 Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. 3 Epidemiology Elective Program, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States. 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States. 5 Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Lansing, MI, United States. 6 Compliant Campaign, Scottsdale, AZ, United States. 7 Michigan State University Extension, East Lansing, MI, United States.

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Rapid reporting of human infections with novel influenza A viruses accelerates detection of viruses with pandemic potential and implementation of an effective public health response. After detection of human infections with influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses associated with agricultural fairs during August 2016, the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services worked with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify infections with variant influenza viruses using a text-based illness monitoring system.

OBJECTIVE:

To enhance detection of influenza infections using text-based monitoring and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system for use in future outbreaks of novel influenza viruses.

METHODS:

During an outbreak of H3N2v virus infections among agricultural fair attendees, we deployed a text-illness monitoring (TIM) system to conduct active illness surveillance among households of youth who exhibited swine at fairs. We selected all fairs with suspected H3N2v virus infections. For fairs without suspected infections, we selected only those fairs that met predefined criteria. Eligible respondents were identified and recruited through email outreach and/or on-site meetings at fairs. During the fairs and for 10 days after selected fairs, enrolled households received daily, automated text-messages inquiring about illness; reports of illness were investigated by local health departments. To understand the feasibility and acceptability of the system, we monitored enrollment and trends in participation and distributed a Web-based survey to households of exhibitors from five fairs.

RESULTS:

Among an estimated 500 households with a member who exhibited swine at one of nine selected fairs, representatives of 87 (17.4%) households were enrolled, representing 392 household members. Among fairs that were ongoing when the TIM system was deployed, the number of respondents peaked at 54 on the third day of the fair and then steadily declined throughout the rest of the monitoring period; 19 out of 87 household representatives (22%) responded through the end of the 10-day monitoring period. We detected 2 H3N2v virus infections using the TIM system, which represents 17% (2/12) of all H3N2v virus infections detected during this outbreak in Michigan. Of the 70 survey respondents, 16 (23%) had participated in the TIM system. A total of 73% (11/15) participated because it was recommended by fair coordinators and 80% (12/15) said they would participate again.

CONCLUSIONS:

Using a text-message system, we monitored for illness among a large number of individuals and households and detected H3N2v virus infections through active surveillance. Text-based illness monitoring systems are useful for detecting novel influenza virus infections when active monitoring is necessary. Participant retention and testing of persons reporting illness are critical elements for system improvement.

©Rebekah J Stewart, John Rossow, Seth Eckel, Sally Bidol, Grant Ballew, Kimberly Signs, Julie Thelen Conover, Erin Burns, Joseph S Bresee, Alicia M Fry, Sonja J Olsen, Matthew Biggerstaff. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2019.

KEYWORDS: agricultural; fairs; influenza; novel; surveillance; texting

PMID: 31025948 DOI: 10.2196/10842

Keywords: Swine Influenza; H3N2v; Michigan; USA; Society.

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