#Guideline: #Infant #Feeding in Areas of #Zika Virus #Transmission (@WHO, summary)

[Source: US National Library of Medicine, full page: (LINK). Summary.]

Guideline: Infant Feeding in Areas of Zika Virus Transmission

Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. ISBN-13: 978-92-4-154966-0 [Book]

 

Summary

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. Infection with Zika virus usually results in mild illness and symptoms may include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache.

Although Zika virus disease is generally mild, increased cases of congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome have been observed in recent outbreaks in the Americas and the Pacific and a growing body of evidence points towards a causative role for Zika virus in these neurological disorders.

Current widespread transmission of the virus and detection of the virus in breast milk from two mothers with confirmed Zika virus infection has also raised questions as to whether transmission can occur during breastfeeding, a practice essential to infant and young child survival and development. However, there are currently no documented reports of Zika virus being transmitted to infants through breastfeeding and in countries with ongoing transmission of Zika virus, no adverse neurological outcomes have been reported to date in infants with postnatally acquired Zika virus disease.

Based on the available evidence, which suggests that the benefits of breastfeeding for the infant and mother outweigh any potential risk of Zika virus transmission through breast milk, WHO has issued interim guidance on breastfeeding in the context of Zika virus.

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This publication is a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. A WHO guideline is any document, whatever its title, containing WHO recommendations about health interventions, whether they be clinical, public health or policy interventions. A recommendation provides information about what policy-makers, health-care providers or patients should do. It implies a choice between different interventions that have an impact on health and that have ramifications for the use of resources. This WHO guideline has been approved by the WHO Guidelines Review Committee.

Suggested citation: Guideline: Infant feeding in areas of Zika virus transmission. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

Copyright © World Health Organization 2016.

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO website (http://www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: tni.ohw@sredrokoob).

Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO website (http://www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/index.html).

Bookshelf ID: NBK374155PMID: 27441334

Keywords: WHO; Updates; Zika Virus; Pregnancy.

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#Rabies in a #Dog Imported from #Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate — #Virginia, 2015 (@CDCgov, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., abstract)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate — Virginia, 2015 [      ]

Weekly / December 18, 2015 / 64(49);1359-62

Julie R. Sinclair, DVM1; Ryan M. Wallace, DVM2; Karen Gruszynski, DVM3; Marilyn Bibbs Freeman, PhD4; Colin Campbell, DVM5; Shereen Semple, MS5; Kristin Innes, MPH5; Sally Slavinski, DVM6; Gabriel Palumbo, MPH1; Heather Bair-Brake, DVM1; Lillian Orciari, MS2; Rene E. Condori, MS2; Adam Langer, DVM1; Darin S. Carroll, PhD2; Julia Murphy, DVM3

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Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections (1). The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment (1). On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC’s current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies.

(…)

Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Viriginia; Dogs; Rabies.

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#Taiwan #CDC warns #travelers to pay attention to Mainland #China #H7N9 and #H9N2 #birdflu viruses situation (CDC, Dec. 15 ‘15, edited)

[Source: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiwan, full page: (LINK). Automatic translation, edited.]

#Taiwan #CDC warns #travelers to pay attention to Mainland #China #H7N9 and #H9N2 #birdflu viruses situation [      ][      ]

(December 15 2015)

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As weather turns cold, please implement respiratory and hand hygiene to prevent influenza infection; China mainland recently detected H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza virus infection cases, travelers that go to endemic areas, please be vigilant (2015-12-15)

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Recently the weather starting to turn cold, publicly funded influenza vaccine will be exhausted soon, please seize the opportunity as soon as possible vaccinated people; in line with publicly funded influenza antiviral drug target agents also asked for medical treatment and medication as soon as possible to protect themselves and their families healthy.

China mainland recently discovered H7N9 and H9N2 influenza virus infection cases, people go to endemic areas be sure to do self-protection, to avoid contact with live poultry birds classes and access to markets, to prevent infection.

(…)

In addition, China added one case of H7N9 flu infection in Zhejiang Hangzhou, a 60-year-old male farmer, who had contact with live poultry, and that was currently in critical conditions.

China mainland reported this autumn so far a total of six cases of H7N9 influenza virus infection cases: Zhejiang, five cases; one case in Guangdong Province, was a 50 years old patient having had a history of exposure to poultry.

So far a total of 683 cases of H7N9 avian influenza virus infection have been reported worldwide since 2013, including 663 cases in mainland China, Hong Kong 13 cases, 4 cases of Taiwan, Canada two cases, one case of Malaysia, according the most recent WHO update; of these, 275 cases died.

Mainland China’s Anhui and Hunan provinces recently added four cases of avian influenza virus H9N2 infection.

The cases are 3 female and 1 male, date of onset is between April to October this year, with mild clinical course, one case he joined the family to the market to buy food, no live poultry remaining exposure history or exposure history is unknown.

Since 2013 the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong from a cumulative total of six cases of H9N2 flu, including four cases in Hunan Province, Anhui Province, one case and one case of Hong Kong (Guangdong Province moved).

Currently tourism against human bird flu epidemic proposal, mainland China, Zhejiang, Guangdong, Anhui and Hunan Provincial Tourism epidemic proposal as a warning (Alert), other provinces (excluding Hong Kong and Macao) as a note (Watch).

The Programme disease called people not to overlook the severity of influenza, usually should routinely wash their hands, good respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette; visit mainland China should avoid contact with live poultry birds classes and access to markets; edible chickens, ducks, geese and eggs to cooked to avoid infection. Such as fever or flu-like symptoms should wear a mask as soon as possible for medical treatment, in addition to travel and contact history inform physicians and medication according to doctor’s orders, at home recuperating. Information available to the illness UNDCP WWW (http://www.cdc.gov.tw), or call toll-free vaccination Line 1922 (or 0800-001922 FREE) contact.

Keywords: Taiwan; Updates; H7N9; H9N2; Avian Influenza; Human, China.

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#COP21: #UN chief hails new #climatechange #agreement as ‘monumental #triumph’ [updated] (UN News Centre, Dec. 13 ‘15)

[Source: United Nations News Centre, full page: (LINK).]

COP21: UN chief hails new climate change agreement as ‘monumental triumph’ [  INTL / ENVR  ]

12 December 2015

Following the adoption of the new Paris Agreement on climate change, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said government representatives made history today.

“The Paris Agreement is a monumental triumph for people and our planet,” said Mr. Ban in a tweet, immediately following its adoption. “It sets the stage for progress in ending poverty, strengthening peace and ensuring a life of dignity and opportunity for all.”

Gaveling the Agreement with a green hammer, the French Foreign Minister and President of COP21, Laurent Fabius, announced the historic news – a moment greeted with loud applause and cheers, as the room stood up. Many delegates hugged, while others had tears in their eyes.

For the first time today, 195 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – pledged to curb emissions, strengthen resilience and joined to take common climate action. This followed two weeks of tireless negotiations at the United Nations climate change conference (COP21).

The Paris Agreement and the outcomes of COP21 cover all the crucial areas identified as essential for a landmark conclusion:

–> mitigation – reducing emissions fast enough to achieve the temperature goal;

–> a transparency system and global stock-take – accounting for climate action;

–> adaptation – strengthening ability of countries to deal with climate impacts;

–> loss and damage – strengthening ability to recover from climate impacts; and

–> support – including finance, for nations to build clean, resilient futures.

“In the face of an unprecedented challenge, you have demonstrated unprecedented leadership,” the UN chief said taking the COP21 stage just minutes later. “You have worked collaboratively to achieve something that no one nation could achieve alone. This is a resounding success for multilateralism.”

Recalling that he made climate change one of the defining priorities of his tenure as Secretary-General, Mr. Ban said that most of all, he has listened to people – the young, the poor and the vulnerable, including indigenous peoples, from every corner of the globe.

“They seek protection from the perils of a warming planet, and the opportunity to live in a safer, more bountiful world,” he underlined. “They have demanded that world leaders act to safeguard their well-being and that of generations to come.”

Turning to the agreement itself, the Secretary-General said negotiators reached “solid results on all key points,” with an agreement that demonstrates solidarity and “is ambitious, flexible, credible and durable.”

“All countries have agreed to hold global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius. And recognizing the risk of grave consequences, you have further agreed to pursue efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5 degrees,” he announced.

In addition, a review mechanism has been established whereby every five years, beginning in 2018, Parties will regularly review what is needed in line with science.

“Governments have agreed to binding, robust, transparent rules of the road to ensure that all countries do what they have agreed across a range of issues,” Mr. Ban added.

Meanwhile, highlighting the role of the private sector, the UN chief said business leaders came to Paris in unprecedented numbers and that “powerful” climate solutions are already available while many more are to come.

“With these elements in place, markets now have the clear signal they need to unleash the full force of human ingenuity and scale up investments that will generate low-emissions, resilient growth,” he said, adding that “what was once unthinkable has now become unstoppable.”

“When historians look back on this day, they will say that global cooperation to secure a future safe from climate change took a dramatic new turn here in Paris,” Mr. Ban stated. “Today, we can look into the eyes of our children and grandchildren, and we can finally say, tell them that we have joined hands to bequeath a more habitable world to them and to future generations.”

Ending his remarks, the UN chief said that all Parties should be proud of the Paris Agreement and that “the work starts tomorrow.”

“For today, congratulations again on a job well done,” he concluded. “Let us work together, with renewed commitment, to make this a better world.”

Addressing the hundreds of delegates, Christiana Figueres, the Executive Secretary of UNFCCC, said “we did it in Paris.”

“We have made history together. It is an agreement of conviction. It is an agreement of solidarity with the most vulnerable. It is an agreement of long-term vision, for we have to turn this agreement into an engine of safe growth,” she exclaimed.

Several other top UN officials joined the Secretary-General in welcoming the new Agreement. This included the President of the UN General Assembly, Mr. Mogens Lykketoft.

“Today’s agreement signals nothing less than a renaissance for humankind as we collectively embrace the global challenge of climate change and endeavor to transition to a more sustainable way of living that respects the needs of people and our planet,” Mr. Lykketoft said in a statement.

Echoing this message, the President of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Oh Joon, said the world has reached a key milestone in collective action for sustainable development.

“Bold action against climate change will contribute to poverty reduction. The United Nations Economic and Social Council will take part in follow-up efforts,” he added.

Earlier today, at a meeting of the Committee of Paris [Comité de Paris] – the body which is overseeing the negotiations at COP21 – the UN chief spoke alongside the President of France, François Hollande as well Minister Fabius.

“The end is in sight. Let us now finish the job. The whole world is watching. Billions of people are relying on your wisdom,” the Secretary-General had told delegates.

In an emotional address during which he held back tears, Laurent Fabius said the agreement “will serve meaningful causes, food safety and security, public health, the fight against poverty and for essential rights, and therefore peace.”

“People worldwide, our citizens, our children, wouldn’t understand if we didn’t adopt it and wouldn’t forgive us,” he insisted.

“It is rare to be given the opportunity to change the world,” said President François Hollande, wrapping up the meeting. “You have the opportunity to do that.”

Keywords: Worldwide; UN; Updated; Climate Change; Global Warming; International Cooperation.

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#COP21: ‘Monumental #triumph’ in #Paris as #world adopts new #climatechange #agreement, says #UN chief (UN News Centre, Dec. 12 ‘15)

[Source: United Nations News Centre, full page: (LINK).]

COP21: ‘Monumental triumph’ in Paris as world adopts new climate change agreement, says UN chief [  INTL / ENVR  ]

12 December 2015

Following the adoption of the new Paris Agreement on climate change, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said government representatives made history today.

“The Paris Agreement is a monumental triumph for people and our planet,” said Mr. Ban in a tweet. “It sets the stage for progress in ending poverty, strengthening peace and ensuring a life of dignity and opportunity for all.”

Gaveling the agreement with a green hammer, the French Foreign Minister and President of COP21 Laurent Fabius announced its adoption—a moment greeted with loud applause and cheers, as the room stood up. Many delegates hugged, while others had tears in their eyes.

Earlier today, the Secretary-General told delegates that the world had been presented a “historic” document which promises to set it on a new path to a low-emissions, climate-resilient future.

“I would like to take this opportunity to commend the commitment, engagement and leadership of all the Heads of State, Government ministers and negotiators who have brought us so far in this very difficult negotiation,” Mr. Ban said as all COP21 stakeholders prepared to receive the final draft outcome.

At this morning’s plenary meeting of the Committee of Paris [Comité de Paris]—the body which is overseeing the negotiations at COP21—the UN chief spoke alongside the President of France, François Hollande and the President of COP21 and French Foreign Minister, Laurent Fabius.

“The end is in sight. Let us now finish the job. The whole world is watching. Billions of people are relying on your wisdom,” the Secretary-General declared.

At the opening session of the conference on the last day of November, the UN chief had told 150 world leaders—an unprecedented number to have shown up for such an occasion—that “a political moment like this may not come again.” Today, he said leaders have listened.

“They want a flexible, robust, meaningful, universal agreement that will help us rise as one to the climate challenge. The issues are many and complex. But we must not let the quest for perfection become the enemy of the public good,” he warned.

“The solutions to climate change are on the table. They are ours for the taking. Let us have the courage to grasp them,” he said ending his remarks, adding that he looks forward to joining delegates later today to celebrate the new agreement.

Opening the floor in an emotional address during which he held back tears, Foreign Minister Fabius said if the world doesn’t adopt the agreement, it is the “credibility of multilateralism” that would be in play.

“The agreement will serve meaningful causes, food safety and security, public health, the fight against poverty and for essential rights, and therefore peace,” he insisted. “People worldwide, our citizens, our children, wouldn’t understand if we didn’t adopt it and wouldn’t forgive us.”

He announced that the document presented today as the final draft is “differentiated, just, dynamic, balanced and legally binding.” It calls for global temperature rise to be limited to “well below 2 degrees Celsius,” and “endeavored to reach 1.5 degrees.” It also provides for a transparency framework, monitoring progress every five years.

“It is rare to be given the opportunity to change the world,” said President François Hollande, wrapping up the meeting. “You have the opportunity to do that.”

MORE TO FOLLOW

Keywords: UN; Updates; Worldwide; Climate Change; Interntional Cooperation; Global Warming.

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#Paris, Breakthrough #climate #agreement recognizes #food #security as a #priority (#FAO, Dec. 12 ‘15)

[Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, full page: (LINK).]

Breakthrough climate agreement recognizes food security as a priority [  INTL / ENVR   ]

FAO Director-General Jose Graziano da Silva welcomed the successful conclusion of the Paris Climate Summit saying that “for the first time ever, food security features in a global climate change accord.” The Paris Agreement recognizes “the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the impacts of climate change”.

(…)

Keywords: FAO; Updates; Worldwide; Climate Change; International Cooperation; Food Safety.

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#Michigan, Suspect #deer confirmed #positive for chronic wasting disease [#CWD] (DNR, December 11 2015, edited)

[Source: Michigan Department of Natural Resources, full page: (LINK).]

Suspect deer confirmed positive for chronic wasting disease [      ]

Contact: Chad Stewart, 517-641-4903, ext. 263  / Agency: Natural Resources / Dec. 11, 2015

Deer was harvested in Dewitt Township; Eaton County hunters urged to voluntarily check deer and stop baiting and feeding of deer

As of Thursday, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources reports a total of 3,695 deer in Michigan this year have been tested for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Four deer have been confirmed positive for the disease, with the fourth positive just recently found.

During the firearm deer season, a hunter from Dewitt Township (Clinton County) in the Core CWD Area brought a 1 1/2-year-old buck into the DNR’s Rose Lake deer check station. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, confirmed the deer as CWD positive.

Because the deer was harvested within 10 miles of the Eaton County border, the DNR strongly encourages all hunters within Eaton County to voluntarily stop baiting and feeding, continue hunting and, most importantly, bring harvested deer into a DNR check station.

“Deer hunters in DMU 333 have been a great help by bringing in their deer to be tested. We couldn’t be more thankful or impressed with their dedication to the resource,” said Chad Stewart, DNR deer specialist. “We continue to need their help and are also asking Eaton County hunters to join our efforts. In addition, we have begun conversations with DeWitt Township, and they, too, are becoming great partners in this fight against CWD.”

There will be no mandatory regulation changes from now through the end of the deer season, as the DNR conducts CWD surveillance and decides what additional steps might be needed for the 2016 season.

CWD is a fatal neurological disease that affects white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk and moose. It is caused by the transmission of infectious, self-multiplying proteins (prions) contained in saliva and other body fluids of infected animals. Susceptible animals can acquire CWD by direct exposure to these fluids, or from environments contaminated with these fluids or the carcass of a diseased animal.

Some chronically CWD-infected animals will display abnormal behaviors, progressive weight loss and physical debilitation; however, deer can be infected without showing internal or external symptoms for many years. There is no cure; once a deer is infected with CWD, it will die.

To date, there is no evidence that chronic wasting disease presents any risk to non-cervids, including humans, either through contact with an infected animal or from handling venison. However, as a precaution, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization recommend that infected animals not be consumed as food by either humans or domestic animals.

The DNR provides weekly CWD updates at mi.gov/cwd. Announcements of additional CWD-positive deer also will be posted online.

The Michigan Department of Natural Resources is committed to the conservation, protection, management, use and enjoyment of the state’s natural and cultural resources for current and future generations. For more information, go to www.michigan.gov/dnr.

Keywords: USA; Updates; Michigan; Deer; Chronic Wasting Disease; Prions.

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